International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering:



ISSN:

2394-6849

Number of Papers:

656

Journal Site:



Design Aspects of MAP Turbo Decoder for Wireless Communication Systems

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 2nd June 2017

E. Sujatha | Dr. C. Subhas,Dr. M. N. Giri Prasad

Abstract

Long Term Evolution-Advanced (LTE-A) targets the peak data rates in surplus of 3Gbps for present and next generation wireless communication systems. Turbo coding, the stated channel coding scheme in 3rd Generation Partnership Project (3GPP) LTE standard, is an advanced forward error correction (FEC) coding to achieve higher throughput of advanced Wireless Communication Systems. To support the peak throughputs, parallel turbo decoding procedure has become a necessity and the corresponding VLSI implementation is extremely challenging task to the design engineers. The higher throughput applications require higher parallelism of turbo decoder design; which results in increased hardware complexity, major source of power consumption and silicon area. This paper addresses the design and implementation aspects of different parallel turbo decoders, which meet peak data rates of 3GPP LTE and LTE-Advanced standards, where throughput, power consumption, silicon area and latency are the most decisive cost factors

A 90NM Low Power Ota Using Adaptive Bias

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

Suman | Rekha S

Abstract

Low power class AB operational trans-conductance amplifier (OTA) which is fully differential operating at low voltage 0.4 V supply designed in low cost 90nm technology is proposed in this paper. Differential pairs such as P channel and N channel with complementary input configuration are used in input stage to achieve input common mode range (ICMR) which is full rail to rail. For increasing slew rate without sacrificing power consumption adaptive bias circuits are used hence amplifier works in class AB. The common mode feed forward circuit (CMFF) is employed for maximizing common mode rejection ratio (CMRR). To make system power efficient whole amplifier operates in weak inversion region. After designing layout of an op amp, Simulation with parasitic is carried out and shows that DC gain of 51.15 dB, 876.5 kHz unity gain bandwidth (UGB)with 77.7ş phase margin for 10 pF capacitive load and slew rate of 0.1 V/?s; CMRR and PSRR are 116.9 and 97.30 dB respectively. The proposed OTA dissipates very less power of 4.78 ?W and shows ability to use in applications where less energy is mandatory.

A Comparative Analysis of Eigen Palm, Fisher Palm and Combined Eigen Palm with Fisher Palm Based Palm Print Authentication

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

Vinodkumar | R. Srikantaswamy

Abstract

Personal recognition utilizing palm print, has become a most promising approach recommended by several researchers. Palm print, recognition algorithms are very essentially worthwhile in a wide variety of applications like crime investigation, security control, passport verification etc. This paper describes comparative analysis of palm print, recognition algorithms such as PCA, LDA and combined PCA with LDA. In PCA, the unique images of palm print, are mapped to a minor set of the feature space, which is termed as Eigen palms; they are training set’s eigenvectors and they signify the palm print’s’ principal components pretty best. Formerly, the Eigen palm features will be acquired thru projecting a novel image of palm print, to the subspace which is being spanned by the Eigen palms. In LDA, Every single palm print, image is treated like a coordinate point in higher dimension space of image, which is called palm print, space. Fisher’s linear discriminate is utilized to map palm print, image linearly from this palm print, space into a considerably lesser dimensional space of feature (Fisher palm space), in this space the palm print’s image from the different palm will be discriminated considerably much more proficiently. In combined PCA with LDA: initially we map the palm print, image from image space to Eigen palm space via PCA, furthermore we make use of LDA to attain a classifier which is of linear. The elementary objective of combined LDA and is PCA to advance LDA’s generalization capability. The obtained recognition result from combined PCA with LDA outperforms similar work in the literature including Eigen palms and Fisher palms matching algorithms individually.

A Comparative Study of Region-Based Segmentation Algorithms on Brain MRI Images

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

Kavyashree G | Sudheesh K V

Abstract

Image Segmentation is the one of the principle component of image processing. In medical image processing the segmentation play an important role for classification, image analysis, and extraction of brain tumour, Different image segmentation methods are used for examination of medical images but efficient segmentation methods lead to accurate diagnosis. In this paper, we review the different segmentation algorithm on MRI Brain Images has been presented in order to obtain the accurate algorithm. The segmentation algorithms has been divided into four categories K-means, Fuzzy c means, Special constrained Fuzzy-c-means and Expectation Maximization. Efficient algorithm is obtained by computing the evaluation criteria such as Martin Criteria, Probability rand index and Variation of information.

A Comparative Study on Ann and Hmm Based Automatic Speech Recognition Systems for Controlling Micro Air Vehicles

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

Pragathi G | Veena S, Roopa S

Abstract

Speech is one of the effective modes of communication and when made to be recognized by a computer, it can be used in many different areas of application. This paper makes a comparison between Hidden Markov Model Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) used in controlling of Micro Air Vehicle (MAV) based on speech-activated commands from Ground Control Station (GCS). Therefore, Automatic Speech Recognition (ASR) Systems are developed based on ANN and HMM separately and the recognition accuracies obtained in both the cases are validated against each other.

A Critical Review of Carbon Nanotube based MEMS Piezoresistive Pressure Sensor for Medical Application

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

Siddarud Bannikoppa | Ajayakumar C. Katageri,B.G.Sheeparmatti

Abstract

This paper discuss about the critical review on design of carbon nanotube based MEMS piezoresistive pressure sensors, use of different types of carbon nanotubes such as multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs), single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) and vertically aligned carbon nanotubes (VANTs), sensing mechanism, applications, etc. The structural deformation of the piezoresistive nano structure will result in change of resistance. CNT is a sophisticated material with interesting electrical, mechanical, physical properties that can be used for fabrication of micro pressure sensors on different substrates, which may serve as alternative for silicon based pressure sensors when bio-compatibility and low cost applications are required.

A Discriminative Robust Local Binary Patter for Object Recognition

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

Chithra M G | 

Abstract

Object recognition is very important process in computer vision. Texture and edge information is mainly used for object recognition. Local Binary Pattern (LBP) and Local Ternary Pattern (LTP) are mainly used for object recognition. But these two techniques suffer from noise and intra-class variations due to small pixel fluctuations. To solve this problem a new algorithm called Robust Local Binary Pattern (RLBP) and Discriminative Robust Local Binary Pattern (DRLBP) are used for object recognition. Comparative analysis is done between RLBP and DRLBP using Caltech 101 dataset.

A Fully-Integrated Low -Power Fast-Transient Capacitor-Free Low Dropout Regulator

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

Mohsina Begum | Rekha S

Abstract

A completely subsidiary LDO with fast transient examination and psr of full range PSR is made to give free of tainting supply for building pieces which are touchy to clamor in extensive band prattle correspondence frameworks Ldo has high recurrence for proposed plan glitches are diminished constricted on the other hand the execution of the framework change happens A triangle circle LDO is produced and checked at 65nm zone when contrasted with other present completely associated incorporated outlines here overwhelming post is taken as yield shaft and higher recurrence is designated to inner posts with aggregate Iq calm current of 50 For Vin Vout of 1 23v and 1 V separately the 43 mV undershoot and 81 9 mV overshoot is acquired for 0 to 9 99 mA of burden transient at 200 ps edge times 1 16 ns of transient reaction is gotten and FOM is almost 5 73 ps The PSR is computed for entire range is superior to anything 20db stacked capacitors on chip of 40pf is incorporated for model estimation

A Helping Hand for Differentially Abled patients

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

Akshata Acharya | Laxmikant Bordekar, Vrushali Kelkar

Abstract

In this world there are many people who cannot speak and hear properly. These people have difficulty in communicating with people who do not understand sign language. In general, deaf people have difficulty in communicating with others who do not understand sign language. Even those who do speak aloud typically have a deaf voice of which they are selfconscious and that can make them reticent. In developing countries, children with hearing loss and deafness rarely receive any schooling. Adults with hearing loss also have a much higher unemployment rate. Among those who are employed, a higher percentage of people with hearing loss are in the lower grades of employment compared to the general workforce. This paper aims to lower the barrier in communication by enabling the mute communities to communicate with general public more efficiently by translating sign language into text using an electronic glove. The Electronic Glove is made up of normal cloth fitted with flex sensors along the length of each finger and on the wrist. Mute people can use the glove to perform hand gesture and it will be conver ted into text and displayed on the LCD display, for easy understanding by normal people.

A High Gain Low Power CMOS Operational Amplifier

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

K.Poshana | K.Lokesh Krishna , K. Veda Samhitha

Abstract

This paper presents the design and simulation of a high gain low power complementary metal oxide semiconductor operational amplifier in 90nm technology. The aspect ratios of all the transistors were designed. High gain allows the operational amplifier (op-amp) circuit to function efficiently in a closed loop feedback system, whereas wide bandwidth makes the circuit to operate for high speed applications. The proposed op-amp design consists of two stages and operates at 1.2V power supply. It is aimed to meet a set of standard specifications. The entire op-amp design is evaluated using Cadence software tools, while the layout has been developed using Virtuoso. The op-amp circuit is able to achieve 38 dB gain, a 4V output swing, a 12.7 V/µsecond slew rate and a CMRR of 61 dB with a power supply voltage of 1.2 V.

A High Speed Performance and Low Power Consumption Design For VLSI Logic Circuits Using Multi-Threshold Voltage CMOS Technology

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

Nisha S Police Patil | Swetha B

Abstract

Due to voltage scaling in CMOS logic circuits, there will be a reduction in threshold voltage which leads to increase in the sub threshold leakage current and hence static power dissipation. Although power consumption is important for modern VLSI design, the main requirements of the VLSI design are, operating speed and occupied area. Multithreshold voltage CMOS (MTCMOS) technology is a good solution providing high speed performance and low power design without area overhead. MTCMOS technology provides the transistors that have low, high and normal threshold voltage. The low threshold voltage transistors are used to reduce the propagation delay in critical (longest) path, the high-threshold voltage transistors are used to reduce the power consumption in shortest path. This paper describes a high-speed performance and low-power consumption design for full adder (using 2 half-adder), 4-bit ripple carry adder, 4x4 multiplier and 16-bit carry look-ahead adder circuits with MTCMOS technology using 45nm technology

A Hybrid Protocol for Vehicular Communication in VANET Using Location Aided Routing and Base Line Multicasting

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

AnujVerma | ShiviSharma

Abstract

The design a novel location aided routing protocol with the concept of baseline and distance minimization is presented in this paper. The protocol has been implemented successfully for a vehicular Adhoc network and Manhattan model is utilized. The vehicular movement used a new concept of communication using minimization of distance from base line. The base line was drawn from source to destination node. The discussed protocol seems to work quite well and seems to yield encouraging results. The packet delivery ratio was increased significantly and the average delay was reduced significantly.

A Hybrid Scheme of EDBTC Encoding and CHF BHF Extraction for Image Ret Rival Process

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

Vineetha Deepti | Pramila B

Abstract

This paper presents a new approach to derive the image feature descriptor from the Error-diffusion based block truncation coding (EDBTC) compressed data stream. In the encoding step, EDBTC compresses an image block into corresponding quantizers and bitmap image using vector quantizer(VQ). Two image features are proposed to index an image, namely, color co-occurrence feature (CCF) and bit pattern features (BPF), which are generated directly from the EDBTC encoded data streams without performing the decoding process. The CCF and BPF of an image are simply derived from the two EDBTC quantizers and bitmap, respectively, by involving the visual codebook. Experimental results show that the proposed method is superior to the block truncation coding image retrieval systems and the other earlier methods, and thus prove that the EDBTC scheme is not only suited for image compression, because of its simplicity, but also offers a simple and effective descriptor to index images in CBIR system. EDBTC method is extremely fast and the image quality achieved is comparable to the previous BTC method. This proposed system is implemented in MATLAB.

A Method for Error Detection and Correction of Fault Secure OLS Decoder

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

Sahad B | Chithra M

Abstract

Reliability is one of the major issues of advanced electronic circuits. In recent years there are several error correction codes (ECC) developed to protect the memories and registers in electronic circuits. But the encoder and decoder circuit may also suffer errors, for these reasons concurrent error detection (CED) and correction technique for orthogonal Latin square (OLS) decoder is proposed. This technique is strongly fault secured for single stuck at faults. The most significant advantage is that it achieves 100 percentage fault coverage for the whole CED circuit. The CED and correction is applicable to both binary and non binary OLS codes also. The proposed method can be achieved by performing the checking in parallel with the majority voting, syndrome generator and error corrector and orthogonal generator in the case of the decoder. Synthesis can be done in Xilinx ISE design suite 13.2 and simulation can be done with ModelSim.

A MIMO Dual Band-Notched Monopole Antenna For UWB Applications

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

D.V.N.Koteswara Rao | M.Jahnavi, M.Ratna, K.Anjana Devi, N.L.Chaitanya

Abstract

A Compact monopole Multiple-Input-Multiple-Output(MIMO) dual band-notched Ultra Wide Band Antenna is proposed. This microstrip-fed antenna has a compact size of 22×36×1.6 mm3, consisting of two square radiating patches with a defected ground structure. The designed antenna operates over the frequency band between 2.6 to 11.6 GHz with dual band notched characteristics in between 2.6-3.8 GHz for WiMAX, 5.19-5.95 GHz for WLAN with mutual coupling obtained is less than - 15 dB through the entire UWB frequency range except at the notched frequency bands. The Envelope Correlation Coefficient(ECC) is almost less than 0.02 over the entire UWB frequency range except at notched frequency bands. The proposed antenna is simulated by using the CST Microwave studio. Details of the proposed antenna design and simulated results are presented.

A MIMO Dual Band-Notched Monopole Antenna For UWB Applications

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

D.V.N.Koteswara Rao | M.Jahnavi, M.Ratna, K.Anjana Devi, N.L.Chaitanya

Abstract

ACompact monopoleMultiple-Input-Multiple-Output(MIMO) dual band-notched Ultra Wide Band Antenna is proposed. This microstrip-fed antenna has a compact size of 22×36×1.6 mm3, consisting of two square radiating patcheswith a defected ground structure.The designed antenna operatesover the frequency band between 2.6 to 11.6 GHz with dual band notched characteristics in between 2.6-3.8 GHzfor WiMAX, 5.19-5.95 GHz for WLAN with mutual coupling obtained is less than -15 dB through the entire UWB frequency range except at the notched frequency bands. The proposed antenna is simulated by using the CST Microwave studio. Details of the proposed antenna design and simulated results are presented.

A MIMO Dual Band-Notched Monopole Antenna For UWB Applications

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 31st May 2017

D.V.N.Koteswara Rao | M.Jahnavi, M.Ratna, K.Anjana Devi, N.L.Chaitanya

Abstract

ACompact monopoleMultiple-Input-Multiple-Output(MIMO) dual band-notched Ultra Wide Band Antenna is proposed. This microstrip-fed antenna has a compact size of 22Ă—36Ă—1.6 mm3, consisting of two square radiating patcheswith a defected ground structure.The designed antenna operatesover the frequency band between 2.6 to 11.6 GHz with dual band notched characteristics in between 2.6-3.8 GHzfor WiMAX, 5.19-5.95 GHz for WLAN with mutual coupling obtained is less than -15 dB through the entire UWB frequency range except at the notched frequency bands. The proposed antenna is simulated by using the CST Microwave studio. Details of the proposed antenna design and simulated results are presented.

A New Approach for Mosaic Image Creation for Hiding Secret Image/video for Secure image Transmission

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

Shamna E.P | Sabna I

Abstract

Information security is becoming increasingly important in the modern networked age. Secure Image Transmission has the potential of being adopted for mass communication of sensitive data under the scrutiny of an adverse censoring authority. Images from various sources are often used and are transmitted through the internet for various purposes, such as confidential enterprise archives, document storage systems, medical imaging systems, and military image databases. These images may contain secret or confidential information since it should be protected from leakage during transmissions. A new type of computer art image called secret-fragment-visible mosaic image is proposed, which is created automatically by composing small fragments of a given image to become a target image in a mosaic form, achieving an effect of embedding the given image visibly but secretly in the resulting mosaic image. This effect of information hiding is useful for covert communication or secure keeping of secret images. receiver recover the secret image with a high precision. The root mean square error and peak signal to noise ratio are used as quality measures.

A New Parallel VLSI Architecture for Real-time Electrical Capacitance Tomography

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 31st May 2017

G.Dillirani | A.Meghana

Abstract

This paper presents a fixed-point reconfigurable parallel VLSI hardware architecture for real-time Electrical Capacitance Tomography (ECT). It is modular and consists of a front-end module which performs precise capacitance measurements in a time multiplexed manner using Capacitance to Digital Converter (CDC) technique. Another FPGA module performs the inverse steps of the tomography algorithm. A dual port built-in memory banks store the sensitivity matrix, the actual value of the capacitances, and the actual image. A two dimensional (2D) core multi- processing elements (PE) engine intercommunicates with these memory banks via parallel buses. A Hardware-software codesign methodology was conducted using commercially available tools in order to concurrently tune the algorithms and hardware parameters. Hence, the hardware was designed down to the bit-level in order to reduce both the hardware cost and power consumption, while satisfying real-time constraint. Quantization errors were assessed against the image quality and bit-level simulations demonstrate the correctness of the design. Further simulations indicate that the proposed architecture achieves a speed-up of up to three orders of magnitude over the software version when the reconstruction algorithm runs on 2.53 GHZ-based Pentium processor or DSP Ti’s Delphino TMS320F32837 processor. More specifically, a throughput of 17.241 Kframes/sec for both the Linear-Back Projection (LBP) and modified Landweber algorithms and 8.475 Kframes/sec for the Landweber algorithm with 200 iterations could be achieved. This performance was achieved using an array of [2×2] × [2×2] processing units. This satisfies the real-time constraint of many industrial applications. To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this is the first embedded system which explores the intrinsic parallelism which is available in modern FPGA for ECT tomography

A Novel Ancient Document Image Binarization Technique

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

P.Gangadhara Reddy | Dr.T.Ramashri

Abstract

Due to many environmental factors, improper handling and the poor quality of the materials used in the creation of old document images cause them to suffer a high degree of degradation which includes faded ink, bleed-through, show-through, uneven illumination, variations in image contrast and deterioration of the cellulose structure. In proposed algorithm a robust phase-based binarization technique is used for the binarization and enhancement of historical documents and manuscripts. The main object of proposed method consists of preprocessing, main binarization, and post-processing. The preprocessing step mainly involves image denoising with phase preservation, followed by some morphological operations to denoise the image and detection of edge information by using canny edge detector. Then, the phase congruency features used for the main binarization step. The foreground of ancient documents can be modeled by phase congruency. After completing the three binarization steps on the input images using phase congruency features and a denoised image, the enhancement processes are applied. A median filter and a phase congruency feature are used to construct an object exclusion map image. This map is then used to remove unwanted lines and interfering patterns. while in the post processing step, specialized adaptive Gaussian and median filters are considered. One of the outputs of the binarization step, which shows high recall performance, is used in a proposed post processing method to improve the performance of other binarization methodologies.

A Novel Approach for Radar Image De-Noising Using Non Sub Sampled Contour Let Transform and Adaptive Threshold Algorithm

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

Kanike Vijay Kumar | M.V.Ramana Reddy , M. Jyothirmai

Abstract

Aiming at the problem of ground penetrating radar image de-noising, a new adaptive image de-noising algorithm based on non sub sampled Contour let transform is proposed. The algorithm firstly performs non sub sampled Contour let transform to the noise image, to obtain the coefficients of each directional sub band and each scale, then, according to the energy of the coefficient, the de-noising threshold value is adjusted adaptively. Simulation results show that, compared with the wavelet threshold de-noising algorithm, the proposed algorithm can effectively remove the Gauss white noise in the image, improve the peak signal to noise ratio (PNSR), while preserving the edge details of the image, it can improve the PSNR value and reduce the Gibbs phenomenon.

A Novel Approach on MEMRISTOR and its Applications

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

Suganya J | Raja.G.V , Jeya Ramanan.S , Hariharan

Abstract

A MEMRISTOR is a passive device which has two terminals, operating based on the principle of MEMRIS TANCE. Memristance (M) which is derived from flux (?) variation with respect to charge (q). When an electric charge flow through a MEMRISTOR, it have capable of remembering past history of the device for a long time. This result’s gives MEMRISTOR acting like a non-volatile memory. MEMRISTOR basis concept was implemented in various areas like audio signal processing, image processing, logic imply, crossbar switch implementation, etc and HP MODEL MEMRISTOR, which is described briefly in this paper.

A Novel Architecture for the Future Wireless Technology – Li-Fi

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

Ishwarya Rajeshwari | Kirthika.L, Prathiksha.K

Abstract

We are in the era of internet. We have brought the evolution of using air as a medium for data transfer which is called the Wi-Fi. Though it provides the better speed but with the large number of users the radio spectrum is congested. To address this problem we can go for alternate way of using light as a medium. Professor Harald Hass who teaches at the University of Edinburgh in UK brought the visible light communication into picture through the concept of “data through illumination” and it was called “Li-Fi Light Fidelity”. Li-Fi is a new paradigm for short range wireless technology to provide unprecedented connectivity within a localized data-centric environment. In this the data transmission is achieved by varying the intensity of LED very faster than human eye can follow which is brought through Visible light communication (VLC). The development by the University of Edinburgh’s Li-Fi R&D Centre uses a solar panel to receive high speed Li-Fi transmitted data while also generating electrical power for the operation of the function. Using this technique, two functions namely energy harvesting as well as decoding of light signals into useful information can be performed.

A Novel Low Cost RCD Snubber and Totem Pole Drive Circuit for PMDC Motor

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

Ajit Nivrutti Shinde | Uday Tanajirao Patil , Mr.Sandip Sarjerao Godhade

Abstract

Manufacturing plant in industries like chemical, pharmaceutical, plastic and textiles all need speed variation. And it could be flat belt application, flow management application or combining of liquids. There are different kinds of motors-AC, PMDC, Servo or steppers which are used according to the applications. Of these, PMDC motors have widely used .The PMDC motors are easy to control compare to other types of motors. The treadmill is a walker which is used for exercise. This is one application in which a PMDC motor plays an important role in its operation. The PMDC motors are used to operate these machines. In this paper, implementation of PIC 16F877A microcontroller to change the speed of PMDC motor fed by a MOSFET has been investigated .The MOSFET is driven by high frequency PWM signal .Controlling the PWM duty cycle is same as to control the motor terminal voltage, that changes directly the motor speed. Experimental results are obtained that shows the use of microcontroller for speed management and over current protection of a DC motor.

A Novel Method for Color Image Enhancement Applied to Bio-Medical images

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

K.Janaiah | R.S.K Vibhav, Prof.R.V.S. Satyanarayana

Abstract

Anovelapproach for biomedical colour image enhancement method is proposed in this paper by using mathematical analysis of dual tree complex wavelet transform. The doctor requires the enhanced medical images to give better diagnosis. Thecontrast of biomedical colour images can be improved by data directionality of dual tree complex wavelet transform. The reduction in noise can be done by using wavelet coefficient shrinkage. In this paper we reduced noise present in both enhancedand non-enhanced medical colour images. We have taken the tumour image and computed the PSNR and SSIM of both enhanced image and proposed method by applying Gaussian noise, Poisson noise and speckle noise.

A Novel Method of Digitization & Noise Elimination of Digital Signals Using Image Processing Concepts

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

M.R. Prasad | Pavithra G , Dr. T.C.Manjunath

Abstract

The primary purpose of this research work is to develop a speech recognition system, which will be capable of recognizing and interpreting an individual’s voice. This will thus obviate the use of keyboards and other such input devices to output the data. The scope of this work is limited to the recognition of digits. Matlab, a versatile software tool is made use of for the processing of the signals. This processing involves filtering, shaping, correlating the speech signal which will enable the computer to interpret the commands given by the user. The signature of every spoken digit is unique from which we can derive the parameters which differ from digit to digit. These parameters serve as a concrete base for the implementation of a speaker independent voice recognition system. Using such parameters simultaneously and using probability concept the digits are sorted and arranged in the descending order of their probability. The digit with the highest probability is displayed.

A NOVEL QUANTUM DOT CELLULAR AUTOMATA BASED DESIGN FOR MULTIPLEXERS

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

Nandini Rao G | Dr.P.C Srikanth, Dr.Preeta Sharan

Abstract

Quantum-dot cellular automata (QCA) is a novel and potentially attractive technology in nanometer scale and a possible alternative for CMOS. QCA has large potential in terms of high space density and power dissipation with the development of the high speed computer with low power consumption. This paper provides efficient design and layouts of digital circuits based on QCA using QCADesigner tool. The novel design provides the superior performance factors with respect to area, latency, circuit stability and low power dissipation. In this paper we present a number of new results on 2:1 and 4:1 multiplexers and detailed simulation using QCAD designer tool is presented

A Novel Survey on Neural Network Based Cloud Computing Platform for Securing Data

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

Santosh | 

Abstract

Current technological advancement of internet or online platform made tremendous changes in the modern human society. Now a days situation has been created in such a way that whatever we want we would like to go for online, it may be shopping, marketing, banking, purchasing of goods, real estate, agricultural, collaborative learning through on line, pharmaceutical industries, medical field etc. When folks think of online activities there is always a feel of insecurity of their transaction, private data, mode of operation, etc. So there is indeed of vital solution which guarantees the security of operation, safety of private data, protectant environment for on line activities. Cloud computing gives the best online environment for various internet based activities. Here we discuss, analyze and understand the cloud computing environment for data security using Back propagation neural networks (BPN).

A Parallel Area Delay Efficient Interpolation Filter Architecture

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

Anusha Ajayan | Rafeekha M J

Abstract

Interpolators are widely used in digital signal processing to increase the sampling rate digitally. A multi-standard Software Defined Radio (SDR) system involves interpolation with different filter coefficients, filter length and up-sampling factors to meet the stringent frequency specification. An SDR receiver consumes huge amount of resource when these interpolators are implemented individually in a hardware circuit. A reconfigurable Finite Impulse Response (FIR) interpolation filter is suitable for a resource and power constrained multi-standard SDR receiver. Now-a-days interpolation filter architecture with a few multipliers or without any multipliers are available. Area complexity, irregular dataflow and low hardware utilization efficiency are the major disadvantages of these architectures. In this work, a new parallel multiplier based reconfigurable structure is derived for interpolation filter. Elimination of redundancy and producing multiple outputs without reconfiguration are the features of this architecture. To validate the design, code can be developed using VHDL in Xilinx ISE Design Suite 13.2 and to be simulated in ModelSim SE 6.3f. The Xilinx synthesized result shows that, this architecture has less area, delay and Area-Delay Product (ADP) compared to the other existing architectures.

A Real Time Fruit Grading Technique Based on Machine Vision and Image Processing

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

Chandra Sekhar Nandi | Bipan Tudu, Chiranjib Koley

Abstract

In agricultural and food industry the proper grading of fruits is important to increase the profitability. In this paper, a scheme for real time mango (Mangifera Indica L.) grading technique according to their maturity level and quality attributes like size, shape, weight, surface defect has been proposed. The proposed scheme works on intelligent machine vision based techniques for grading of mangoes in four different categories, which are determined on the basis of market value. In this system video image is captured by a CCD camera placed on the top of a conveyer belt carrying mangoes, thereafter several image processing techniques are applied to collect features which are sensitive to the maturity level and quality level. For maturity prediction Support Vector Machine (SVM) based classifier has been employed and for estimation of quality from the quality attributes, Multi Attribute Decision Making (MADM) system have been adopted. Finally fuzzy incremental learning algorithm has been used for grading based on maturity and quality. The performance accuracy achieved using this proposed system for grading of mango fruit is nearly 90%. Moreover, the repeatability of the proposed system is found to be 100%.

A Review Approach on Cardless ATM Access with Biometric Security Using IOT

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 31st May 2017

Mr.J.A Patel | Darade Bhavna, Ms.Baglane Ruchita ,Ms.Bodke Punam ,Ms.BodkeArchana

Abstract

This paper describes a method of implementing two way authentications. The first one is biometric thumb verification is done and in second is 4 digit pin verification. If it’s wrong then we find that the user is fake and LCD displays the THEFT message and also the buzzer is ON. If it is right then we find that the user is not fake and the LCD displays ENTER THE KEY message, in this case buzzer is OFF.

A Review Approach on Manual Fixture Automation Using PLC

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 31st May 2017

Mr. Patel Jagdish | Ms. Lawte Kanchan, Ms. Patil Isha, Ms. Raut Devyani

Abstract

a fixture is a mechanical setup that holds a job so that it will aid the industrial processes carried out on it with ease, in terms of accessibility and reach. The processes may include manipulation of a job like rotation, clamping, de-clamping and positioning. Fixtures can be handled manually to hold a job. But such manual process becomes tedious in complex processes which causes human fatigue as well as it is time consuming. Hence PLC (Programmable Logic controller) can be used to automate the industrial fixture, to reduce the complexity of the process. In our project we are trying to construct a PLC based control system to simulate the automation of an industrial fixture and analyzed it for safety and increase productivity which will be beneficial for manufacture industry.

A Review of Block based Image Compression Using Hybrid Techniques

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 31st May 2017

S.Narasimhulu | Dr.T.Ramashri

Abstract

This Paper gives review of different types of Images and the different techniques for Image Compression. Based on this Review we recommended general method for Image Compression. Image Compression is the technique of reducing the image size without degrading the quality of the image. Various types of images and different compression techniques are discussed here. Image Compression is the solution associated with transmission and storage of large amount of information for digital Image. SPIHT is computationally very fast and among the best image compression algorithms known today. According to statistic analysis of the output binary stream of SPIHT encoding, propose a simple and effective method combined with Huffman encode for further compression. In this paper the results from the SPHIT algorithm are compared with the existing methods for compression like discrete cosine transform (DCT) and discrete wavelet transform (DWT).

A Review of Modern Paradigms in Data Compression Techniques

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

Mr. Giridhar S. Sudi | Dr. Meghana Kulkarni , Mr. Vikrant K. Shende

Abstract

Data compression has been extensively applied to the motion-picture industry and consumer electronics especially in high-definition TVs, advanced multi-media systems, remote sensing systems via satellite, aircraft, radar, teleconferencing, email and social media, mobile phones, hand held PCs etc. Efficient compression of data would significantly decrease the overheads in both the communication and data storage. The efficiency of a data compression scheme is measured by the compression ratio, the resulting distortion after lossy compression, and the implementation complexity. This paper reviews the evolution of compression techniques over the years and the present day modern techniques being explored. Artificial Intelligence (AI) approaches appear to be very promising for intelligent information processing due to their massively paralleled computing structures. The main problems solved by Artificial Intelligence (AI) techniques such as Artificial Neural Networks, Fuzzy Logic systems and Genetic Algorithms include optimization, classification, prediction and pattern recognition. Due to the efficiency of AI paradigms in solving complex problems, researchers are applying these techniques to develop new intelligent data compression systems.

A Review of the Optical Character Recognition Methodology in Image Processing Techniques

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

Dr. T.C.Manjunath | Pavithra G , M.R. Prasad

Abstract

This review paper deals with a review of the optical character recognition using the Matlab software. OCR or optical character recognition is the process of converting scanned images of machine-printed or handwritten text (numerals, letters, and symbols) into a computer-processable format; also known as optical character recognition (OCR). A typical OCR system contains three logical components, viz., an image scanner, OCR software and hardware, and an output interface. OCR systems can largely be grouped into two categories: task-specific readers and general-purpose page readers. A task-specific reader handles only specific document types. Such as bank checks, letter mail, or credit-card slips. General-purpose page readers are designed to handle a broader range of documents such as business letters, technical writings, and newspapers. The relevant literature presented here will be of an extensive use to many of the readers who are pursuing a research in the design & development of optical character recognition systems

A Review on a Novel Approach for Image Segmentation Using Fast Gradient and Nontrivial Transformation

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

N.Lakshmi | K.R.Surendra, N.Pushpalatha

Abstract

A comparative analysis to fast multi label color image segmentation using Convex optimization techniques were studied. The presented model is in some ways related to the well-known Mumford–Shah model, but deviates in certain important aspects. The optimization problem has been designed with two goals in mind. It represent fundamental concepts of image segmentation, such as incorporation of weighted curve length and variation of intensity in the segmented regions, while allowing transformation into a convex concave saddle point problem that is computationally inexpensive. The nontrivial transformation of this model into a convex–concave saddle point problem, and the numerical treatment of the problem were studied. By applying an algorithm to various images it shows that the results are competitive in terms of quality at unprecedentedly low computation times. This algorithm allows high-quality segmentation of megapixel images in a few seconds and achieves interactive performance for low resolution images.

A Review on a Person Cross Domain Re Identification Based Adaptive Ranking Support Vector Machines (AdaRSVMs)

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

V .Hemanth Kumar | Y.Penchalaiah, Pushpalatha

Abstract

An adaptive ranking support vector machines (AdaRSVMs) method is used for re identification under target domain cameras without person labels. It addresses a new person re identification problem without label information of persons under non overlapping target cameras. Given the matched (positive) and unmatched (negative) image pairs from source domain cameras, as well as unmatched (negative) and unlabeled image pairs from target domain cameras, To overcome the problems introduced due to the absence of matched (positive) image pairs in the target domain, we relax the discriminative constraint to a necessary condition only relying on the positive mean in the target domain. To estimate the target positive mean, we make use of all the available data from source and target domains as well as constraints in person re identification. Inspired by adaptive learning methods, a new discriminative model with high confidence in target positive mean and low confidence in v target negative image pairs is developed by refining the distance model learnt from the source domain. Experimental results show that the proposed AdaRSVM outperforms existing supervised or unsupervised, learning or non-learning re identification methods without using label information in target cameras. Moreover, our method achieves better re identification performance than existing domain adaptation methods derived under equal conditional probability assumption.

A Review on Anti Spoofing For Face by Using Light Field Camera

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

T. Silpasree | N.DilipKumar, N.Pushpalatha

Abstract

The liability of face recognition systems in biometrics is a growing concern today, as still it remains vulnerable to various sophisticated attacks that undetermined the reliability of biometric systems. In this paper, we present a novel approach to accurately detect and mitigate the Spoofy attacks on the face by introducing light field camera (LFC), also known as plenoptic camera. Since the use of a LFC can record the direction of each incoming ray in addition to the intensity, it also exhibits an unique characteristic of rendering multiple depth (or focus) images in a single capture, also known as refocusing, which provides the high quality artefact face features. Introducing a novel idea of exploring the inherent characteristics of Light Field Camera to detect spoof attacks by estimating the variation of the focus between multiple depth images. To this extent, we first collect a new biometric face artefact database using LFC. We then generate the face artefacts samples by simulating three different kinds of spoof effects including photo print and electronic screen attacks. Extensive experiments carried out on the light field face artifact database have revealed the outstanding performance of the proposed anti spoofing scheme when benchmarked with various well established stateof-the-art schemes.

A Review on Atmospheric Effects on Free Space Optical Link

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

Shaik.Taj Mahaboob | A.Sree Madhuri

Abstract

Free space optics, an emerging technology which is going to revolutionize the high speed communication by providing data rates up to tens of Gbps is grabbing the attention of the researchers to employ it on an operational basis. Although the present day microwave frequency bands support a good quality communication, their speeds are low and they cannot accommodate more data in the available bandwidth as much as the free space optics can. Any communication system operating in free space is vulnerable to the atmospheric attenuation. So the atmospheric effects which degrade the performance of free space optical signal need to be studied in order to renew its standard potential even under bad climatic conditions. . In this paper we discuss some of the atmospheric effects which degrade the standard performances of a Free Space Optical Link at different geographical locations.

A Review on Dissemination Of Energy-Efficient Broadcast To Channel Randomness In Mobile Networks

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

V.Bindu Madhavi | N.Pushpalatha

Abstract

Efficient broadcast in mobile networks is a challenging task due to high dynamic topology and energy efficiency and channel randomness. Based on an in-depth analysis of the popular Susceptible Infectious Recovered (SIR) epidemic broadcast scheme. In this paper a a study on novel energy-efficient broadcast scheme was done through dissemination process. This is able to adapt to fast changing network topology and channel randomness. Dissemination in mobile ad-hoc networks (MANETs) has to propagate a way of sore carry forward. Analytical results are provided to characterize the proposed scheme, including the fraction of nodes that can receive the information and the delay of the information dissemination process.

A Review on Error Correction and Object Removal for Videos Based on Inpainting with Short-Term Windows

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

K. Ushasree | I. Suneetha , Jaganath Nayak , N. Pushpalatha

Abstract

Video inpainting is the process of repairing missing regions (holes) in videos. Most automatic techniques are computationally intensive and unable to repair large holes. To tackle these challenges, a computationally-efficient algorithm that separately inpaint foreground objects and background is proposed. Using Dynamic Programming, foreground objects are holistically inpainted with object templates that minimize a sliding-window dissimilarity cost function. Static background are inpainted by adaptive background replacement and image inpainting.In this propose a new video inpainting method which applies to both static or free-moving camera videos. The method can be used for object removal, error concealment, and background reconstruction applications. To limit the computational time, a frame is inpainted by considering a small number of neighboring pictures which are grouped into a group of pictures (GoP). This drastically reduces the algorithm complexity and makes the approach well suited for near real-time video editing applications as well as for loss concealment applications. Experiments with several challenging video sequences show that the proposed method provides visually pleasing results for object removal, error concealment, and background reconstruction context.

A Review on Error Correction and Object Removal for Videos Based on Inpainting with Short-Term Windows

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

K. Ushasree | I. Suneetha , N. Pushpalatha

Abstract

Video inpainting is the process of repairing missing regions (holes) in videos. Most automatic techniques are computationally intensive and unable to repair large holes. To tackle these challenges, a computationally-efficient algorithm that separately inpaint foreground objects and background is proposed. Using Dynamic Programming, foreground objects are holistically inpainted with object templates that minimize a sliding-window dissimilarity cost function. Static background are inpainted by adaptive background replacement and image inpainting.In this propose a new video inpainting method which applies to both static or free-moving camera videos. The method can be used for object removal, error concealment, and background reconstruction applications. To limit the computational time, a frame is inpainted by considering a small number of neighboring pictures which are grouped into a group of pictures (GoP). This drastically reduces the algorithm complexity and makes the approach well suited for near real-time video editing applications as well as for loss concealment applications. Experiments with several challenging video sequences show that the proposed method provides visually pleasing results for object removal, error concealment, and background reconstruction context.

A Review on IOT Based Smart Home

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

Prof.Kavita S. Patil  | Priyanka Tile , Prajakta Somvanshi

Abstract

A number of internet users is increasing day by day. Now days there are many ways to communicate but most of the communication is done through the internet. With increase in digital devices in home there is needed to access and control the appliances from remote locations. IOT is one of the fast rising internet technologies which provides communication between the things without human interface and allows the user to access devices from remote location.

A Review on Load Positioning Application of Shape Memory Alloy

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 9th June 2017

Namitha S N | Praveen Kumar Konda,Ashwin Kumar, Sachin C N Shetty

Abstract

Shape Memory Alloy (SMA) is a special material, which have the ability to return to its original shape when it is heated. SMA is different from other materials due to its two unique properties- Shape Memory Effect (SME) and Superelasticity. When there is a limitation of shape recovery, these alloys promote high restitution forces. Because of these properties, there is a great technological interest in the use of SMA for different applications[6]. This paper focuses on the brief review on applications of SMA in different fields. They have applications in aircraft and spacecraft, civil structures, robotics, automotive, telecommunication, piping, medicine, optometry etc.

A Review on Spatial Pattern Methods for BrainComputer Interface

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

B. Bijitha | Nandakumar P

Abstract

Brain-computer interface technology is the one in which the user’s mental intentions are captured and used as control signals for external devices. BCI researches are becoming more popular as it can be used as a means of communication for people with severe disability. The efficiency of a BCI system depends on its signal processing stages. The signal processing stages include the signal acquisition, feature extraction and classification. In this paper, a brief review of one of the feature extraction methods called spatial pattern algorithms for BCI is provided.

A Review on Spectrum Efficient OFDM Based on Structured Compressed Sensing

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

Sreelakshmi V | Nandakumar P

Abstract

Spectrum efficiency is becoming increasingly important for wireless communication systems in order to avoid the congestion of users for the spectrum. OFDM has already been extensively adopted by numerous wireless communication systems like DVB-T, WiMAX, LTE, WiFi, etc, and it is also widely recognized as a prominent modulation technique for future wireless communication systems. Thus, developing spectrum efficient OFDM scheme is essential to achieve high transmission efficiency. Time domain synchronous OFDM (TDS-OFDM) has a higher spectrum efficiency than standard cyclic prefix OFDM (CP-OFDM) by replacing the unknown CP with a known pseudorandom noise (PN) sequence. Currently, TDS-OFDM can support constellations up to 64QAM, but cannot support higher-order constellations like 256QAM due to the residual mutual interferences between the pseudorandom noise (PN) guard interval and the OFDM data block. To solve this problem, break the iterative interference cancellation and propose a new idea of using multiple inter-block-interference (IBI)-free regions of very small size to realize simultaneous multi-channel reconstruction under the framework of structured compressive sensing.

A Review on Spectrum Sliced Elastic Optical Path Networks

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

Triveni C L | P C Srikanth , T Srinivas

Abstract

Recent developments in the area of technologies, data center networks, cloud computing and social networks have caused the growth of a wide range of network applications. The data rate of these applications also varies from a few megabits/second (Mbps) to several gigabits/second (Gbps) for that reason increasing the burden on the internet. Best solution for this is to utilize the advancement in optical networks. In WDM network bandwidth up to 100Gbps can be utilized from the optical fiber in an energy efficient manner but its not efficient when traffic demands vary frequently. Spectrum sliced elastic optical path networks (SLICE) has been proposed as a long term solution to handle the ever increasing data traffic and the diverse demand range. SLICEs provide abundant bandwidth by enabling sub-wavelength, super-wavelength and multiple-rate data traffic accommodation in highly spectrum efficient manner.

A Review: IOT Smart Vehicle

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

Thoshif Khan | Aakash Luckshetty , Md.Tauseef

Abstract

The Internet of Things (IOT) is the system of physical objects—gadgets, vehicles, structures and different things inserted with hardware, programming, sensors, and system availability that empowers these items to gather and trade data. The IOT permits objects to be detected and controlled remotely crosswise over existing system infrastructure making open doors for more straightforward combination of the physical world into PC based frameworks, and bringing about enhanced proficiency, exactness and financial advantage. Smart vehicle is one of the applications of IOT which is generally used for the comfort, safety, security and privacy of the drivers. From the past decades, there has been reported several cases which are related to vehicle theft due to this vehicle security has been burning topic all over the world to overcome the challenges related to the vehicle security, We provide a complete survey in “IOT smart vehicle”. This paper also describes vehicle detection tracking and monitoring using IOT application.

A Robust Fusion of DWT and PCA for Video Watermarking using Optimization Technique

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 31st May 2017

Anjaneyulu Sake | Ramashri Tirumala

Abstract

Watermarking is a component of inserting data into the multimedia, for example, image, audio or video. This paper propose for Fusion based video watermarking using hybrid technique to protect the copy right of images. In order to improve the efficiency of video watermarking two main processes are used namely watermark embedding process and watermark extraction process. Before embedding process the input video sequence convert into number of frames. Here Principal Component Analysisand Discrete Wavelet Transform is applied in watermark image. The swam optimization algorithm is proposed for generating random frame selection for the embedding process. The result obtain from the watermark embedding process is the watermark video sequence. Next watermark extraction process is carried out. It is the reverse process of watermark embedding. In watermark extraction process, it extracts the watermark image from the watermark video sequence. The experimental results show that this combine technique gives double security for the protection of video content and achieves good PSNR and NC.

A Simple Authentication Protocol for Secure Data Collection in Wireless Sensor Network

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

Triveni Mane | Raveendra.G

Abstract

For numerous applications large scale sensor network are used and data have been collected are used in process of making decision. Information that are from different origins over intervening nodes that collects information packets. A intervening malicious nodes may introduced by the attacker in the network and or disturbs present nodes. Therefore for making correct decision it is very difficult to providing high data trustworthiness. To find the trustworthiness of sensor data a key factor is represented by data provenance. In sensor network provenance management introduces various challenges like limited bandwidth and energy consumption, efficiency storage and secure transference. This paper prefers a light weight mechanism for securely sending of provenance for sensor input information. To encode provenance the suggested scheme depends on in-packet bloom filter. Here we used this efficient mechanism for verification of provenance and reconstruction of data at base station.

A Smart Sensor Interface for WSN in IoT Environment using FPGA

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

Sreedrisya S | Abhilash R V

Abstract

Measurement is an important subsystem of embedded system. Its main function is to collect the information from systems and feed to the processor for controlling the whole system. For collecting data, different types of sensors are used. Each sensor has to write complex and clumsy program code. Most of the control panels available in industries are wired panels and the machines are controlled and monitored by an operator in a room. It leads to the invention of sensor interface device controlled by wireless modules like zigbee, MiWi etc. Microcontrollers, one of the sensor interface device have some restrictions like connect number, sampling rate and signal types of sensors. To overcome these problems Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) is adapted as core controller. By using this, data can read in parallel and in real time with high speed from different sensors. MiWi module developed by Microchip is used here as wireless transceiver. But every wireless communication modules have limitations in the range. The concept of Internet of Things (IoT) is applied on the wireless sensor interface device. IoT is a concept of connecting and controlling devices through internet. Wide range of applications is available in IoT like industry, agriculture, environment protection etc. To maintain security in communication, data can send in encrypted form using suitable algorithm. A wireless sensor interface device designed using VHDL and is implemented in IoT environment using Java and C#.

A Study of Hybrid ANN-HMM Model for ASR

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

Ashish Shendre | Dr. Sanjay Nalbalwar

Abstract

ASR (Automatic Speech Recognition) is most important for human computer interaction. In spite of tremendous advance in the ASR technique it is still far-away from human level performance. HMM (Hidden Markov model) based ASR system has made advancement but faced lots of limitation in practical problems. ANN (Artificial Neural Network) was used to replace HMM but the attempt was not that successful when trying to model high level dependency. Then attempt was made to combine this two to get the better performance. ANN-HMM hybrid model was introduced to combine the benefit of both and to increase the overall performance of ASR system. Large number of different hybrid architecture has proposed in the literature. Objective of this review paper is to focus on ANN-HMM. Most of the part of the paper is focused on describing the architecture of HMM, Neural Networkand how to use ANN for improvement of speech recognition.

A Study on 802.11 Wireless Routers Hacking Techniques and Security Encryption Levels

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

Amith Raj | Sneha H.R, Bindu Bhargavi S.M, Rekha Jayaram

Abstract

A device that performs both the functions of routing and the functions of a wireless access point is called as a wireless router. It can also be used to provide access to the private computer network or Internet. A set of Media Access Control(MAC) and Physical Layer specifications for implementing wireless local area network (WLAN) computer communication is defined in IEEE 802.11. It supports different connection types like PPPOE, Static IP address, Dynamic IP address and Bridge as provided by the ISP. These devices can also be used as modems and WiFi Router protected with a password. There are various WLAN encryption techniques like WEP, WPA, WPA-2(PSK). But all of these encryptions are vulnerable and can be hacked using certain softwares and techniques. In this paper, a number of hacking techniques using softwares like Aircrack, WiFite are explained for research purpose. This paper also discusses about setting up a secure WiFi router using different encryption techniques with combination of security features of routers like Mac Address filtering and Firewalls to protect from hackers and attackers. The primary purpose of this research is to demonstrate a brief idea on ethical hacking and provide sufficient security for home and enterprise network.

A Study on Comparison of Various Image Encryption schemes based on Chaotic Maps

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

Rachit Jain | J.B.Sharma

Abstract

This paper shows the study on image encryption scheme using different Chaotic Maps. The main purpose is security management in transmission and storage. There are various image encryption techniques which have been continuously studied to fulfill the demand of real-time secure image transmission through wireless networks and over the Internet. Conventional image encryption methods like data encryption standard (DES), has the weakness of low-level efficiency and high redundancy when the image is large. The chaos-based image encryption technique provides an efficient way to deal with the difficult problems of high security, pseudorandom property, topological transivity and fast image encryption. The objective of this paper is to compare Logistic map, Baker map and Arnold cat map image encryption techniques by visually, statistically and noise analysis to get an efficient approach of image encryption.

A Study on Pressure Sensor Based On Photonic Crystal

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

Indira Bahaddur | Dr. P C Srikanth, Dr. Preeta Sharan

Abstract

Photonic crystal technology is used in many areas of detection and measurement of parametrs like pressure, temperature, displacement etc.MOEMS based micro-sized pressure sensor can be developed to detect even sub-micron range dimension change using the photonic crystal. The applied pressure on the object will change the dimension of the waveguide carved in the photonic crystal. As a result, this change in spacing can alter the propagation feature of electromagnetic waves that pass through them that is changing the transmission spectrum. So, this change can directly be mapped to pressure on the observed object. In this paper, the pressure sensor using photonic crystal has been modeled and analyzed.

A Study on Various Satellite Image Resolution Enhancement Techniques

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

Aditi Sharma | Ajay Khunteta

Abstract

Due to the low frequency nature and as the result of interpolation on satellite images, they may appear as blurred image. To enhance the frequency of those images, Resolution techniques are used. This is used in a several number of applications such as laser and inkjet printing, medical imaging, remote sensing, with some vital objections such as distortions, blurring aliasing, ringing artifacts etc. Enhancing the resolution of an image includes increasing the number of pixels presents to show the details of an image as well as sharpness of the image. This paper studied about the basics of interpolation with some conventional satellite image enhancement techniques and analyses the performance of various image resolution enhancement techniques for satellite images. These techniques are compared on the basis of Root mean square error (RMSE), Mean square error (MSE) and Peak signal to noise ratio (PSNR) factors.

A Survey on Correlation Filter and its Applications

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

Neenu Jose | Nandakumar P

Abstract

Correlation filters will find applications in pattern recognition such as biometric recognition, object alignment, action recognition, object detection and tracking. The advanced correlation filters were introduced to offer distortion-tolerant object recognition. The recent major advance in correlation filter design is zero-aliasing correlation filters (ZACFs) that eliminate the aliasing in correlation filter design due to the circular correlation caused by the use of discrete Fourier transforms (DFTs).

A Survey on Efficient Load balancing and mobile data collection for dual data uploading using Clustering for network prolong in WSN

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

Tejashree S | Dr. P I Basarkod

Abstract

the wireless sensor network (WSN) can be connected for various application for example, industrial, military application health monitoring, habitat monitoring and so on. The WSN can be utilized for sensor hubs to gather the information at the regular intervals and Energy capacity is a vital perspective in wireless sensor networks. To defeat this issue the proficient method of clustering is utilized to accomplish more data transmission, long system lifetime, less tedious procedure, minimize energy utilization. In this paper, we examine at the load balancing and dual data uploading using clustering technique in wireless sensor networks. To avoid the overloading of any single source and to optimize the utilization of boosting the throughput, minimize the response time in the load balancing method.

A Survey On IOT Based Smart Home

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

Prof. Kavita S. Patil | Apurva R. Kokate , Shruti R. Wagh

Abstract

The main goal of this paper is to describe the systems which automatically control the devices through mobile. The various implemented systems are use in the house to control appliances like fan, light, and water pump by just turn ON or OFF the switch from mobile phone .

A Survey on Sequence Creation in Cognitive Networks

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

Bhargavi G | Vidyasagar K N , Bharathi SH

Abstract

Intelligent (Cognitive) radio networks have a large communication spectrum. This is dynamic in nature. This leads to the necessity for main central channel where two nodes can talk to each other and conclude on the parameters for information exchange between each other, for this they need to meet on a pre-decided channel to communicate, this channel where the decisions are made should be decided by making use of the full available spectrum. In order to reduce collisions and also to make use of the entire available spectrum, a protocol must be devised. ETCH (An efficient channel hopping based MAC layer protocol) is proposed for communication establishment between cognitive radio networks. Two other protocols, Synchronous-ETCH and asynchronousETCH, assuming the presence of global clock synchronization and one without the assumption of existence of a global clock respectively.

A Survey on Traffic Aware Routing For Less Delay and More Integrity of Data Services in WSN

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

Deepashree K N | Dr. Bharathi S. H

Abstract

Applications performing on the same Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) foundation more often than not has distinctive Quality of Service (QoS) necessities. Two fundamental interest are low linger and high information accuracy. Be that as it may, by and large, these two requests cannot be satisfied at the same moment. In this paper, taking into account the idea of potential in material science, we propose IDDR, a multi-way dynamic directing calculation, to tackle this issue. By developing a virtual half and half potential field, IDDR isolates bundles of utilizations with unique QoS requests as indicated by the weight relegated to every parcel, and courses them towards the sink through partitioned ways to improve the information loyalty for trustworthiness touchy applications and additionally diminish the end-to-end delay for postponement delicate ones. Recreation results exhibit that IDDR gives information respectability and postponement separated administrations.

A Survey on Various Image Compression Techniques

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

Mohammed Salim M.K. | Nandakumar P

Abstract

Image compression technique is widely used in multimedia applications such as image, video, audio data and medical field. Image compression aims to reduce the redundancy of an image data and reduce the storage space of an image. Different image compression techniques were proposed to achieve high compression ratios and high image qualities in low computation time. This document presents the review of various lossless and lossy compression techniques.

A Survey: Detection Techniques on Selfish & Multi-Selfish Attacks in Cognitive Radio Networks

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

Vanitha K.C | Dr. Bharathi S.H , Vidyasagar K.N

Abstract

Cognitive radio network is a rare communication technology which suggests the Unlicensed persons to use more amount of bandwidth existing in the spectrum which is not used by licensed persons. CRN identifies large number of available communication channels in spectrum very efficiently. The free spectrum of CRN is used by the users who are Unlicensed without harming the licensed users (PU) which are involved in communication. The main goal of CRN is to solve the problem of Spectrum Scarcity by making the unlicensed user to use the spectrum when it is free that means when the licensed user (PU) will not use the spectrum that time the unlicensed user can use it dynamically. Advantage of CR is to provide efficient data transmission without the breakup in the comminucation.CRN faces problems on selfish attacks which are carried out by the SU which sends fake information to the person near to SU as that to occupy all free channels available in spectrum. Selfish SU Nodes and Multi-selfish SU Nodes are degrading the performance by sending fake message to closer nodes of CRN. Here we suggested how to identify Selfish and Multi-selfish SU nodes by the two different algorithms based on survey.

A Travelogue of VAR System

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

Dhanya G S | Yamini P , Nithya N , Radha R Anusha Suresh

Abstract

This paper describes the design, development and testing of an AR system that was developed for aerospace and ground vehicles to meet stringent accuracy and robustness requirements. The system uses an optical see-through HMD, and thus requires extremely low latency, high tracking accuracy and precision alignment and calibration of all subsystems in order to avoid misregistration and “swim”. The paper focuses on the optical/inertial hybrid tracking system and describes novel solutions to the challenges with the optics, algorithms, synchronization, and alignment with the vehicle and HMD systems. Tracker accuracy is presented with simulation results to predict the registration accuracy. A car test is used to create a through-the-eyepiece video demonstrating well-registered augmentations of the road and nearby structures while driving. Finally, a detailed covariance analysis of AR registration error is derived.

A Unified Metric for Opportunistic Routing in Wireless Mesh Networks

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

Harikishore S | Dr.V.Sumalatha, P.Jayarami Reddy

Abstract

In wireless mesh networks, the routing of packets from source to destination is crucial and challenging task. The wireless mesh networks find applications in disaster management, video on demand, intelligent, health care systems, etc. Various routing protocols exist in literature to improve the efficiency of the wireless mesh networks calculated in terms of reliability, cost, throughput, error rate, etc. The opportunistic routing proves to be more efficient protocol best suited for wireless mesh networks as it avoids duplicate transmission and improves performance of the network. The routing metrics are essential to evaluate the best possible path for packet delivery. This paper conveys the essence of the existing metrics used for analyzing the routing protocol considered for evaluation. Further we introduce a new opportunistic routing metric called Unified Expected Distance Progress with Successful Transmission Rate (UEDPSTR) which is compared with the characteristics of the network.

A Vehicle for Physically Challenged

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

Karthikeyan.K | Shrenik.V , Manikandan.G Pillai , Madhushankar Subramonia , Ramachandran.S

Abstract

The aim of this project is to make a vehicle especially for people who have lost their hands due to some accidents in some point of time in their lives but this vehicle can be upgraded for people who have lost their legs as well with some modifications in the initial design. The specialty about this vehicle is that the steering, acceleration as well as the braking system is designed to be operated using the legs of the driver. This project has been an attempt to change the lives of the above mentioned section of the society. Changes have been done in the steering of a vehicle. A customized fork bolt has been designed for front wheel. The fork bolt is of larger length than usual and over this accelerator and brake pedals are placed on each side of the extended fork bolt. The pedals are attached to a foot rest for the comfort of the driver. The comfort of the driver has been taken care of by providing a comfortable seat and other safety precautions which shall protect the driver from any accident, etc. Through this vehicle a purpose is given to the physically challenged as using this vehicle, they would be able to help in transportation and give their contribution for the development of the society in the larger scale.

A Vicinity Overhaul Protocol for Estimating the Dropped Packets in Wireless Sensor Platforms

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

Rajesha N | H L Viswanath

Abstract

Environment checking is utilized to distinguish crustal developments, approaching tidal waves, contamination (global warming), an Earth-wide temperature boost, and numerous different truths that are committed to influence human lives. Sensor networks for environment observing can comprise of segment and/or floor sensors, conceivably associated with berthed floats giving integration back to the region. When all is said in done, these sensors are extravagant. Sensor network architecture is a going fordependent point of comparision. Models/Algorithms that were proposed for remote sensor systems are appropriate for this inventive atmosphere, along with can't be connected it with no varies otherwise still a totally innovative invent. The main principle implementations of sensor networks are region upgrade as well as checking the encompassing environment.

Acceleration Control with Latitude and Longitude & Toll pay Transactions on Mass and RFID Method

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

G.Pavan Kumar | N.Dilip Kumar

Abstract

Now- a- days the usage of vehicles are increasing day by day in human life. Every home is having at least one or two vehicles, as the traffic has been increasing in the present world, due to increase in number of vehicles there is a probability of more number of accidents. We are having a more number of technologies to reduce the number of accidents. The method involves in this paper have more intelligent and interactive methods for avoiding the accidents. The proposed system is not involved in framing the protocol to avoid accidents, but, involved to implement a system to control the speed of the vehicles. This method provides an alternating system using a GPS technology (using latitude and longitude) that controls vehicle speed. Most of the tolls collect the pay using the type of vehicle, due to this an empty passenger vehicle has to pay the same amount as a full occupancy vehicle. To avoid this type of variation in payees a different method used, so as to get benefited by the owner of the vehicle, hence the proposed system deals with toll pay based on the mass using Load cell technology and RFID.

Active And Reactive Power Control Of 3 Phases DFIG By Using Vector Control

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

Abhishek Lokhande | Sagar Kekade , Vaibhav Thakare , Mayur Deshmukh , Prof. J. D. Patil

Abstract

This paper presents vector control of grid-connected wind turbines; also the second goal of this research is to survey the vector control for wind turbines with doubly-fed induction generators (DFIGs) when a short circuit faults in grid happens. In fact in this paper, vector control of stator-flu x is applied for stator- and rotor-side converters in order to control of active and reactive powers simultaneously, and to keep the DC-link voltage constant. Also the method performances are tested in different cases.

Adaptive Cruise Control

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

Aditya Badave | Vivek Gondil, Devank Joshi

Abstract

Adaptive Cruise Control (ACC) is Assistive Control System used in a vehicle, to explain the concept of Adaptive Cruise Control; we designed a prototype which is based on microcontroller. This helps to understand the working of Adaptive Cruise Control. This paper gives brief information about Adaptive Cruise Control and how it works.

Adaptive Human Machine Interface Approach for Face Recognition

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 31st May 2017

Mr. L. Guru Kumar | Dr. G. Harinatha Reddy

Abstract

Feature extraction is one of the challenging issues in face recognition and matching process. Here we proposea novel method for dense featureextraction in face recognition.This methodology consists of two steps. In first step, encoding scheme is defined that shifts high dimensional data into compact representation by maximizing intra user correlation. In second step an adaptive feature matching is done for image classification which works for images with different scaling limits. This methodology is implemented on local facial database. We introduce a novel human-machine interface based on movements of head pose. This human machine interface works by detecting facial features from live cam and then tracking face features.Movement and actions of cursor are performed by using facial feature tracking. We prove that our methodology yields better results compared to state-of-art criteria, our method performs better at noisy condition, illumination changes, complex background and at different head poses.

Advanced Health Care System

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

Pinky Mary Sunny | Sreejith Hari Kumar, Toms Mathew, Tinu Cyriac,Mr.K.M.Abubeker

Abstract

Modern healthcare systems, despite all its breakthroughs and giant leaps of innovations still struggle to achieve an effective response that above all, rises to be a time-effective technique to treat patients. Through this paper, we introduce a system that strives to integrate the existing medical techniques with innovations in electronics and present them on a common platform, thus enhancing the effectiveness and doctor-patient interaction experience. The domain of implementation of this project is NI LabView. The basic building block of programs written in LabVIEW is VI. VI stands for virtual instruments. It is similar to a function or subroutine in other programming language. It includes the front panel (containing controls and indicators), the block diagram (containing control terminals, wires and structures and various other object nodes), the VI’s icon and its connector pane (as well as compiled executable code which is hidden behind the scenes). The various blocks for ECG generation and its signal processing steps including wide band noise removal and base line wandering reduction has been achieved on LabVIEW. Monitoring of this signal and mechanisms in case of atrial depolarization (beginning of heart attack) and other atrio ventricular problems have also been set up. Monitoring and alarm mechanisms for irregularity in BP have been implemented. The patient’s body parameters are updated into a mainframe database called EMR (Electronic Medical Report) on a real-time basis. The NI LabView 2013 simulator provides a single platform to integrate different VI module executions.

Advanced Intelligent Car System to Prevent Accidents Using Alcohol Detector and Eye Blink Sensor

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

Manasa Gattu | Shailaja Chetla , Krishna Marsukola , Sumanth Mateti , Sudha Arvind

Abstract

This paper describes a real-time online prototype driver-fatigue monitor. It is about making cars more intelligent and interactive this may notify or resist user under Unacceptable conditions, they may provide critical information of real time situations to rescue or police or owner himself. In this paper, we provide by means of accident prevention using eye blink sensor and alcohol detector where the vehicle is stopped immediately and intimated where ever needed. If the driver is drunk then the buzzer indicates and the vehicle doesn’t allow the driver to start the vehicle. If the driver is drowsy, then the system will give buzzer signal and the speed of the vehicle is reduced and using ultrasonic sensor it checks whether any vehicle is present on the left side, if not the vehicle is parked. According to this project when a vehicle meets with an accident immediately pressure sensor will detect the signal and sends an alert message through the GSM MODEM including the Location to police control room or a rescue team.

Advanced Railway Automation and Its Application

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

Somashekar.V | Gangadhar.S , Sunil.R , prof. Srilatha

Abstract

The objective of this project is to efficiently avoid the collision of automobile vehicles and to provide a greatest security to the users in adverse or in bad weather conditions by using Collision Avoidance System (CAS). The main aim of this paper is to make an automated place announcement system for Train using RFID’s and vibrator. The radio frequency wireless card for tracking the station data. The paper consists of microcontroller with the RF receiver and the vibrator. The whole system is attached to the vehicle (BUS or Train). The encoded RFID tags are placed in the BUS stops or the railway stations. The microcontroller in the TRAIN is programmed in such a way that every station name is saved in the controller which is having a unique code. So whenever the bus or train reaches the station, the reader in the bus or in the train receives the codes, which are transmitted from the tag and the microcontroller receives this code and checks in the look up table, saved in the chip. Whichever matches, the controller will displays that station name on LCD and activates the respective seat vibrators. If fire happens in a particular train compartment, then respective compartments will be detached.

Aging Aware Vedic Multiplier

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

Ch.R.Sneha Sindhra | U.V. Ratna Kumari

Abstract

Multipliers are most broadly utilized segment as a part of applications, for example, convolution, Fourier transforms, discrete cosine transforms, and advanced shifting. Since outrun of these applications primarily relies upon multiplier speed, multipliers must be composed effectively. The aging effect of the transistors caused by NBTI and PBTI has a large impact on its performance in a long span. In this paper, the device tradition with the accomplishment of Vedic multiplier is addressed not withstanding bypassing multiplier keeping as a main priority to enhance the execution for more speed and less power .The current plan focuses on Vedic multiplier which comprise of multi-level adders for designing mindful circuit. The huge angle of the proposed strategy is that, the created multiplier depends on Vertical and Crosswise structure of Old Indian Vedic Mathematics called Urdhava Tiryakbhyam Sutra. The advancement is to design the multiplier with the carry save adders in order to enhance better performance.

Algorithms for Underwater Video Enhancement

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 31st May 2017

Ketan Awade | Tejashree Badve, Mohit Dhale ,Prof. S. M. Kulkarni

Abstract

The paper describes the techniques for underwater images and videos enhancement. Initially the conventional approaches like wavelength compensation and image dehazing (WCID), dark channel prior method, contrast limited adaptive histogram equalization (CLAHE) have been studied and analysed. Analysis of all the three methods have highlighted the shortcomings of the individual methods. The fusion method is described in this paper which has exhibited comparatively better results for the enhancement of underwater images and videos. In the proposed method the inputs are taken from the degraded images, the colour correction and the contrast enhancement techniques are applied on the input image. The weighted maps are used for increasing the visibility of the degraded object due to absorption and scattering. The resultant output is characterized by lower noise, improved contrast and better exposed dark regions.

All optical NOT Gate using modified Photonic Crystal Platform

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

Savita Soma | Dr.Sanjay Gowre

Abstract

This paper deals with designing and simulation of all optical NOT gate constructed by using 2-D modified Photonic Crystal. A typical NOT Gate can be constructed on square lattice of 8 µm*8 µm photonic crystal of silicon rods in doped substrate with refractive index of 3.40 and 1.1 respectively. The lattice constant ?= 1µm and radius of the rods r= 0.2?µm. Not gate is realized by combining the cross-waveguide geometries and varying its diameter by pitch (d/?). The gate is implemented for the operating wavelength of 1.55µm using Rsoft's Fullwave simulator.

Ambulatory Assistive System

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

S.Vinoth kumar | Dr. R.Jayaparvathy

Abstract

The advancements in wireless communication and sensor technology have grown significantly in the recent years particularly in medical applications. Existing health care systems do not provide real-time monitoring of the patient's health condition. To overcome this limitation, Wireless Body Area Networks(WBANs) have been introduced. WBAN allows for mobility of patients due to its portability and location independent monitoring. We propose the design and implementation of a Wireless Body Area Network for a patient in an ambulance to obtain the vital parameters namely ECG signal, Blood pressure, Temperature etc., from the patient's body using appropriate sensors and transmit them to the WBAN co-ordinator. The WBAN co-ordinator sends the information to a GSM module. This information can be communicated to a doctor/expert to provide continuous treatment before the patient in the critical state reaches the hospital. The collected information will be maintained in a database to be extracted by the people/expert anytime and anywhere using suitable Android application. We also analyze the effect of path loss associated with the signal transmission due to varying position of the nodes. The impact of pathloss on energy consumption of the nodes is also analyzed in this work.

An Adaptive-Profile Modified Active Shape Model for Automatic Landmark Annotation Using Open CV

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

Rajesh K M | Naveenkumar M

Abstract

Detection and tracking of face and facial features are the fundamental steps for many applications like Biometrics, human computer interface, video surveillance and expression analysis This paper addresses the challenges in current techniques and presents an adaptive-profile accurate method for facial feature detection and real time tracking. Face and facial features are detected by improved Active shape model (ASM), This application is developed by using Intel’s Open source computer vision project, OpenCV, Microsoft’s .NET framework and DLIB.

An Advanced Architecture with low Complexity of Partially Parallel Polar Encoder

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

U.Mahendra Narasimha Raj | E.V.Narayana

Abstract

Due to the channel achieving property, the polar code has become one of the most favorable error-correcting codes. As the polar code achieves the property asymptotically, however, it should be long enough to have a good error-correcting performance. Although the previous fully parallel encoder is intuitive and easy to implement, it is not suitable for long polar codes because of the huge hardware complexity required. In this brief, we analyze the encoding process in the viewpoint of very-large-scale integration implementation and propose a new efficient encoder architecture that is adequate for long polar codes and effective in alleviating the hardware complexity. As the proposed encoder allows high-throughput encoding with small hardware complexity, it can be systematically applied to the design of any polar code and to any level of parallelism.

An algorithm for the detection of Diabetic Retinopathy, Maculopathy and performing human authentication

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

Vipanchi H S | Chandrashekar M Patil

Abstract

Diabetes when effects the eye, results in diabetic retinopathy which intern results in maculopathy. An automated graphical approach has been suggested to detect the Diabetic Retinopathy (DR) and Diabetic Maculopathy (DM) simultaneously by identifying microaneurysms and exudates respectively at the early stage. Microaneurysms (MA) and exudates are the found out by feature extraction process. Depending upon the presence of microaneurysms, the different stages of retinopathy are identified as mild, moderate and severe condition. Human authentication is performed based on the blood vessel pattern matching. This approach is tested over DRIVE, HRF, DIARETDB0, and DIARETDB1 databases and expected results are obtained.

An Alternative Method For Forming The State Matrix Required For Aes Encryption Algorithm To Enhance Security

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

Mr. Vikrant Shende | Dr. Meghana Kulkarni , Mr. Giridhar Sudi

Abstract

This paper presents an alternative method for forming the state matrix required for AES encryption algorithm. The design uses alternative method for mapping the individual bytes of the block to different columns of the state matrix depending on previously defined encryption vector. This adds an extra layer of security to the process, but at the same time keeps algorithm simple to implement.

An Approach for Face Detection Using HAAR Features for Automatic Attendance System

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

Varshitha Gowda H S | Chandrashekar M Patil

Abstract

Human face detection has a wide application in biometric and security fields. It finds its application in photography, video surveillance and in many other areas. This paper proposes a face detection approach using Viola Jones algorithm with a Haar features converted to integral image to decrease the computational complexity. AdaBoost algorithm is used for feature selection and attentional cascade for fast rejection of non-face windows. This approach performs fifteen times faster than other face detection algorithms. This method is implemented in college for automatic class attendance system, which takes real time image as input and detects faces crops the face region and display along with their count, which helps in taking automatic attendance. With a high accuracy, the detected faces along with the count are updated. An improved result for face detection and accuracy is obtained using this algorithm.

An approach to promote Frequency regulation using Free Governor mode operation method

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

Ujwala. Tade | Neelam S. Pinjari, Nutan Attarde, Rekha Sonune

Abstract

As energy consumption as well as reliability based availability of power becomes the main factor to the economic growth. The electrical energy demand in country has been rising at the rate of 15% per annum. Generation capacity has been rising at the rate of 10% per annum. To bridge this gap advanced technologies have been necessary to incorporate in the Indian power sector.. Power system frequency is an important indicator of the quality of power supply. The Indian Electricity Act, the frequency has to be maintained within +/- 3% of the rated frequency, 50Hz. In india the frequency is always low and this causes severe problem to the connected load and power generating equipment. The grid operation in india has undergone a dramatic change in recent years with the introduction of Indian Electricity Grid code(IEGC), Free Governor mode operation(FGMO), Availability Based Triff(ABT). The above factors are gaining importance day by day among all stake holders. The area of my research proposes the success of the FGMO of Chandrapur Thermal Power plant (CTPP) respond to the standard frequency rate and this will make the operation more secure.

An Average Low-Power Clock Distribution Using Current-Mode Pulsed Flip-Flop with Enable

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

Sumaiyya Fatima Ghouri | Rekha S

Abstract

The new prototype for clock distribution that utilizes current, instead of the voltage, to disperse a global clock signal with decreasing power utilization. While current mode (CM) signaling has been utilized as a part of balanced signs, this is the prime use in a one-to - numerous clock appropriation systems. To perform this, we make another best current-mode pulsed flip-flop with enable (CMPFFE) utilizing 45 nm CMOS technology. The power is global transports, clock distribution network (CDN), and synchronous signs by and large. The clock distribution system devours the extensive measure of power in synchronous computerized frameworks. Clock distribution systems are the key component of a synchronous and non- synchronous advanced circuit and a huge power. At the point when the CMPFFE is consolidated with a CM transmitter, the main CM clock dispersion system shows lower normal power contrasted with conventional voltage mode.

An Efficient 4-Bit Processor Design Using Quantum Dot Cellular Automata Technology

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

Shalu .M. Sabu | Sukanya Sundaresh

Abstract

Integrated Circuit(IC) fabrication technology is improving, so the internal dimension of semiconductor devices are decreasing day by day. This trend of scaling down dimensions reached its limit in near future. In nanoscale design, Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor (CMOS) has certain limitations such as hot electron effect, interconnect crosstalk, power dissipation, operating speed, gate oxide and interconnect scaling. According to the novel nanotechnology Quantum-dot cellular automata (QCA),which provides a better computation platform than traditional CMOS, in which polarization of electrons indicates the digital information. This work relies on an efficient 4 bit processor design based on QCA technology and it is compared with the CMOS technology. The processor mainly consists of a comparator, ALU, accumulator and data memory. The comparator were designed based on Tree-Based(TB) architecture, that is the entire bit is splitted into two halves and computed separately. Finally, it is cascaded together. The ALU consists of arithmetic operations such as full adder, full subtractor and logical operations such as AND and XOR. The data memory is a 4 *4 volatile memory. QCA based design reduces delay, power dissipation and number of cells used. The VHDL language is used for coding and synthesis can be done by means of Xilinx-ISE 13.2

An Efficient Design of Dynamic VITERBI Decoder Architecture

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

Mr.Parsekar Gaurav Rajanikant | Mrs.Veena H.S , Mr.Girish G Satardekar

Abstract

The emerging applications of wireless networks enforce new challenges in design of algorithms and communication protocols. In such scenario of challenges, coding for error control has be- come extremely important to provide robust communication and maintain quality of service. One method to improve Bit Error Rate (BER) while maintaining high data reliability, is to use an error correction technique like the VITERBI algorithm. The VITERBI algorithm provides an efficient method for Forward Error Correction (FEC) that improves channel reliability. As constraint length associated with input bits increases it needs to implement it with lesser computations and lesser hardware to decode the original data. Therefore Dynamic VITERBI Algorithm is used for decoding which reduces error probability, computation and employ lesser hard- ware with increased speed. The purpose of this paper is to understand VITERBI Algorithm, Adaptive VITERBI Algorithm and to find the alternative to shortcomings in the design and implement the idea on a hardware.

An Efficient Detection Of Primary Users Reoccupation In Cognitive Radio Systems By Active Sensing

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

A.Suhanya | RS.Koteeshwari

Abstract

In the past years, fixed spectrum assignment policies worked well. But today, due to the rapid increase in number of users in mobile communication as well as in other communication areas, arises a problem called ‘spectrum scarcity’. It can be solved by developing a new communication paradigm that will use the existing spectrum efficiently. It is achieved with the help of cognitive radio. One of the main functions of the cognitive radio is spectrum sensing. In this paper, Spectrum sensing is carried out by Quite-Active sensing. In that, active sensing is carried out by spectral correlation function which is one of the cyclostationary feature detection with non-cooperative detection. Here, known pilot signals from the primary users base station are duplicated and reallocated in cognitive radio users modulating signal. The spectral correlation is carried out between the cognitive radio user and primary users. With the help of Spectral correlation function, we can efficiently detect the primary users reoccupation in cognitive radio systems. It will provide higher security because the pilots are added with the cognitive radio users modulating signal. And the simulation is carried out with the help of matlab and their results show the effectiveness of proposed approach.

An Efficient Fixed Point DLMS Adaptive Filter For Denoising

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

Neethu Mary Raju | Asha A S

Abstract

The fixed point DLMS adaptive filter is employed for image processing applications and typical for image denoising application. Adaptive filter adapts the filter coefficients according to an optimization algorithm. Because of its simplicity and satisfactory convergence performance LMS (Least Mean Square) algorithm is used. It does not support pipelined implementation because of its recursive behaviour. It is modified to a form called the Delayed LMS (DLMS) algorithm, which allows pipelined implementation of the filter. For achieving lower adaptation delay as well as area and delay efficiency, partial product generators (PPG) and ripple carry adder for adding scheme is used. Adaptation delay can be reduced by decoupling the computations at the error computation block and weight update block. It also emphasis on fixed point issues as location of radix point choice of word length and quantization at various stages of computation. It is most popular for real-time adaptive system.

An Efficient Floating Point Arithmetic Unit Using Parallel Prefix Adder

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

Rinu Susan Babu | Sukanya Sundaresh

Abstract

In fixed point number representation, digits after the decimal point is fixed and it does not provide a high precision value, while in floating point representation the decimal point is not fixed. Based on the concept of floating point number a fused floating point arithmetic unit is designed. Generally alignment, normalization and rounding are the complex process required in floatingpoint operation, which significantly increase the latency. This work relies on a fused floating-point three-term arithmetic unit, which includes a fused floating point three term adder unit, a fused floating point three term subtractor unit and a fused floating point three term multiplier unit. Here addition is the basic operation used in adder unit, subtractor unit and multipliers unit, which results in decrease or increase of delay. In order to improve the performance of a three term floating point arithmetic unit, carry save adder is replaced by a parallel prefix adder like kogge stone adder. A parallel prefix addition mainly includes a pre-processing stage, a carry generation stage and a post processing stage. This floating point three term arithmetic unit using parallel prefix adder is designed using VHDL language and it is synthesised in Xilinx ISE Design Suit 13.2 and can be simulated in Model SimSE 6.3f.

An Efficient Image Processing Based Method for Gills Segmentation from a Digital Fish Image

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

L.V.Pooja | Ashwitha K , Soudri Rakesh Kumar , Aruna Jyothi

Abstract

The quality and freshness of a fish test is for the most part influenced because of the taking care of and capacity conditions amid the post gathering period. The maintenance time and capacity medium are the two principle variables influencing the fish quality. This paper shows a picture handling based technique for programmed and effective division of gills from the fish test picture which can be utilized for fish freshness approval and assurance of any pesticide from the fish test under test. The actualized calculation has delivered a most extreme connection of 92.4% with the ground truth comes about got from specialists. The strategy utilized for gills division is quick and straightforward.

An Energy Efficient Clustering Algorithm in Wireless Sensor Network

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

Sakshi Sukale | Tanaji D. Biradar

Abstract

In this fast forward world, we require all the information instantly . In some areas, Wireless Sensor Network is helping us to get this information. In aa thousand of cheap micro-sensor nodes allows a user to monitor a remote environment for civil as well as a military application from the main station. The data collected by micro-sensors is communicated through a network to a single sink node. For this communication first cluster sensors into groups, and via cluster head they will communicate to a sink node. Major energy Is getting consumed while communicating with the sink node resulting the sensors life become very short. This consumption of energy is not advisable, and also at the remote place it is very difficult to replace the battery of thousands micro sensor. To solve all these issues the algorithms has been invented . For effective balances cluster head and prolonged network lifetime, there is a novel uneven clustering scheme invented by Qi Zhang(2). By considering residual energy and distance from the sink node the modified algorithm has given a better performance. The same algorithm is called Distance and Energy Based Uneven Clustering (DEUC). By changing the method of selection of cluster head and also changing the probability factor modified DEUC algorithm gives a better performance than the previous one. The modified algorithm improves the lifetime of the node also the energy of the network.

An Improved Blind Source Separation Using Bispectrum Slide Detection in Blind Spectrum Sensing

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

Rina Parikh | Shreya Matta, Anusha Garg

Abstract

Cognitive radio is a pivotal solution to combat the existing problem of inefficient usage of spectrum bands. Spectrum sensing is one of the most important issues in cognitive radio system. The unlicensed secondary user should detect the available idle spectrum resource accurately and thus reuse it opportunistically. Blind spectrum sensing refers to a condition where the signal can be detected under low SNR environment without any prior knowledge about the gain, noise variance and threshold of the channel. Based on the concept of Random Matrix Theory and Blind Source Separation method, a novel spectrum sensing approach is proposed using Bispectrum slide detection analysis. The novel approach of combining Random Matrix Theory with Bispectrum Slide detection based blind source separation in blind spectrum sensing has been proposed in this paper. Simulation results of proposed algorithm are obtained in the form of receiver operating characteristic curves. The results indicate that the proposed approach gives better results with less complexity than commonly used blind spectrum detection techniques.

An Integrated Energy Measurement Technique for Smart Grid

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

M.A.P.Nareshkumar | 

Abstract

Smart grid is the integration of advanced information, communication and networking technologies in traditional electric grid to make it smarter and faster in making decisions. With the increase in population, there is increase in the demand for electricity. Nowadays we are generating our own power for home and industries. We can reduce demand by selling power to grid after our own usage. Cost can vary in proportion to the demand. In this paper, we explain to implement a smart meter to display power both EB & generated Solar power, and provide for the actual power consumption. By monitoring both EB cost and renewable energy cost is up a single energy meter both selling and consuming power from grid to home and vice-versa can be known using GSM methods through if it possible to intimate the consuming and selling power from grid to consumers through Messages and also to Electricity Board for government data. The monthly EB cost should be intimated through messages by calculating both real time and critical time cost and also selling power to grid and reduced to determine the actual power consumed. We propose to implement a smart meter to display power both EB & generated Solar power, and provide for the actual power consumption.

An Integrated IVCCRL Approach for the reduction of Negative Bias Temperature Instability in an AES Core

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

Anitha Patibandla | Dr.B.L.Raju

Abstract

Reliability of Circuits is one of the major concerns in VLSI circuits and systems designs. Negative Bias Temperature Instability(NBTI), which has a deteriorating effect on the threshold voltage and the drive current of semiconductor devices, is emerging as a major reliability degradation mechanism [1].An important Reliability issue in the recent times is the Negative bias temperature instability (NBTI) in the MOS circuits in Cryptographic cores. Many works propose hardware implementations of cryptographic primitives with the promise of reduction in area, power dissipation and cost. An integrated IVCCRL approach for the reduction of Negative Bias Temperature Instability in an AES Core using the techniques of Input Vector Control (IVC) and Reversible Logic (RL) is being proposed in this paper. The effect of input vector control investigated. Mini-mum leakage vectors, which lead to minimum circuit performance degradation and maximum leakage reduction rate, are selected and used when the circuit is in the standby mode. Analysis on the potential to save the circuit performance degradation by internal node control techniques during circuit standby mode is discussed. The optimization is done for the AES algorithm using NCL Reversible Gates for low power, low cost and low area. Simulation Results have been analyzed and presented.

An Investigation of End-To-End Speaker Recognition Using Deep Neural Networks

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

Lakhsmi HR | Sivanand Achanta , Suryakanth V Gangashetty , R Kumaraswamy

Abstract

State-of-the-art automatic speaker recognition (SR) has been dominated by Gaussian mixture model-universal background model (GMM-UBM) based i-vector feature extraction methods. Although these systems are robust, extraction of ivectors is very time consuming and a separate classifier needs to be trained for decision making in the end. Inorder to alleviate the above disadvantages, in this paper we propose to use deep neural networks for end-to-end speaker recognition. We perform several experiments to determine the best suited architecture, the hyper-parameter tuning algorithm and the initialization scheme for SR task. The proposed method combines feature extraction and classification step, and is of very low foot print. Through objective metric (equal error rate) we show that the proposed method outperforms the GMM-UBM conventional system

An Optimized Approach for Relay Selection in Cognitive Radio Networks

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

Navya P | Sadiqa Bawoor

Abstract

The cognitive radio networks benefits has been well recognized in the wireless communication application. In this paper, a decode and forward protocol is implemented in order to increase the security of the system rather than only amplifying and forwarding. The analysis of throughput is also studied with a different approach of scanning the secondary users based on their even and odd numbers. Simulations are conducted for observation steps and average reward for different number of secondary users. The analyses is also done for the increase in throughput with the modified scanning methodology using the simulation.

Analysis of BCH Codes for Different Channel Conditions in Lab VIEW

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

Pramod G Joglekar | Pawan Kumar B

Abstract

In recent past digital data and its transmission over either in wired or wireless channel with the minimum bandwidth requirement and high data rate is playing vital role in communication field. According to studies done by Broadband Commission for mobile communication data transmission over wireless channel decides the growth in economic and social sector of the country. Increase in electronic gadgets and number of users in a geographical area is demanding the efficient utilization of bandwidth by assuring more number of users in a limited channel and high speed data rates in communication devices. In this paper a brief study is done to analyze and estimate the channel parameters for different channels considering BCH block code which is one of the efficient Forward Error Correction code.

Analysis of Blood Smear Images for Leukaemia Detection Using Data Mining Algorithms

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

Vasundhara Acharya | Dr.Preetham Kumar

Abstract

Blood cell segmentation and extraction of characteristics of cells plays a vital role in the field of medicine. Blood count is used to analyze the overall health of a person. It can be used to identify diseases like anemia, infection and leukemia. White Blood cells, Red Blood cells and platelets forms the parts of blood. In laboratory, blood cell counting is done by using counting chamber known as Hemocytometer, Petri dish and microscope. The entire procedure involves the use of physician’s skills to prepare the plating which is very time consuming and inaccurate task. The aim of this research is to perform a survey on computer aided system that can detect and estimate the number of red blood cells and white blood cells in the blood smear image using image processing algorithms. Image processing algorithms involves the following steps: Inputting the image, pre-processing, image segmentation, feature extraction and applying appropriate counting algorithm. The main objective here is to gain knowledge about the different methodologies used for counting of red blood cells and extracting features of white blood cells. It also throw light on various research directions used.

ANALYSIS OF LOCOMOTION VERSATILE HEXAPOD ROBOT SYSTEM FOR INDUSTRIAL AUTOMATION

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

S.Senthilkumar | P.Suresh , C.R.Tamizhanambi

Abstract

This paper exhibits the hexapod robot movement performance. We analyze the performance of the DC servo motor in the robotic system and to enhance the function, The Hexapod robot movement analysis was made using Virtual Robot Experimentation Platform (V REP) software. Through this simulation we can analysis the performance of hexapod robot body and legs movement in various parameters. The Robotic system was separately analyzed and the simulation results are given..

ANALYSIS OF LOCOMOTION VERSATILE HEXAPOD ROBOT SYSTEM FOR INDUSTRIAL AUTOMATION

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

S.Senthilkumar | P.Suresh , C.R.Tamizhanambi

Abstract

This paper exhibits the hexapod robot movement performance. We analyze the performance of the DC servo motor in the robotic system and to enhance the function, The Hexapod robot movement analysis was made using Virtual Robot Experimentation Platform (V REP) software. Through this simulation we can analysis the performance of hexapod robot body and legs movement in various parameters. The Robotic system was separately analyzed and the simulation results are given..

Analysis of Mutual Coupling effect in Micro Strip antenna arrays using IE3D

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

Nataraj A N | Sindhu K S

Abstract

In this paper, effect of mutual coupling on the performance of micro strip antenna array is analyzed using IE3D simulation tool. Array is designed using rectangular micro strip antennas to operate at frequency 2.45GHz. Strength of the mutual coupling is measured by extracting parameter S21. It is observed from the simulations that gain of the array reduces as the mutual coupling increases. As the distance between antenna increases mutual coupling reduces but side lobe level increases.

Analysis of Rayleigh & RICIAN Channel for OFDM System

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

Divya.B | T.P.Surekha , Arjun.K.R

Abstract

With large amount of energy consumed in wireless LAN (WLAN) system, it becomes an important and meaningful issue to reduce the energy consumption of wireless communication devices nowadays. Here we use IEEE 802.11P standard in order to reduce energy in wireless system. In this paper we draw our attention using with the concept of orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) which is a special case of multicarrier transmission, where a single DataStream is transmitted over a number of lower rate subcarriers. The high data rate transmission capability through multipath delay spread, OFDM has been adopted in modern wireless communication systems. The main focus of our paper is analyzing the Rayleigh and Rican channel to know the performance of system. In order to analyze two channels the two parameter are used Bit Error Rate (BER) and Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR). Comparing both the channel with and without using Weiner filter is performed. The wireless channel is assumed to include Additive White Gaussian Noise (AWGN) and multipath fading.Simulation results show that the proposed algorithm can effectively reduce noise while using wiener filter.

Analysis of Security and Privacy Features in Map Reduce on Clouds

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

K. Roopesh | M. Kiran Kumar

Abstract

Map Reduce is a programming prototype that enables for huge scalability across hundreds or thousands of servers in a Hadoop.. Map Reduce is extensively used daily around the world as an efficient distributed computation tool for a huge class of problems such as search, clustering, log analysis, different types of join operations, pattern matching, matrix multiplication and analysis of social networks. Privacy and security of data and Map Reduce computations are significant concerns when a Map Reduce computation is implements in public or hybrid clouds. In order to perform a Map Reduce functions in hybrid and public clouds, authentication of mappers-reducers, privacy of data-computations, Integrity and reliability of data-computations and freshness-correctness of the outputs are mandatory. Satisfying these necessities defend the operation from a number of types of attacks on data and Map Reduce computations. In this Security and privacy challenges and needs, considering a range of adversarial capabilities, and characteristics within the scope of Map Reduce. We presented security and privacy protocols for Map Reduce and talk about their transparency problems.

ANALYSIS OF SMI,LSMI,KALMAN BASED LMS AND KALMAN BASED RLS FOR ADAPTIVE BEAMFORMING

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

G.Essakki Priyanka | C.Gayathri , Nazneen Ansari , Dr.G.Indumathi

Abstract

when the array steering vector is known then in adaptive beam forming we can have resolution and interference rejection capability. In this paper we propose a variety of approaches like SMILSMI,Kalman based LMS and Kalman based RLS for adaptive beamforming through simulation result various adaptive beamforming algorithm can be analysed.

Analysis of Underwater Acoustic Channel for OFDM System

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

Jayashree C S | T.P.Surekha , Arjun.K.R

Abstract

Underwater acoustic channel has the characteristics of severe multipath, rapid variation and estimation of its phase is difficult task. Hence achieving high data rate and reliable communication is a challenge for Underwater Acoustic Channel (UAC). Orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) has emerged as a promising modulation scheme for underwater acoustic (UWA) communication. Inter symbol interference (ISI) can be avoided by transmitting a number of narrowband subcarriers by using a guard time. This paper deals with the evaluation of Bit Error Rate (BER) of Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) system under different combinations of modulation techniques with convolution channel coding at different coding rates

Analyzing the Customer Switchover Behavior in Mobile Communication

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

Ajeesh S Nair | Pramod V R, Jithin S

Abstract

This research focuses on developing an integrated model to understand and enlist the interrelationship between various aspects for motivating customers to switch their mobile (telecom)connection; categorize them into four clusters based on their driving and dependence powers. In order to achieve this, frame work, based on the inter relationship between the parameters has been developed and these parameters was observed having high interrelationship. The executives involved in mobile networking business could be the beneficiaries of this study as the result from this research will enable them to attract new customers so as to increase their number of connections and also to prevent their existing customers from switching connection. The parameter used in this research is based on the current global telecom scenario so that the result of the research is completely relevant and practically applicable in the contemporary telecom market.

Anti-Pilferage Ticketing System for Public Transport

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

Saira Sultana | Venkatesh H, Jithendra N, Sangeeta A Tagari, Jacob Monsy

Abstract

The paper based public transport ticketing system, prevailing in mega-cities such as Bengaluru, introduces severe problems and corruption in the system. The project suggests a much more user friendly, automated system of ticketing with the use of RFID based cards. The RFID based cards can be preferred over the conventional system due to low cost, easy operation, portability, durability, reliability and more user friendly to use. In the existing system monthly or yearly passes are issued, which can be easily forged and manipulated thereby corrupting the system. In conventional paper based ticketing system, tickets are being printed and thrown away after traveling, thereby littering the environment. Moreover, large numbers of trees are being destroyed since the current system uses paper based ticketing and the used tickets are just wasted. Therefore by promoting RFID based cards passengers can be encouraged, overtime to shun paper tickets in favour of monthly or yearly RFID based passes issued by the concerned authorities.

Apartment Automation and Security System Using PLC

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

S. V. Viraktamath | Sindhu D. Hegadekatte , Sangeeta M. Achari, Sudharani Y. Khawast, Swapna G.M , Swapna G.M

Abstract

The most important source of motivation in continuity of technological developments is to upgrade human living standards. The technological development provides and increases human-beings’ safety and comfort directly and indirectly. Developing technologies for this purpose directly affects the life standards by means of smart home systems design. In this paper the implementation of apartment automation and security system using PLC is proposed. The control of the ventilation, lighting and security units in the smart home were carried out. The output from the different sensors is given to PLC which in turn controls the system by switching ON or OFF the actuators.

Approaches of Artificial Intelligence in Biomedical Image Processing a Leading Tool Between Computer Vision & Biological Vision

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

Veenutha G | Shreyas Antin , C H.Nikitha , Mr.Abdul Lateef Haroon P.S.

Abstract

Artificial Intelligence or AI is a subfield of computer science, which can be defined as the intelligence exhibited by a machine or a software having a remarkable impact on the field of biology and medicine. Imaging, on the other hand has become an essential component of many fields in medicine, biomedical applications, biotechnology and laboratory research by which images are processed and analysed. Putting together AI and imaging, the tools and techniques of artificial intelligence are useful for solving many biomedical problems and using a computer based equipped hardware software application for understanding images, researchers and clinicians can enhance their ability to study, diagnose, monitor, understand and treat medical disorders. Therefore the main idea behind this research paper is to focus on understanding the artificial intelligence, its concepts and various models available for the segmentation(or classification) of medical images, its applications, advantages and disadvantages and results and more.

Aquatic Vehicle Navigation System Using AVR Microcontroller

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

S h u b h a n g i K h a d e | S h i t a l P a r k h i , J a y a K h a i r k r , M o n a l i M u d e , R u p a l i G a y b h i y e

Abstract

Distance measurement of an object in the path of a person, equipment, or a vehicle, stationary or moving is used in a large number of applications such as robotic movement control, vehicle control, medical applications, etc. Camera capturing the multiple images by stereovision is 3D concept. In this paper we are going to develop an autonomous system which should be able to monitor obstacle, objects, bouys etc. Measurement using ultrasonic sensors is one of the cheapest among various options and it will spark off the navigation system and intimate the base station about it. Distance measurement of an obstacle by using separate ultrasonic transmitter, receiver and a microcontroller is presented.

Arduino Based Advanced Intelligent Security System for Women with Location Tracking Through GPS Network and Bluetooth Operated App

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

SudhaArvind | Pooja , MouzzamAhmed , PoonamVerma , DivyaPatel

Abstract

Today in the current global scenario, the prime question in every girl’s mind, taking into account the ever rising increase of issues on women harassment in recent past, is only about her safety and security. The only thought haunting every girl is when they will be able to move freely on the streets even in odd hours without worrying about their security. This paper suggests a new perspective to use technology to protect women. The system resembles a simple button which when activated, tracks the location of the victim using GPS (Global Positioning System) and sends emergency messages using GSM (Global System for Mobile communication), to three emergency contacts and police .The main advantage of this system is that the user does not require a internet connection for operating APP unlike other applications that have been developed earlier. The App shall dial the already saved emergency number once the SMS is sent.

ARM Based Automatic Meter Reading and Centralized Control System

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

Santosh Kumar N | Chaithanya V , Abhishek R , Archana S , K Raja Prashanth

Abstract

Electronic energy meter is capable of taking readings and can store it into its memory. Taking energy meter reading is time consuming and an expensive task. The meter reader travels for a long distance and take the reading manually to prepare the bill. Consumers have to go to the billing office, stand in a long line and submit the bill. This is a boring job and time consuming also. It can be avoided by remote monitoring of electronic energy meter and prepaid billing system by the use of cash card. In this paper measurement of energy, remote monitoring, preparing of bill and billing system is presented. Low cost ATMEGA8L microcontroller is used here to control the whole system.

ARM Based Smart Drinking Water Distribution System

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

J.Krishna Chaithanya | Dr. T. Ramashri

Abstract

The aim of this project is to implement a smart drinking water distribution system through smart card and detecting contamination of water so that people in rural, slums and also in area where there is scarcity of ground water. Not only providing safe and clean water through this system we can also reduce the wastage of water and crowding near the water tankers. Our approach is to design a system which determines the purity of supplied water and with the help of a smart card setup controls the amount of quantity to each member and also controls the illegal supply of water, thereby organizing the supply of water with lightweight implementation and reliable long time operation. This system adopts the ARM based controller to read the inputs from the sensor and determine the contamination levels if any and then provide the supply of water, Smart card system and GSM wireless network. The system can run well under the unattended operation, great reducing the intensity of work and making the water monitoring more secure, reliable and economical.

ARP Burner Automation Using PLC

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

Yeshwanth S Naick | Neethu P.S , Anjana Balchandran , Arya Vijayan , Preenima Prasad , Shincy P Kunjumon

Abstract

Automatic control is the application of control theory for regulation of processes without direct human intervention. Automatic control can self-regulate a technical plant such as a machine or an industrial process operating condition or parameters by the controllers such as PLC, DCS etc. Automation of burner in ARP is carried out using PLC with SCADA. A limitation of presently used Relay logic system is overcome by the proposed method. In PLC, centralized action takes place.PID can be used in it for controller action. Graphical view of the process can be drawn using SCADA.

Arrhythmia Analysis and Classification using Gaussian Mixture Model

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

Divya K | Veena Karjigi

Abstract

Automatic detection and classification of ECG heart beats is of high value in diagnosis and treatment of patients with lifethreatening cardiac arrhythmia. Arrhythmia is an abnormal or irregular heart rhythm which reflects the bad condition of heart. Abnormal heartbeat comprises Right Bundle Branch Block (RBBB), Left Bundle Branch Block (LBBB), Atrial Premature Contraction (APC), and Ventricular Premature Contraction (VPC). ECG signal analysis includes QRS complex detection, P and T peak detection, feature selection and beat classification. In this paper, time interval features of ECG signal are extracted and Gaussian Mixture Model (GMM) is used to classify the ECG signals. The ECG signals used for the evaluation are taken from MIT-BIH arrhythmia database. The Experimental results obtained after classification are 84.99%, 96.6%, 93.08%, 94.48% and 62.83% for NORM, LBBB, RBBB, VPC and APC, respectively

Arrhythmia Analysis and Classification using Gaussian Mixture Model

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

Divya K | Veena Karjigi

Abstract

Automatic detection and classification of ECG heart beats is of high value in diagnosis and treatment of patients with life-threatening cardiac arrhythmia. Arrhythmia is an abnormal or irregular heart rhythm which reflects the bad condition of heart. Abnormal heartbeat comprises Right Bundle Branch Block (RBBB), Left Bundle Branch Block (LBBB), Atrial Premature Contraction (APC), and Ventricular Premature Contraction (VPC). ECG signal analysis includes QRS complex detection, P and T peak detection, feature selection and beat classification. In this paper, time interval features of ECG signal are extracted and Gaussian Mixture Model (GMM) is used to classify the ECG signals. The ECG signals used for the evaluation are taken from MITBIH arrhythmia database. The Experimental results obtained after classification are 84.99%, 96.6%, 93.08%, 94.48% and 62.83% for NORM, LBBB, RBBB, VPC and APC, respectively.

Artificial Floating Islands as Eco-Engineered Remedy: A Review

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

Priyanka Baji | Dr.V.D.Salkar

Abstract

In present years, water pollution has become one of the most critical environmental challenges. The Artificial Floating Islands (AFIs) are an innovative variant of wetlands with substrates-rooted plants and free-floating aquatic plant systems, which consist of aquatic or terrestrial plants growing in a hydroponic manner with buoyant frames floating on the surface of water bodies. Eco engineered remedy such as floating wetland is commonly presented as an important strategy for maintaining and improving water quality and aesthetic appearance of water bodies. Literature review indicates that previous works are carried out at different scales using different design parameters. Artificial Floating Islands (AFIs) are vegetated floating platforms applied in lakes, ponds and reservoirs to improve the aquatic environment. AFIs have four functions: water purification, habitat enhancement shoreline erosion protection, and improved landscape features. This paper reviews the studies carried out by earlier researchers on AFI. The primary advantages of AFIs are that they float and adjust to water level variations in reservoirs and reduce predation risks by providing safe protections for nesting birds. The paper presents the type, structure, function, and developing history of AFIs. By analyzing the social-economic benefits, advices are given for applying AFIs technology to improve the water environment and to improve crops thereby creating a “win-win” model for both environmental protection and agricultural development in rural places. Based on the review it can be concluded that AFI technology is promising and acceptable even indigenously.

Artificial Kidney

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

Khaleel Naina Mohammed M M S | Arun Mitheran G , Bhuvanesh Kumar R , Kirubasankar.K

Abstract

The main aim of this paper is to reduce the death that is caused by kidney failure and to make every people to get a cheaper treatment towards kidney failure and to find the criteria for this sort of problem, so as a result we have concluded with this idea, so far Hemodialysis was only the rectifier for kidney failure but it is only a temporary cure which is an cyclic process which is said to be done for 2 to 3 times a week as per the subjects condition and the time taken for this process is about hours and the charge is about Rs.1800 and twice a week special injections for blood cell regeneration and blood test is necessary so as an result an person who suffers from kidney malfunction is said to be spending Rs.30,000 approx. it could be even more than that and it is obligatory that transplantation shoulds be done after a phase of instant, so my aphorism is to make an “Artificial kidney” which can be rooted to an victim at an cost less than that of actual kidney transplantation.

ASIC Implementation of 32-bit MIPS RISC Processor using Multi-VDD Technique

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

Jeyakumar R | Suryavanshi Rushank Sharad , David Jey Singh , Jayakrishnan P

Abstract

the phenomena of scaling down the device results into certain hazards in the processor However it can have an adverse impact on the various performance parameters of the processor as area, power and timing. However in order to overcome the enlisted shortcomings the design of Microprocessor without Interlocked Pipeline Stages (MIPS) architecture is preferred. The Microprocessor without Interlocked Pipeline Stages is a RISC processor. The architecture discussed is implemented using Verilog HDL. Further ASIC flow is performed using 32nm technology. However low power realization is achieved by using multiple voltage (Multi-VDD) technique where by the critical path in the design is analyzed and the voltage of that respective path is increased there by achieving a good speed up.

ASIC Implementation of Data Comparison Circuit for Cache Memory

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

Basavaraj Mirji | R Pramod , Dr. V. Anandi

Abstract

In current scenario, computing system of microprocessor involves data comparison circuit for matching input data to the stored data in memory. For protection of data and to improve reliability, the recent microprocessor uses error correcting code. In this paper a new architecture for data matching is presented to reduce the delay and hardware circuit complexity. Taking into account the property of the systematic codeword, the deliberate shape comprising of information and parity bits independently, so parallel examination of information and parity bits diminishes the delay of the overall circuit.

Assistive Scene Text Recognition

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

Hymavathi K.P | Fouziya v.k

Abstract

Abundance in text along with development of digitalized camera system lead to a new era of recognition and analysis. Traffic sign board which meant for road safety is all time a matter of fact for the traffic safety. The traffic board which carries signs along with informative texts are to be recognized for safe driving. Apart from normal sign board recognition, here the informative boards are also considered. This is a fewer step towards driver assistive system. The scene recognition faces a lot of challenges like motion blur, occlusion and lighting factors. The goal is to implement a system (model) for recognizing the text and signs in the traffic board and to create sound alert. The HOG based vector machine (SVM) classifies the traffic sign and the text is recognized using MSER based OCR. Advantages of the proposed system are well condition under illumination changes sound alert and text recognition is an added advantage with other methods.

Attacks Resistant to the Routing Level and a Synopsis of Refuge Factor of Routing in Mobile Adhoc Network

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

Mrs. U. Srilakshmi | Dr. B. Srinivasa Rao

Abstract

In this composition, the creators have portrayed the different conceivable answers for Security in MANET Systems. Versatile Ad-hoc Networks are spontaneous, self-sorting out systems made out of portable hubs that use work organizing standards for interconnectivity. Steering in impromptu systems is an exceptionally difficult issue because of hubs versatility, dynamic topology, visit connect breakage, impediment of hubs memory, battery, data transfer capacity, and preparing force and absence of main issue like base stations or servers. Portable impromptu system is a self-sufficient arrangement of versatile hubs. Every hub works as an end framework, as well as a switch to forward bundles. The hubs are allowed to move about and arrange themselves into a system. These cause additional difficulties on security. In this paper, assessment of unmistakable on-request steering convention i.e. AODV, MAODV, RAODV has been finished by differing the system estimate. An exertion has been done to do the execution assessment of these conventions utilizing arbitrary way point show. The creators have acquainted the security issues particular with MANETs and present a point by point arrangement of the assaults/assailants against these complex circulated frameworks. At that point we talk about different proactive and responsive arrangements proposed for MANETs. We diagram secure steering answers for keep away from a few assaults against the directing conventions in light of participation between hubs. We additionally give an outline of interruption recognition in MANETs and show the way of IDSs that have been proposed for MANETs in the previous decade.

Authentication by Zero Knowledge Protocol

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

K. Prasanth | E.T. Jabajasphin

Abstract

In wireless sensor network (WSN) various types of sensors are used and deployed in the network to collect useful physical parameters and some highly sensitive information is then been transmitted between the nodes and to the base station, without any human intervention. Hence, message authenticity and security are major requirements in WSN. Since the cryptographic schemes used for wired networks tend to exhaust wireless sensor network resources, they cannot be directly used in sensor networks. Here the Zero Knowledge Protocol (ZKP) is implemented in the network for the authentication and verification of sender sensor nodes before transmitting any sensitive information. In proposed scheme an optimal number of challenge questions are also used to maintain a balance between the added security and the increase in cost. Increase in the number of challenge question makes up to the reduced key size thus providing an improved security. The proposed scheme was assessed based on the MATLAB simulation and an analysis was performed.

Automated EB Bill Control Measurement with Automated Power Disconnection

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

N.Mahendren | P.Karthik , S.Balakumar, S.Lalith Kishore, S.Bhoopalan

Abstract

The design presents a latest methodology for avoiding the maintenance costs and high construction in the existing indicator sense technology. Apart the use of wireless meter reading with network technologies has become need of the day. The designed system avoids the man involvement in Power Management. The online banking use to credit the amount in user or consumer account in time, if couldn’t, the power connection may be disconnected automatically from the remote server. It displays the equivalent amount and reading information on LCD and data is sent to the server through the GSM Module. The PIC based hardware system consists of a processor core board and the peripheral board. The entire user interface design for microcontroller operation is based on Embedded C Language. This system provides capable meter reading, avoiding the billing mistake and reduces the protection charge. Online banking service is used to automatically debit the bill amount in user bank account this paper also addresses compensations of implementing the GSM communiqué module and design detail and discusses the forwardlooking security of the data communications.

Automated Irrigation System Using GSM Module

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

Siddharth Bhattacharjee | Machina Hema Mani Kumar , P.N.Vaidyanathan

Abstract

The increasing demand of the food supplies requires a rapid improvement in food production technology. In many countries where agriculture plays an important part in shaping up the economy and the climatic conditions are isotropic, but still we are not able to make full use of agricultural resources. One of the main reason is the lack of rain & scarcity of land reservoir water. Also, the unplanned use of water inadvertently resulting in water wastage. The aim of our project is to minimize the manual intervention of the farmer, which is why we are using a micro-controller PIC- PERIPHERAL INTERRUPT CONTROLLER. It's done using a GSM MODULE attached with the Automated Irrigation System. The micro-controller based AUTOMATED IRRIGATION SYSTEM will serve the following purposes: 1) As there is planned usage of water, a lot of water is saved from being wasted. 2) The soil is irrigated when there is not enough moisture in the soil and the microcontroller decides when should the pump be turned on/off . 3) The water level Indicator checks the amount of water in the water container. Thus this saves much time of the farmers, as they don’t have to go and turn the pump on/off manually by monitoring various soil parameters for controlled Irrigation.

Automated Solar Irrigation system with MPPT

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

Krishna S. Kolte | Pratik D. Selkar,Abhijit Singare,Sandip Salwe,Reeta Damahe

Abstract

As we know in Mostly in ’India’ Electrical Energy is generated by the burning of coal. This generation of electrical energy produces lot of pollution. And as we know solar energy is conventional source of energy, it is readily available 12hours in a day. Solar energy can became alternative to this non-conventional energy but there is problem is that photovoltaic cell are less efficient. In order to improve the efficiency of photovoltaic cells MPPT techniques are used.[1] In this paper we present that 12volt battery is charged with the help of solar panel & MPPT. Then this system is used for irrigation purpose by directly applying 12volt dc to the DC pumps with battery, it can also be used in fields by increasing solar panel & battery rating, DC pump for large scale use. It can also used in hotel & motels, bungalows for gardening. This system is completely automated using IC 555.

Automatic Auto/Taxi Fare System

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

Bharathi R | Arunadevi

Abstract

Taxis or auto rickshaws are an important part means of transportation. Integrating auto-rickshaw services complements public transportation systems, ensuring connectivity and easy access throughout the city. The current fare meter of auto-rickshaws and taxis follows a faring scheme that only computes the cost of the journey after the travel. This allows the drivers to trap new comers to a city to take passenger through a route that is longer than the exact route to his destined address leading to payment of fare which is larger than the actual fare. To eliminate this, a new system may be implemented that calculates the fare and route prior to the journey. Here GPS is used to determine the current location .The system uses a mapping scheme for calculating the shortest path from the current location to the destination and thereby computing the estimate of the fare for entire journey. As it gives an exact cost for the distance travelled, the conflicts between the driver and the passenger can be avoided

Automatic Coke Oven Pushing And Charging Schedule

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 31st May 2017

Sneha Bhimrao Joundale | Devendra Sutar,Sajit Sadanandan

Abstract

Most of the coke ovens plant has the manual schedule for pushing and charging sequence of the ovens. The manual schedule gives rise to several problems which affect the process time resulting in the decrease in the production. This paper presents the full automatic system for coke oven scheduling. Further, using this auto schedule battery machines can be made to work according to schedule leading to man-less operation of battery machines. The optimized auto schedule is created by process control system which uses plc logic based on the scheduling algorithm. This auto schedule system reduces all errors and all battery machines are made to work automatically using the schedule. This approach makes the system completely automatic in operation; which improves an efficiency of the plant and also reduces operator workload. Optimized auto pushing and charging schedule of coke ovens create the comfortable working environment.

Automatic Control and Monitor of Green House using Sensors

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

C.Vamsivarshika | B.Sravani

Abstract

This paper presents a automatic monitoring and control system for greenhouse through Internet of Things(IOT). The system will monitor the various environmental conditions such as humidity, soil moisture, temperature, presence of fire. If any condition crosses certain limits, a message will be sent to the registered number through GSM module. The microcontroller will automatically turn on the motor if the soil moisture is less than a particular value. This project describes the design and implementation of a wireless sensor networks for greenhouse environment monitoring. In this paper we will present an overview of the IOT phenomena as well as its applications on greenhouse. IOT is a vision of a world in which most objects are connected transmitting updates about their performance thereby people use them to do things more Intelligently.

Automatic Detection of Potholes on Roads to AID Drivers

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

Ramya Gayathri.M | Sree Lakshmi . S , Krishna Kumar. H , Bharathi .S , Geetha .R

Abstract

One of the major problems in developing countries is mainte nance of r o a ds. Well maintaine d roads contribute a major portion to the country’s economy. Identification of pavement distress such as potholes not only helps drivers to avoid accidents or vehicle damages, but also helps authorities to maintain roads. This paper discusses previous pothole detection methods that have been developed and proposes a cost- effective solution to identify the potholes on roads and provide timely alerts to drivers to avoid accidents or vehicle damages. Camera captures the image of the road, Beagle bone is used to identify the potholes on the road, the geographical location coordinates of the potholes are identified using a global positioning system receiver respectively. The sensed data includes pothole width and geographic location, which is stored in the database (cloud).This serves as a valuable source of information to the soceity and vehicle drivers. An android application is used to alert drivers so that precautionary measures can be taken to evade accidents. Alerts are given in the form of a App notification and vibration.

Automatic Energy Meter Reading and Load Control System Using ZIGBEE

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

Dharani.S | Rajalakshmi S

Abstract

Now-a-days technology has developed to a large extend. At the same time the need for systems with automation and high security are preferred. An automatic energy meter reading (AMR) and load control system is presented in this paper. Conventional energy meter reading method for retrieving energy consumption and billing is a tedious process and cost of data logging systems is high. This requires huge labor and long working hour to achieve the reading process. Human billing are prone to reading errors and sometime in houses the electricity power meter is placed in location where it is not easily accessible, the billing will slowed down due bad weather conditions. AMR technology will automatically collects energy consumption data from energy meter and transfer that data to Electricity Board (EB) office by using wireless sensor networks (WSN).This system use LCD display to provide the meter reading, power cut, total load used and power disconnect information at customer side. This information is being sent and received by concerned energy Provider Company with the help of ZigBee network. It can also control loads with the help of relay circuit, when the demand for energy consumption goes high. This system not only reduces the labor cost but also increase energy meter reading accuracy and save huge amount of time.

Automatic Farm Protection and Irrigation?

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

MS Deepa R | Aditi Sharma , Archana.M , Archana.B.Poste , Arun Kumar.R

Abstract

In the field of agriculture, use of proper method of the protection and irrigation is important. The project makes the protection and irrigation automated. With the use of low cost sensors and the simple circuitry makes this project is a low cost product, which can be bought even by a poor farmer. This project is best suited for places where water is scares and has to be used in limited quantity and it is used for protection of farm from various attacks. The heart of the project is the microcontroller. Protection of the farm is done by using PIR sensor, Beeper, Electrical fence and Temperature sensor. For irrigation a wetness sensor is used which checks the moisture level of the soil.

Automatic Light Polarizer and Traffic Density Controller

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

Muhammed Irshad | Manoj V.P., Athira Krishna K.R.,Krishnapriya A.R., Hafeefa , Ms. Sangeetha Gopinath

Abstract

Now a day’s accident rates are increasing due to excess intensity of light from the opposite vehicle during late night rides. There is the need of reducing the level of accidents by reducing the intensity of light from the opposite vehicle. The first section of this project aims to develop an Automatic light polarizer that reduces the intensity of light from the opposite vehicle. This system works on the principle of operation of light polarizer’s. That is, when two polarizing plates are arranged parallel to each other it becomes transparent and when they are arranged perpendicular it becomes opaque to the light. The second section of this project is Traffic density controller. The traffic density control system aims at reducing the traffic in the main town area by making the vehicles to pass through the bypass junction whenever heavy traffic is detected in the town area. The system includes a transmitter and a receiver. The traffic density is sensed at the transmitter side. At the receiver section, a display is used that displays the information about the density and give instruction for the vehicles to take diversion. The main objective of this project is to minimize the accident levels and to ensure life security.

Automatic Monitoring and Controlling of Greenhouse System using Zigbee

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

G. Hima Bindu | K. Lokesh Krishna , K. Hemalatha

Abstract

The usage of Wireless Sensor Networks has become really important in recent years because of their ability to manage real-time data for various novel services. In this paper a ZigBee based automatically monitored and controlling system for greenhouse system is designed and implemented. This system utilizes an ARM7 processor, various sensors and ZigBee communication module. The entire system is powered by using a solar plate, placed outside the greenhouse system. Sensors gather various physical data from the field in real time and transmit it to the processor and to the end user via ZigBee communication module. Then necessary actions are initiated to perform action on behalf of people to reduce or eliminate the need of human labor. Necessary threshold values for each sensor measurement have been included in the program, so that the essential parameters necessary for plant growth can be accurately controlled. The proposed system has been tested for a week and reasonable results have been observed, which indicate that this system is very much useful for automatic greenhouse system monitoring and control.

Automatic Monitoring and Controlling of Greenhouse System using Zigbee

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 31st May 2017

G. Hima Bindu | K. Lokesh Krishna, K. Hema Latha

Abstract

The usage of Wireless Sensor Networks has become really important in recent years because of their ability to manage real-time data for various novel services. In this paper a ZigBee based automatically monitored and controlling system for greenhouse system is designed and implemented. This system utilizes an ARM7 processor, various sensors and ZigBee communication module. The entire system is powered by using a solar plate, placed outside the greenhouse system. Sensors gather various physical data from the field in real time and transmit it to the processor and to the end user via ZigBee communication module. Then necessary actions are initiated to perform action on behalf of people to reduce or eliminate the need of human labor. Necessary threshold values for each sensor measurement have been included in the program, so that the essential parameters necessary for plant growth can be accurately controlled. The proposed system has been tested for a week and reasonable results have been observed, which indicate that this system is very much useful for automatic greenhouse system monitoring and control

Automatic Railway Gate Control System

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

Sweety Sinha | Pankhuri Priyam , V.Vishnupriya, Showme Joselin

Abstract

In India casualties due to road as well as rail accidents predominates. When we look at a single road mishap ,only a few succumbs but ,in a single rail accident hundreds to thousand tombs are laid. The objective of this paper is to provide an automatic railway gate at the level crossing ,thus replacing the present technique of manual operation done by humans. Also this type of gates can be employed in an unmanned level crossing where the chances of accidents are higher and reliable operation is needed. Since, the operation is automated, mortal accidents can be prevented . This proposed system uses Adriano Uno microcontroller and IR sensors .

Automatic Recognition for Instances of Repetitions in Stuttered Speech using Sequence Training Algorithm

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

G. Manjula | Dr. M. Shiva Kumar

Abstract

Stuttering is a speech disorder in which normal flow of speech is messed out by occurrences of dysfluencies. There are high proportion of prolongations and repetitions in stuttered speech. Stuttered speech recognition technology is a great aid to admit the challenges and it is a prominent technology for Human-computer Interaction . Conventionally, stuttering assessment is done by counting number of dysfluent words as a proportion of total words in a passage. Stuttering assessment is also done by measuring the time of dysfluencies and comparing with the duration of the entire passage. However, it is time-consuming and it results in poor agreement with different individuals assessing the same speech data. Therefore, automatic stuttered speech recognition system is used to automate the dysfluency count and type of dysfluency classification, thus providing an objective and consistent assessment of stuttered speech. Such approach can support Speech Language Pathology (SLP) by doing tedious routine works and allowing more time for therapeutic session between SLP and stutterers. Instances of repetitions in stuttered speech are recognized by using back propogation based sequence training method. Artificial neural network is used to make intelligence through the learning process. In this work Multi-layer Feed forward Network and error back propagation learning algorithm is used to train the network. The combination of the artificial neural network and the back propagation algorithm is the sequence training technique. The experimental investigations reveal that the proposed method shows promising results in identifying the instances of repetitions in stuttered speech

Automatic Retinal Disorder Identification In Diabetic Retinopathy And Maculopathy Using Neural Network

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

Sandeep M S | Dr Chandrashekar M Patil

Abstract

Computational methodologies have become a significant part of the real time applications. One specification application which highly depends on the computing techniques is the medical led ophthalmology is a significant branch of biomedical led which requires computer aided automated techniques for pathology identification in human eyes. Eye is the most essential part of the entire creature in this world for vision. So the main intention of carrying this work is to reduce retinal disorders in younger generation. This work proceeds with detecting the disorder present in human eye based on Diabetic retinopathy and other parameter and develops an efficient algorithm to detect retinal disorder using MATLAB.

Automatic Toll Payment with Tracking of Theft Vehicles

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

Ajila Shirin A | Geethu M S , Jayitha O , Kabeer Nisam O , Muhammed Niyas

Abstract

Millions of drivers passing through Toll Gate Stations every day. The conventional way of collecting the toll from the vehicle drivers is to stop the car by the Toll Gate Stations and then pay the amount to the toll collector standing (or perhaps sitting!) by the side of the toll booth, after which the gate is opened either mechanically or electronically for the driver to get through the toll station. An efficient utilization of communication link between RF Modems over a wireless channel to facilitate vehicle monitoring, vehicle authentication and automated toll collection on the highways is proposed. The system is implemented to automatically collecting the toll and more convenient way of traffic management. The implementation is divided into the design of three modules, Vehicle Module, Tollgate station and Central PC End. The three modules communicate via RF Data modem connected to each module.

Automatic Vehicle Accident Detection & Messaging System Using GPS & GSM

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 31st May 2017

M.Susmitha | H.Keerthana, Y.Aishwarya, S.Parvezahmed,S. Narasimhulu

Abstract

Road accidents constitute the major part of the accident deaths all over the world. According to the Insurance Institute for Highway Safety (IIHS), new cars and its high-tech safety features have helped to lessen auto related deaths over the past 12 years. Though it credits technology for lessening auto accidents, yet the IIHS cannot help accusing bad driving behavior, like drunken driving, speeding and not using seatbelts for still causing major traffic deaths. Automatic vehicle accident detection and messaging system is an embedded intelligence implanted into the automobile. The purpose of the project is to find the vehicle where it is and locate the vehicle by means of sending a message using a system which is placed inside of vehicle system Most of the times we may not be able to find accident location because we don’t know where accident will happen. In order to give treatment for injured people, first we need to know where the accident happened through location tracking and sending a message to your related one or to the emergency services. So in this work we are using the basic microcontroller Arduino atmega328 for cost effective and also for easy understanding. Here we used assembly programming for better accuracy and GPS and GSM modules which helps to trace the vehicle anywhere on the globe. The exact location of the vehicle is sent to our remote devices (mobile phones) using GSM modem.

Automation of Library System Using Firebird V

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

Rohit Kelkar | Mohit Deshmukh , Nihar Pawde , Aditya Chauhan

Abstract

Though the ease of dealing with the library services has evolved in past few years, there are still some chances of finding human errors and locating books in library. The automation technology has developed rapidly in the last two decades and so as the ease of dealing with things in day to day life. In this paper we have tried to demonstrate a prototype of Autonomous Robot Fire Bird Vwhich will automate the book issuing system in library. The robot will take input from the user and serach for the desired book among library shelves. Upon getting the respective book, it will hand it over to the user thereby reducing human work.

Automation of Pizza Delivery System Using Firebird V

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

Sampada Patki | Shivam Deshpande , Shubham Mahajan , Shreyas Pande , Prof.S.V.Pattalwar

Abstract

Firebird V Pizza delivery system is robot automated pizza delivery system which enables to reduce the human errors and efforts and reduce the time complexities achieving the maximum possible accuracy at the same time. Firebird V with ATmega 2560 as a micro- processor is used as a hardware in achieving the objectives. We have used embedded C as a programming tool to help the robot perform the required task.

Automation of Remote Areas in Emergency Using Smart Card Or UID Cards

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 31st May 2017

Prof. Abhijit V. Warhade | Prof. Pranali K. Misal, Prof. Harsha Ramawat

Abstract

In the age of electronic system it is important to be able to control and acquire information from anywhere. Although many methods for automation system have been developed limitations in the range of device is main problem faced by all these devices. We developed an electronic system consist of four buttons namely police, fire, ambulance and NMC and a card reader. This system will be known as UID station which will be available at every square like ATM stations. Whenever anybody needs to contact any one of the above mentioned departments, he or she will go to the UID station nearer to him or her will swap the card in card reader then will press the required button. In this way the information will be sent to the particular station indicating the information of complainer and number of times the complain received. At every station there will be a button which will be pressed by the station in charge to show that the complain is received. And the complainer will get the confirmation. In this way information is sent at nearest station and problems are solved at fast rate.

Autonomous Robot for Agrilife

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

Prof P.G.Salunke | Radhika R. Deshmukh , Shital R. Chaudhari , Nayan P.Gharte , Poonam K. Desale

Abstract

This paper represents the system which perform high speed operation for an advanced agricultural process which consist cultivation based on the robotic platform. The robotic system is an electromechanical system while the artificial system which is driven by the DC motor which has four wheels. Depending upon the crop, considering particular rows & specific columns the watering operation is performed. The robot will sense the crop on both sides and after detection of crop it will shower them equally and at a proper distance. For which proximity sensor would be used. Assembly language is used for programming the microcontroller. Microcontroller is the heart of the system which is used to control and monitor it with help of the DC motor.

Bandwidth Enhancement of Multi band Microstrip Patch Antenna

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

Pavan Kumar Shandilya | Poonam Sinha

Abstract

Microstrip patch antenna is versatile field of antenna theory. A special antenna design that improves electrical performance and sustainability is described here. A single feed compact microstrip patch antenna with resonant frequency 4 GHz is proposed in this paper for two geometries. The proposed antenna design of different geometries (i.e. Rectangular and circular). The simulation results are : For rectangular geometry return loss of -38.86 dB ,VSWR = 1.023 at 5 GHz, and 28% impedance bandwidth at 4.5 – 6 GHz and for circular geometry return loss of -19.54 dB ,VSWR = 1.236 at 7 GHz and 25% impedance bandwidth at 6.2 - 8 GHz.

Bank Locker Security System Using Face Recognition

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

Roshiny Thomas | Sanjana Mathews, Sona Ojus, Sona Roselin Joseph, Therese Yamuna Mahesh

Abstract

This paper presents an advanced Bank locker security system based on Face Recognition. The locker holders will be able to access their locker after the system recognizes their face and exercises locker door control to allow entry. Detection is performed on the basis of skin color model. This will help reduce computational complexity. Viola Jones Algorithm is used for the same. An additional password protection is provided to enhance locker security. In case of a wrong password entry, the true locker holder will be notified with an alert call from the bank to the saved contact number in the system. The system is designed to capture a person’s real-time image, compare it with the stored images in the database and on detecting a match, will grant them access after password entry has been verified. Face recognition is performed using the Principal Component Analysis and a specific face can be recognized by comparing the principal components of the current face to those of the known individuals in a facial database built in advance. Illuminance variations are manipulated using the Discrete Cosine Transform Algorithm (DCT).

Bare PCB Defect Detection and Sorting Using Image Processing Techniques

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

Harshitha.R | Dr.Mahesh Rao

Abstract

The importance of the Printed Circuit Board inspection process has been magnified by requirements of the modern manufacturing environment where delivery of 100% defect free PCBs is the expectation. To meet such expectations, identifying various defects and their types becomes the first step. In this PCB inspection system the inspection algorithm mainly focuses on the defect detection using the natural images. Many practical issues like tilt of the images, bad light conditions, height at which images are taken etc. are to be considered to ensure good quality of the image which can then be used for defect detection. In this paper results of an attempt made at defect detection considering various factors using the image processing techniques with MATLAB is presented.

Basic March-C Algorithm based BIST for Embedded Memories in FPGA

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

Hema G D | DivyaPrabha, M.Z. Kurian

Abstract

Built in Self Test is one of the widely used methods for memory testing and it is the cost effective method. The fault in the memory is due to the complexity of the design rules. For complex applications, the memories without faults are necessary. There are many test algorithms for testing of memories, march based tests are the dominant testing algorithms due to simplicity and ability to test the faults. Because of this, march tests are implemented in most modern memories BIST. In this project, by considering optimized march-c algorithm to test the faults. This algorithm uses the concurrent technique. Because of concurrency the testing time is reduced compared to basic march c algorithm. This technique is applied to 256x8 memories it can be extended to any size. For the effectiveness of this algorithm, Built-in selftest technique is considered to test embedded memory of the FPGA.

BER Analysis of LDPC Coded System in AWGN Channel

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

Anumol P Joy | Gils Mary George,Greeshma Paul,Jittu Deena Glady

Abstract

Wireless communication is one of the fastest growing segments in communication industry. However, it is faced with the challenge of providing high- speed communications due to channel impediments which change over time in unpredictable ways. This paper deals with analysis of bit error rate using different modulation techniques and finding a better mechanism for reliable communication. The results obtained shows that the proposed technique is robust for signal transmission over mobile radio channels.

Biometric Attendance System

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 31st May 2017

Sneha J. Madake | Asmita D. Murke

Abstract

our project aims at designing student attendance system which could electively manage attendance of students at institutes. Attendance is marked after student identification. For student identification, a fingerprints recognition based identification system is used. Fingerprints are considered to be the best and fastest method for biometric identification. They are secure to use, unique for every person. Fingerprint recognition is still identifying individual from a set of enrolled fingerprints a time taking process. It was our responsibility to improve the fingerprints identification system for implementation on large databases e.g. of an institute. . This system is designed not only to reduce paper work and operational time but also to provide data security. This system is useful for many industries, organizations, security system, schools, colleges and banking sectors.

Biometric based Student attendance and time recording and Communication System

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

G.Sobha Rani | A. Venkateswara Rao

Abstract

The aim of this journal focuses at designing a student attendance and time which could effectively manage attendance and maintaining its records of students at educational institutes like Sri Sivani Institute of Technology. Attendance is notified after student identification. The major challenge task in educational institute is taking the attendance of student on daily basis and maintaining the records. For student identification, a fingerprint recognition based identification system is used. Fingerprints are considered to be the unique to each person and can be regarded as some sort of signature, certifying the person's identity. It’s permanent, good anti fake and secure to use. The major advantage of the Fingerprint recognition is that no two persons will have the same fingerprint in this world because of the peculiar genetic code of DNA in each person. The major objective of this paper is very simple to go for paperless attendance recording system to save the environment i.e go for green environment.

Biometrics Liveness Detection by Using Image Quality Assessment

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

Akash S. Dange | Mrs. M. R. Banwaskar

Abstract

A biometric system is a system that uses behavioral and physiological characteristic (e.g. iris, fingerprint, face, keystroke, signature, voice) of a person to identify that person. Now days, these biometric systems are vulnerable to adversary attacks. So, the development of novel and efficient security measure is required for the identification of fake trait. In this paper, we have presented a software based multi-biometric liveness detection system which is used to identify a live trait and intruder. The proposed system uses 30 image quality measures (IQMs). These quality features are extracted from single image which is acquired for verification purpose. The present system assures that the use of liveness detection enhances security of biometric system and provides better performance and also reduces complexity of the system. It has been observed that, the proposed method is very much effective in detecting liveness of iris, fingerprint and face compared with different progressive approaches.

BIOTRONICS

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

Santhosh.S | Karthikeyan.P, Siva Prakash.P, Malar Mannan.P, Pattu Raja, Venkatesan.M

Abstract

Robotic surgery is a new and exciting emerging technology that is taking the surgical profession by storm. Up to this point, however, the race to acquire and incorporate this emerging technology has primarily been driven by the market. In addition, surgical robots have become the entry fee for centers wanting to be known for excellence in minimally invasive surgery despite the current lack of practical applications. Therefore, robotic devices seem to have more of a marketing role than a practical role. Whether or not robotic devices will grow into a more practical role remains to be seen.

Blind Assistance Technology (B.A.T)

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

Abhilash Anandan | Ajith Mathew, Binu Mathew, Dennis John,Geet Rose Jose,Sreedev Krishnakumar

Abstract

A significant challenge that visually impaired people face is finding their belongings when they need them. Most of the object detection methods and algorithms used are too resource hungry to be used on low end hardware. Here, an innovative contour based tagging system has been developed by the authors. The information obtained from these tags is provided in a meaningful and non-intrusive manner. Bone conduction and sound spatialization is used for finding the exact location of objects. Speech recognition is used to accept voice commands from the user. Alongside this is an ultrasonic glove is used to detect obstacles in his path.The glove provides haptic feedback so the user can estimate the distance from the object intuitively.

Blind People Navigate Independently Using ZigBee Technology

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

Ms. Punam R. Patil | Bhushan V. Patil

Abstract

The blind person present in the bus station uses the ZigBee unit which is recognized by the ZigBee in the bus and it indicates that the blind person is present in the station. Due to this reason bus stops at the particular location. The desired bus that taken by the blind is notified to him with the help of speech recognition system HM2007. The blind gives the destination name using microphones and the voice recognition system recognizes it. The ZigBee transceiver in the bus sends the bus number to the transceiver with the blind and the bus number is announced to the blind through the headphones. The blind takes the bus parked in front of him and when the destination is reached it is announced with the help of voice synthesizer which produce the audio output.

Blood Pressure Measurement using Pulse Transit Time (PTT)

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

Dr.Archana.N.V | M.V.Mallikarjuna Reddy , Bhamini Bhat , Bhargavi.A.S , Bhavana.A.S

Abstract

The present blood pressure (BP) measurement devices are mostly built on the principle of auscultation, oscillometry or tonometry, all of which use an inflatable cuff. This paper aims to develop a cuff-less and continuous technique for measuring BP by pulse transit time (PTT). PTT will be measured as the time interval from the peak of R wave of Electrocardiogram (ECG) to a characteristic point at predetermined thresholds on the Photoplethysmogram (PPG) of the same cardiac cycle. Simultaneous recording of ECG and PPG shall be acquired from fingertips of the subject by stainless steel electrodes and a pair of light emitting diode and photo detector is used to estimate the PTT.A multiple regression model which could estimate unspecified people’s blood pressure (BP) conveniently & continuously is proposed.

Broadband Beamformer Combined With Dcd Weighting

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

Meenu Unnikrishnan | Jayaraj U Kidav

Abstract

Medical electronic technology has developed to a great extend in last few decades. Ultra sound imaging has been one of the greatest gift to medical science technology. In last few decades, ultrasound imaging technology has revolutionized the field of medical science. Adaptive beam-forming method has contributed much to the resolution and contrast of image. In this work, minimum variance (MV) beamforming for broadband data is proposed. We implement it in frequency domain and for each of these frequency sub band a set of complete, adapted apodization weight is provided. The simulation is done in FIELD ll environment. The simulation is done on point targets as well as on cyst phantoms. We aim at showing that the resolution and image clarity in the case of MV beam former is more when compared to the conventional DAS (delay and sum) beam former, even for fewer number of emission. Investigation on different methods for computation of inverse of the covariance matrix has been done. Also in this work we make use of DCD algorithm for computing the apodization weight and also we aim at showing that the DCD algorithm finds the best place compared to the other iterative algorithm for hardware implementation.

Burst Error Correction Using CRC

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

Remya Maria Mathew | Shilpa Cherian, Shyno Mary Alexander, Surumy Salim, Agi Joseph George

Abstract

Networks must be able to transfer data from one device to another with complete accuracy. Data can be corrupted during transmission. For secure communication, errors must be detected and corrected.CRC is an efficient method to detect and correct the errors. In this paper we have introduced a new approach for the burst error detection and correction using non-lookup table technique.

Byte Reconfigurable LDPC Codec Design for High Performance Error Correction

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

Anumol Thomas | Abhila R Krishna

Abstract

Error correction provides reliable information free from errors. BCH codes are widely used to perform error correction. However, in order to improve the reliability of error correction BCH codes have been replaced by Low Density Parity Check (LDPC) codes. LDPC codes are special class of error correcting codes widely used in communication and memory systems, due to its Shannon limit approaching performance and favorable structure. A sub class of LDPC codes, called Quasi-Cyclic (QC) LDPC codes is used as the error correcting code due to their structured Parity Check Matrices (PCM). These codes are flexible in the sense of supporting wide range of code lengths and rates. This work deals with an efficient byte reconfigurable, high throughput QC-LDPC codec design. The codec is able to support multiple bits with the constraint that size of the sub-parity matrix be multiples of eight. Error detection is done using modified majority logic decoding. Majority logic decoding is preferred as they can correct large number of errors having even as well as odd number of bit flips. This method reduces the decoding time by detecting errors up to four bit-flips in first three iterations of decoding. If no error is detected decoding terminates without completing rest of the iterations, thereby reducing the average decoding time.

Car Ignition Control By recognition Using SIFT Algorithm

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 31st May 2017

Dantal S.A | Chougule S.B.,Patil P. C.

Abstract

Car theft is big problem create in our country. To avoid this problem we are doing this project. In our project when person enter in car then capture the image and then compare those image with author person. If image match then car will start otherwise will not start. If other person tries to start the second time then an SMS will be sent author person mobile number. In our project use the sift algorithm, matlab, camera, DC motor, GSM, GPS, ARM7. For image matching and recognition, SIFT (scale invariant feature transform) features are extracted from a set of reference image and stored in a database. DC motor is used for the car engine. ARM7 can be used for GSM and GPS. Suppose car will be theft then will be using GPS find the car location. This project can be used for security purpose for schools, collages

Cascade PI Observer with Stabilization Lock

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

Rekha.C.G | Rajeev.S.K

Abstract

This paper presents a new practical control structure to achieve the stable condition of electric motor drives. PI observers are incorporated with predesigned PI controllers in order to enhance the robust performance of current and speed controllers. The proposed method uses an adaptive final control by taking the magnitude of processed difference in error to accure faster steady state.

CBIR Based Crack Detection System for Surface Traffic

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

Dr.Abraham Mathew | Dr.S. Saravanan, Dr. P. Mohanaiah

Abstract

Content-based image retrieval (CBIR), also known as Query by Image Content (QBIC) and Content-Based Visual Information Retrieval (CBVIR) is the application of computer vision techniques to the image retrieval problem, that is, the problem of searching for digital images in large databases. The term 'content' in this context might refer to colors, shapes, textures, or any other information that can be derived from the image itself. To retrieve images, users provide the retrieval system with example images. Search results then can be sorted based on their distance to the queried image. The traditional approach of analyzing the condition of a road pavement surface is by manual method. Manual method is time consuming, unreliable, subjective, costly and less efficient. Hence instead of relying the traditional approach, this research proposes a cost effective video based technique which can overcome the drawbacks of the conventional method. Image and video processing have been revolutionized the fields of medicine, space exploration, surveillance, geology, oceanography and it is also a well sought after area, for active research. People will retain only 20% of what they hear and about 30% of what they see, but they remember 50% of what they see and hear, also they will be able to retain as much as 80% of what they see, hear and do simultaneously. This is why multimedia is a powerful tool for various fields. In this research , various hybrid technique is applied to a captured input video to detect the cracks in a road surface.

CBIR for MRI Brain Tumor Images

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

Nischitha S | Dr. D.J.Ravi , Chethan K

Abstract

With world being digitized the CBIR has attracted many researchers. CBIR can make a major difference in the field of medicine. Several efforts is been made to minimize the human intervention in the system. The paper presents a CBIR system for the retrieval of the brain tumor images on the correct classification of the tumor by SVM classifier using the features extracted from the tumor images. The method is implemented using 200 MRI brain tumor images containing benign and malignant images

Cell Phone Based Fuel Consumption Tracking System

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

Shrinivas Joshi | Laxmikant Bordekar, Mrunal Sawant, Alister D’souza, Muriel Fernandes, Omkar Chari

Abstract

In today’s world, actual record of fuel consumption in vehicles is not maintained. To avoid this in this digitized world a system is created which will display the exact amount of fuel present in the fuel tank of a vehicle on to a cellphone. By keeping a track on the fuel consumption of the vehicle, the user will get an idea of the efficiency of the vehicle by incorporating embedded system into the existing system and creating a cellphone based application to display the data that has been transmitted wirelessly on to a cellphone.

Channel Estimation Algorithm For Multi Input Multi Output System To Reduce The Mean Shift Error And Improve The Desired Signal Quality

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

Ashish Agrawal | Neelesh Gupta, Chetan Barde

Abstract

The appropriate choice of the convergence factor in the Least Mean Square (LMS) and recursive least-squares (RLS) algorithm with the forgetting factor in the are key to assuring good performance for the adaptive filter. These choices are environment dependent and optimal ked values for these factors are difficult to determine especially in non stationary environments (High Noise). In this paper, 3 adaptive filtering algorithms with variable convergence factor are analyzed. We compare Least Mean Square algorithm (LMS), Recursive Means Square algorithm (RMS) and our proposed algorithm. The relations of these algorithms with the conventional LMS algorithm are first addressed. Their performance in stationary and non stationary environments is studied and then compare with one exiting and one proposed algorithm. Our Proposed algorithm reduces the noise effect and MSE on signal and gives better desired output as compare to existing algorithms. The paper concludes with experimental results analysis presented. Keywords: Static hand gesture, Fourier Descriptors, Support Vector Machine, Classification Accuracy.

Channel Estimation Analysis in MIMO OFDM System over Fading Channel

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

Arpitha K K | T. P. Surekha , Sharath Kumar A J

Abstract

Multiple Input Multiple Output-Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (MIMO-OFDM) systems play a vital role in the channel estimation. The wireless channel suffers from impairments like fading and interference. Technologies that achieved above requirements are Multiple Input Multiple Output (MIMO) and Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM). Channel impairments must be mitigated at the receiver by using channel estimation techniques. In this paper, BER performance improvements of MIMO-OFDM systems using different techniques such as Least Square (LS), Minimum mean square error (MMSE) are implemented and compared. Work is carried out in Mat lab under fading channels.

Channel Estimation Techniques in MIMO-OFDM

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

Salihath P | Nandakumar P

Abstract

This paper presents different channel estimation techniques in MIMO-OFDM. The combination of MIMO with OFDM increases the bit rate as well as capacity. This is a survey on channel estimation. A main challenge in MIMO-OFDM system is retrieval of channel state information (CSI) accurately and the synchronization between the transmitter and receiver. The CSI is retrieved with the help of different types of estimation algorithms such as training based, blind and semi blind channel estimation. This paper focuses the basic introduction of OFDM, MIMO-OFDM system and explain different channel estimation algorithms, optimization techniques and their utilization in MIMO systems for 4G wireless mobile communication systems.

Character Segmentation of Video Subtitles

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

Satish S Hiremath | K V Suresh

Abstract

Subtitle extraction from video sequences finds numerous useful applications in video classification. The complex background, illumination and font size of text present in the video makes subtitles extraction extremely challenging. Text in the video are classified as scene text and graphics text. In this paper, character segmentation of graphics text is implemented using morphological operations. Compared to word segmentation in video subtitles, single character segmentation can achieve higher precision because of the simple background. In this paper, the English text present in subtitle of the video is considered for processing. All the character segmentation steps are implemented in Microsoft Visual Studio 2010.

Character Segmentation of Video Subtitles

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

Satish S Hiremath | K V Suresh

Abstract

Subtitle extraction from video sequences finds numerous useful applications in video classification. The complex background, illumination and font size of text present in the video makes subtitles extraction extremely challenging. Text in the video are classified as scene text and graphics text. In this paper, character segmentation of graphics text is implemented using morphological operations. Compared to word segmentation in video subtitles, single character segmentation can achieve higher precision because of the simple background. In this paper, the English text present in subtitle of the video is considered for processing. All the character segmentation steps are implemented in Microsoft Visual Studio 2010.

Classification of Brain Tumors Using Fuzzy Neural Networks

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

Venkatnaresh M | Saikrishna J, Naga Naveen kumar

Abstract

The vital system of a human being is brain, such important part may be affected by unwanted tissue growth i.e tumor. Which is a critical problem in medical science for both diagnosis and treatment. In this paper we are concern about the diagnosis of tumor by analyzing MRI Images. The composite view of MRI images such as high intensive, divergent nature and Improper boundaries is difficult task for physician’s interpretation. So, an automated tumor segmentation methodology is demanded. To confer a solution to this issue, tumor segmentation method by K means clustering and Fuzzy C means clustering is implemented in this paper. After segmentation The features are extracted to classify as tumorous or non-tumorous. The feature extraction form MRI Image are implemented by using Intensity, Intensity Histogram and GLCM Methods. GLCM (Gray Level Co-Occurrence) feature extracting method yields better results when compared with other methods. The Accuracy of the segmented data is evaluated by confusion matrix that is created from the extracted features. All the implementation are performed against BRATS dataset.

Classification of Thyroid Nodules in Ultrasound Images Based On Texture Analysis

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

Shruthi C V | Nanda S

Abstract

Thyroid is a butterfly-shaped gland in the front of the neck. It is found below the voice box. Thyroid nodule is one of the indicative of thyroid cancer. Nodule can be due to the growth of thyroid cells or a cyst in the thyroid gland. It is very important to differentiate between the thyroid nodule as benign or malignant. This paper presents characterization and classification of thyroid nodule using Ultrasonography. It includes extraction of set of features by using Gray Level Co-occurrence Matrix GLCM, Wavelet Transform and Local Ternary Pattern (LTP). These features are reduced to set of selected features by using PCA algorithm. The selected features are given to SVM classifier for the classification of thyroid nodule as benign or malignant. The performance of classifiers is evaluated with the accuracy, sensitivity and specificity.

Colorectal Cancer Identification in CT Images based on Image Segmentation Techniques

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

Sobiya Ambreen | Narayana Swamy G

Abstract

Colorectal cancer is a lethal disorder and a cancer, third most commonly found that will lead to death in both men and women. Computed Tomography (CT) imaging technique has become a primary method for detection and staging in those patients who are suffering from Colorectal cancer. In this paper CT images of the patients suffering from Colorectal cancer, who are in the beginning stages are used to detect the area and mean values of tumor area using Image segmentation techniques. This paper describes algorithms for preprocessing, clustering and post processing of CT images. The paper uses image enhancement techniques, clustering using adaptive k-means algorithm and it is implemented using MATLAB.

Comparative Analysis of Segmentation Approaches for the Printed Documents

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

Pruthvi B K | Pooja A P

Abstract

Segmentation is a vital procedure of any Optical Character Recognition (OCR) framework. It isolates the image content documents first into lines then to words lastly to characters. The accuracy of OCR framework for the most part relies on upon the segmentation algorithm being utilized. Segmentation of printed content of some Indian dialects like Kannada, Telugu and Assamese is troublesome when contrasted and Latin based dialects as a result of its auxiliary many-sided quality and expanded character set. It is be partitioned as vowels and consonants which can likewise contain subscripts and conjunct consonants. In spite of a few effective works in OCR everywhere throughout the world, advancement of OCR instruments in Indian dialects is still a progressing process. Character segmentation assumes a vital part in character acknowledgment in light of the fact that erroneously divided characters are unrealistic to be perceived accurately. In this paper, a segmentation plan for dividing printed Kannada scripts into lines and words utilizing Run Length Smoothing Algorithm (RLSA) and Variational Bayes (VB) strategies are proposed and their comparative analysis is carried out.

Comparative Performance Analysis of CMOS Full Adders Using Various Pass Transistor Logic

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

Bore Gowda H B | 

Abstract

with the advancement in semiconductor technology, chip density and power consumption in VLSI circuits has become a major problem consideration. More area and power consumption increases the packaging cost and reduces the battery life of the devices. Hence it’s necessary to design any VLSI circuits with less chip area and power consumption. In this paper an efficient full adder circuit is designed with various pass transistor logic families by using microwind simulating tool with CMOS 0.12?m processing technology. Microwind is truly integrated EDA software encompassing IC designs from concept to completion, enabling chip designers to design beyond their imagination. Microwind integrates traditionally separated front end and back end chip design into an integrated flow, accelerated the design cycle and reduced design complexity.

Comparision of QoS Parameters for DSDV and DSR in Hybrid Scenario

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

T.K.Kalaiarasan | A.SureshBabu, A.Shailaja

Abstract

Mobile Multi-hop Ad Hoc Networks are collections of mobile nodes connected together over a wireless medium. These nodes can freely and dynamically self-organize into arbitrary and temporary, “ad-hoc” network topologies, allowing people and devices to seamlessly internetwork in areas with no pre-existing communication infrastructure. It is, however, possible to combine an infrastructure-less ad hoc network with a fixed one to form a hybrid network which can cover a wider area with the advantage of having less fixed infrastructure. Due to the hybrid nature of these networks, routing is considered a challenging task. Several routing protocols have been proposed and tested under various traffic conditions. However, the simulations of such routing protocols usually do not consider the hybrid network scenario. In this work we have carried out a systematic simulation based performance analysis of the two prominent routing protocols: Destination Sequenced Distance Vector Routing (DSDV) and Dynamic Source Routing (DSR) protocols in the hybrid networking environment using NS2. The performance of the DSDV is better than the performance of the DSR routing protocol. To compare the performance of DSDV and DSR routing protocol, the simulation results were analyzed by graphical manner and trace file based on Quality of Service (QOS) metrics: such as , packet delivery fraction, average end-to-end delay and normalized routing load under varying pause time with different number of sources.

Comparison of Filters for Despeckle With Improved Speckle Reducing Antiscopic Diffusion Filter for Ultrasound Images

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

Stafford Michahial | Dr Bindu A Thomas

Abstract

Due to the presence of speckle noise leads to the poor quality of the US images. The presence of speckle noise makes it difficult to understand the information contain in the US image hence filtering of US image is required to improve the image quality. The paper gives us the comparison of different filters techniques (linear filter (lf),Anisotropic Diffusion(AD),Nonlinear filter kuwahara(Kuwa) ,median filter(med),hybrid median filter(hmed) , Lee Filter &kaun, frost filter, Wavelet based speckle reduction methods, speckle reducing anisotropic diffusion filter (srad),improved srad(Israd). 65 texture feature, image intensity normalization, 15 image quantitative metrics and image quality evaluation. It is observed that the Israd, improves the image quality of liver, kidney, uterus, live mass ultrasound images.

Comparison Of Modelling Results On Si0.74ge0.26 And Ge Using High–K Dielectrics

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

VinayBudhraja | Himanshu Gautam, Nitten

Abstract

This work focusses on the use of Silicon Germanium (Si0.74Ge0.26) alloy and Germanium (Ge) as substrate materials for the simulation of MOS devices having a high–K material. HfO2 was used as the dielectric material and Al as a metal gate. Two MOS devices on Si0.74Ge0.26 and Ge substrates have been simulated and their capacitance-voltage analysis has been done at different frequencies and compared. A comparative analysis of electrical characteristics of n-type MOSFETs made from Si0.74Ge0.26 and Ge substrate have been done in which channel length was varied to see the short-channel effects.

Comparison of Rectenna Array Configurations for Enhanced Efficiency

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

Mathew M. John | Pooja S, Ritchie Johnson, Sneha Thankom Thomas, Prof.Jaison C.S, Prof. G. Senthil Kumar

Abstract

A rectenna is a rectifying antenna, that is used for converting microwave energy to DC. This can be used for the transmission of electric power to a long distance, without physical cabling, i.e., by using microwaves [2]. DC power generated by multiple rectennas can be used for reliable device operation. Two recent methods adopted for rectenna array configuration are RF Combiner and DC Combiner5. In this proposal we are planning to make more detailed investigations on some novel methods for improving the efficiency of rectenna in various coupling combinations so that we can attain a more reliable RF power harvesting method.

Complexity Reduction of MIMO Decoder

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

Ch. Ashok Kumar Reddy | M. Anand

Abstract

The data rates and the supported range in communication systems, can be increased using MIMO (Multiple input and multiple output) technique. MIMO technique uses multiple antennas at both transmitter and receiver. MIMO systems uses Orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) technique for multicarrier modulation. QR decomposition (QRD) is the first step in the decoding of the MIMO receiver. Gram Schmidt, Householder and Givens described QR decomposition method which are computationally intensive as these involve division operation for normalization. The computation complexity of these methods for MIMO-OFDM systems is difficult to handle because QR decomposition is performed for each subcarrier. Sphere decoder is an efficient decoder for MIMO systems. In this paper we use Modified Householder’s method for reducing the computation complexity without affecting the system packet error rate (PER) performance. The simulation process is carried out in all different models of 802.11 TGAC channels.

Computer Vision Based Object Sorting & Fault Detection Using Ann

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

Amol Dhenge | Pallavi Keskar, Anupriya Kuhikar,Pallavi Kawadkar, Trupti Chaudhary,Prateeksha Palasmode, Mohini Neware

Abstract

This Paper focuses on the recognition system of bolt and nut in real time for application in various industries. The objective of this study is to develop the image processing algorithm using back propagation to get the normalized cropping images which would be suitable inputs processing and detection. Testing is done using a real-time visual recognition system. The MATLAB software version 11 is used to integrate all algorithms. The implementation so consists of a prototype that emulates the sorting of nuts and bolts. Consisting of a control system this hardware provides data through the microcontroller based system of the MATLAB code which then activates the camera for image processing. It also activates the motor differently to sort the different parts. The results how’s that the system can detect moving object accurately on the belt conveyor and sort them accordingly as required for the application.

Contrast Enhancement based on Gaussian Mixture Modeling with Noise Adaptive Fuzzy Switching Median Filter

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

Jayasilpa S | Kavitha N Nair

Abstract

The proposed algorithm automatically enhances the contrast in an input image. The algorithm uses the Gaussian mixture model to model the image gray-level distribution. In a mixture distribution, its density function is just a convex combination (a linear combination in which all coefficients or weights sum to one) of other probability density functions. The Gaussian components with small variances are weighted with smaller values than the Gaussian components with larger variances By enhancing the contrast of an image in such a way might amplify noise if present and produce worse results. A noise adaptive fuzzy switching median filter is used for salt-and-pepper noise removal. It is able to suppress high-density of salt-and-pepper noise, at the same time preserving fine image details, edges and textures.

Contrast Enhancement of Satellite Images Using Dual- Tree Complex Wavelet Transforms Technique

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

M.Hemalatha | Dr.S.Varadarajan , A.V.Kiranmai

Abstract

this paper forwards enhancement of satellite picture using Discrete Time Complex Wavelet Transform Technique. The discrete-wavelet-transform-based (DWT) contrast image scheme generates artifacts (due to a DWT shift-variant property). A wavelet-domain approach based on dual-tree complex wavelet transform (DT-CWT) proposed for contrast of the satellite images. A satellite input image is decomposed by DT-CWT (which is nearly shift invariant) to obtain high-frequency subbands. The highfrequency subbands and the low-resolution (LR) input I’m-age are interpolated using the Lanczos interpolator. The highfrequency subbands are passed through an NLM filter to cater for the artifacts generated by DT-CWT (despite of its nearly shift invariance). The filtered high-frequency subbands and the LR input image are combined using inverse DT-CWT to obtain a resolution-enhanced image. The contrast enhancement method uses the analysis of excellent glaze levels and appropriate flexible radiant transfiguration which performs DWT in reducing the rate of image which is given as input, into a group of band bounded constituents by a sampling factor, called High-High, High-Low, Low-High, and Low-Low sub bands. The brightness propaganda is contained in the Low-Low sub-band where the input image with the superlative glaze level is computed. According to the superlative glaze level the Low-Low sub band is disintegrated into trilayer. The suitable flexible radiant transfiguration is processed in the disintegrated trilayer of the sub-band using knee shift function, dominant glaze level and gamma adjustment function. For preserving the texture of contrast suitable enhanced flexible radiant transfiguration is processed. The final enhanced image is acquired by means of the use of inverse DWT. In this method, the distant sensed image is bifurcated into petite blocks, and then each block is improvised using advanced block based discrete wavelet transform. The enhanced blocks are then fused together and by using inverse DWT, the emanated image is obtained. The glaze and radiance of the satellite image will be better when compared with the image used in the Existing systems. Haar Wavelet Transform (HWT) is used for disintegrating the pictures into sub-bands. Trilayer is formed using preeminent glaze level analysis. From the preeminent glaze, each disintegrated layer there is a generation of suitable radiance transfer function.

Controller Tuning for Integrator Plus Delay Processes

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 20th June 2017

B. S. Patil | Dr. L. M. Waghmare,Dr. M. D. Uplane

Abstract

design method for PID controllers base on internal model control (IMC) principles, direct synthesis method (DS), stability analysis (SA) system for pure integrating process with time delay is proposed. Analytical expressions for PID controllers are derived for several common types of process models, including first order and second-order plus time delay models and an integrator plus time delay model. Here in this paper, a simple manager design rule and tuning procedure for unstable processes with delay time is discuss. Simulation examples are included to show the effectiveness of the proposed method. The SIMC rules are logically resulting, and from a first or second order process we can simply find the pi and PID controller setting, respectively. Even though the rule was originally derived largely with ease in mind, recent studies have establish that the resulting setting are very close to optimal (Grimholt and Skogestad, 2012, 2013). For the twice integrating process, the SIMC rule gives the pid setting for the serial form.

Conversion of Speech to Text for Hearing Impaired People

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

Avi Kumar | Ashwini B N,Lalitha K

Abstract

Speech to text conversion is a useful tool for integrating people with hearing Impairments in oral communication settings, e.g. counselling interviews or conferences. However, the transfer of speech into written language requires special techniques as it must be very fast and almost 100% correct to be understandable. The main objective of our project is to design a conversion of speech to text for hearing impaired people. The entire system is controlled by the 8 Bit microcontroller and the speech recognition IC (HM2007) which is capable of storing speech signals, and generating good recognition performance on highly disordered speech. The speech IC consists of non-volatile memory back-up with 3V battery onboard, which will store the speech recognition data in RAM after the power off condition. Whenever a speech is given as input to the Microphone the received speech is compared against the stored data. The keypad and digital display are used to communicate and program the HM2007 chip. The keypad is made up of 12 normally open momentary contact switches. On successful matching of the speech the HM2007 IC will send the corresponding codes to the controller. From the microcontroller the data will be sent to LCD display and to the mobile through the GSM.

Convertion of Available Sound Energy to Usable Electric Power

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

Sarvasva G.R | Vinutha N , Vanitha K.S

Abstract

We all know everywhere there is huge scarcity of energy and for running most of our appliances and to carry out daily work we need electricity. It’s really very difficult to imagine our life without electricity, our life would really stop so there is high need, to produce electricity at faster rate and find some other feasible method to produce electric energy. On the other hand we see that in this modern world there is lot of noise pollution in roads, airports, industries. Just think if we would be able to convert this noise pollution to electric energy....??? Yes this could be made possible let’s see how. There will be many ways of converting the sound energy to electric energy but mainly we are concentrating on piezoelectric transducers in this paper. A small 9 volt DC battery was found to be fully recharged within half an hour from fully discharged stage using medium sound source through the proposed conversion circuit. In this way, random sound energy from numerous sources around us can be stored as electric energy which can be used later to deliver electric power to drive compatible small loads. The proposed idea can give a new source of green energy and can contribute in global search for renewable energy.

Convolution and Stochastic Pooling Algorithm

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

Monish Katari | Reethu Gali Ramesh, MSA Srivatsava

Abstract

This paper presents an efficient hardware implementation of Convolution and Stochastic pooling algorithm. The main objective of the design is to minimize the area and power, while maximizing the throughput. Performing Convolution and Stochastic pooling in CPU consumes high amount of power and low performance relative to hardware accelerator implementation. In this paper, we propose a hardware accelerator to minimize area, power and maximize throughput. We also propose architectural techniques like Interleaving and folding to improve power and area. The optimized approach which is mapped to a 28nm ASIC target demonstrated significant power and area reduction when compared to traditional model. On the other hand, the optimized approach mapped to a FPGA target has increased source utilization when compared to conventional model.

Cooperative Message Authentication Used In L-P2dsa

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

Riya Baby | 

Abstract

VANET is a special kind of MANET. It will provide communication between vehicles and fixed units and also among the vehicles . VANETs are mainly used for Traffic optimization and improving safety. Due to open nature of wireless medium, a lot of attacks are possible in vanet. In this paper we propose a method to reduce the overload of DMV and vehicle. To improve the computation overhead in DMV, we use 2 hash values and location of vehicle. In the case of vehicle we use co-operative message authentication method.

Correlation Based Continuity Metric for Concatenative Speech Synthesis

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

Naina Teertha | Dr.R.Kumaraswamy , Sai Sirisha Rallabandi, Sai Krishna Rallabandi , Venkatesh Potluri , Suryakanth V Gangashetty

Abstract

In this paper, we investigate the use of a new continuity measure based on maximum signal correlation for optimal selection of units in concatenative text-to-speech (TTS) synthesis framework. We explore two formulations for calculating the signal correlation: cross correlation (CC) based and average magnitude difference function (AMDF) based. We first perform an initial experiment to understand the significance of the approach and then build 5 experimental systems which are available a web demo. Evaluations on 30 sentences each for Telugu and Hindi by native users of the languages show that the proposed continuity measure results in more natural sounding synthesis.

Dark Image Enhancement Through Channel Division Using Super Resolution Technique

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

Volga Mohan | Kavitha N Nair

Abstract

Image enhancement is the one of the challenging issues in image processing. Since Image clarity is very easily affected by lighting, weather, or equipment that has been used to capture image .These conditions lead to image may suffer from loss of information. Principle objective of image enhancement is to process an image so that result is more suitable than original image for specific application. The Content aware algorithm enhances the image by producing ad hoc transformation for each image by selecting particular content of an image which has to be processed. In order to produce better result of an image content aware method with super resolution technique is introduced in this paper. To implement the proposed algorithm, first transform the image into hue–saturation–value color space. Then proposed algorithm applied to image intensity. After the enhancement, use hue (H) and saturation (S) components from the original image and merge with the enhanced intensities to create the final image. These procedures maintain the color (HS) of the image while improving its intensity level (V).Then super resolution technique is applied to the image. It creates an improved resolution image from all low feature values.

Data Gathering in IoT: COOJA Simulation

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

Anusha A M | A. V. Sutagundar

Abstract

Anything which is IP addressable can be included in the new emerging field, Internet of Things (IoT). IPV6 format is used to address the physical objects to Internet. In IoT battery of every sensor node is assigned with IP address. The proposed work uses the cluster concept for data gathering in IoT. Every sensor node sends their data to cluster head and intern cluster head sends their data to sink node. The gathered data is sent to connected client machine through gateway. sensors decides the network lifetime. Data gathering is one of the main challenges in IoT for increasing the network life time. The proposed work is simulated using Cooja simulator. Cooja simulator is one of the tools of Conitiki OS. Some of the performance parameters that are considered are data gathering time, packet delivery ratio and energy consumption.

Data Optimization Technique for NOx Reduction

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

Divyata Khachane | Prof. Ashok Suryawanshi, Durvesh Pathak

Abstract

Exhaust system is one of the important part of engine. Many gases are exhausted from an engine, one of them is NOX which has adverse effects on environment and human health. To reduce these effects government has developed emission regulatory standards (BSIII/ BSIV). According to regulatory standards, exhaust gases must be emitted within a specified range, to fulfil this condition some tools are available in automobile industry for checking and regulating exhaust gas. These tools are generally excel based and lots of manual work has to be done till final result. As well it requires more time to complete whole process. To overcome these disadvantages we have proposed MATLAB tool. Proposed MATLAB tool will filter test cell data and calculate the regression coefficients. These coefficients will be given to Simulink model and response will be observed.

Data Storage Security and Access Privilege Control in Cloud using Server Aided Attribute Based Encryption

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

Ashish S | Sarala S M

Abstract

Cloud computing technique is a new and precise data storage and access technology, in which the dynamic sharing of resources of the computer takes place dynamically via the Internet. This technology has gathered a remarkable amount of attention from educational and research institutes and industry. This computing virtualization enables flexible and low cost computing thus enabling it to be outsourced to the cloud servers thus making privacy a least concern. Although various schemes have been put forward to overcome the issue of privacy and safeguarding its information, it is quite understandable that the users of cloud would want to keep their identities private, and to review privilege control while they still get their privacy and so accessing this information should not cause reentrancy and an overhead during the communication. This paper, discusses a scheme for control on a semi-anonymous privilege scheme which ensures to address both data privacy and privacy of the user identity. Server Aided Cipher-text policy works by the principle that decentralizing the control authority will lessen the probability of the identity leakage and in this way it helps to achieve semi -anonymity. The data is encrypted in two hierarchies one credential uses AES encryption which occurs at the local slot and one in the medium with server host, SA-CPABE technique is used to accomplish this task.

DAWN Algorithm for Cellular Data Usage on the Quality of Service (QOS) Requirements of the Applications

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

V.Rajanaik | B. Neelima , A.Rajani

Abstract

The Wi-Fi offloading with delay-tolerant applications under usage based pricing is the major problem in cellular data usage. We aim to achieve a good tradeoff between the user’s payment and its QoS characterized by the file transfer deadline. A general Delay-Aware Wi-Fi Offloading and Network Selection (DAWN) algorithm for a general single-user decision scenario was used. We then analytically establish the sufficient conditions, under which the optimal policy exhibits a threshold structure in terms of both the time and file size. As a result, we propose a monotone DAWN algorithm that approximately solves the general offloading problem, and has a much lower computational complexity comparing to the optimal algorithm. Simulation results show that both the general and monotone DAWN schemes achieve a high probability of completing file transfer under a stringent deadline, and require the lowest payment under a non stringent deadline as compared with three heuristic schemes.

DC Motor Movement Controlled by Gesture Orientation Using ARDUINO

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

Arijita Das | Bansari Deb Majumder, Dibyendu Sur, Susmita Das, Kaushik Pal, Mugdha Mondal

Abstract

The paper aims to create a ‘DC Motor controlled by gesture orientation’. The gesture orientation of a monochromatic red color is captured as a video input. The gesture orientation controls the direction of the movement of the motor. The movement of the motor is governed by the position of the video captured of the monochromatic red object. If the red object is moved towards left then the motor rotates anti clockwise and if the object is detected towards right then the motor moves clockwise. The relative movement of the object is detected on the basis of the co-ordinate change. The controlling of the motor is done by ARDUINO programming. The logic of the work is set through the MATLAB domain.

De-Noising Of Degraded Document Image Using Adaptive and OTSU Thresholding Techniques

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

Chittari Padma | Pullarevu Sreenivasulu

Abstract

Segmentation of text from badly degraded document an image is a very challenging task due to the high inters/intra variation between the document background and the foreground text of different document images. In this project, we propose a novel document image binarization technique that addresses these issues by using adaptive image contrast. The adaptive image contrast is a combination of the local image contrast and the local image gradient that is tolerant to text and background variation caused by different types of document degradations. In the proposed technique, an adaptive contrast map is first constructed for an input degraded document image. The contrast map is then binarized and combined with Canny’s edge map to identify the text stroke edge pixels. The document text is further segmented by a local threshold that is estimated based on the intensities of detected text stroke edge pixels within a local window. The proposed method is simple, robust, and involves minimum parameter tuning

De-Noising of Medical Image Using Wavelets

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

Aravindan.T.E | Dr.Seshasayanan R

Abstract

De-noising of images is an important task in image processing and analysis, and it plays a significant role in modern applications in different fields, including medical imaging and pre-processing for computer vision. This paper analysis various medical image using different wavelet transform. Particularly the discrete wavelet transform (DWT) is best suited for De-noising of medical image. To apply two dimensional DWT is applied to the image and the four different sub filters section are obtained. Each section has some threshold value based on the noise effect. The inverse DWT (IDWT) is applied and de-noise effect estimated. To apply various soft threshold techniques like, Visu Shrink, Sureshrink, Bayes Shrink, etc., are applied and results rare compared with state of art techniques. The physical parameters like, RMSE, MSE, PSNR, SNR etc.are compared.

De-Noising, Enhancement and Developmental Analysis for Fetal Images

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

Shamya Shetty | Dr. Jose Alex Mathew

Abstract

Medical Image Processing has broadened in recent years. To monitor the behavior of the fetal ultrasound images are considered. These images provide the view of internal organs of the body. But ultrasound images have the drawback of having speckle noise. The quality of the image gets reduced due to the presence of speckle noise. Hence, it is necessary to reduce the speckle noise and to enhance the quality of the image for further images analysis. The detection of any movement as well as the development of the fetus can be analyzed after the preprocessing steps. The system helps the pregnant women to take care of her health stage by stage.

Decentralized Proportional-Plus-Integral Design Method for Two Area Interconnected Power Systems

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

Ms.Rekha Sonune | Ms Ujwala Tade, Ms Nutan attarde, Ms Neelam Pinjari

Abstract

A simple and computationally efficient de-centralized control design method is given for load frequency control in the interconnected power systems. This de-centralized scheme comprises of a reduced order observer and a proportional plus integral controller in each area of the power system. It ensures zero static change in area-frequency and tie-line power. Some of the features of the de-centralized scheme are de-centralized implementation of a wide choice of feedback controllers, which have been designed off-line to meet the requirement of the global system and there is no need for inter-area transfer of data, for the purpose of load frequency control. The de-centralized controls are tested on computer-base simulation of two area interconnected power system. The simulated responses show that the de-centralized control scheme gives the satisfactory performance similar to centralized control scheme.

Denoising of Multiscale Images Blind Denoising Algorithm

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 31st May 2017

C.Vijaya Lakshmi | V.Komala Devi

Abstract

In this research work, we are proposing multiscale denoising algorithm to the broad noise mode. This denoising algorithm is used real JPEG images and on scans of old pictures of unknown formation unknown formation model. The consistency of this algorithm is also verified on simulated distorted images. In the previous techniques of image denoising of fixed noise model used mainly Gaussian or Poissonain noise. In this denoising technique, the noise model is imperfectly known or unknown. The result of a complex image processing chain effectuated by uncontrolled hardware and software. The PSNR, RMSE and lapse time is calculated noise estimation from a single image is a noise model. The multiscale blind denoising technique is giving better performance than existing techniques and also verified on simulated distorted images.

Deriving ECG Signal from PPG Signal

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

Madhura V. Gupte | Prof. S. A. More

Abstract

Due to high cost of ECG signal, it is difficult to measure it regularly. In this paper we suggested a low cost, non invasive and easy methodology to analyze human cardio vascular system by using parameters of PPG as this signal is highly correlated with ECG. This paper deals with extraction of time domain features of PPG signal, correlate it with ECG and select most relevant features. The comparison of selected features and overall features has been done by Support Vector Machine (SVM) and Artificial Neural Network (ANN) and Linear Regression which is use as a predictors.

Design & Development of Compact Met Material Based Antenna for WLAN/WiMAX Applications

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

Mohasin R. Sheikh | Dr. Pankaj S. Ashtankar

Abstract

This project presents a compact triple band antenna for the frequency bands 5.5/6.7/9 GHz, These bands are assigned to the IEEE 802.11g and IEEE 802.16e standards. The resonant modes for WLAN, WiMAX bands are achieved by employing a rectangular slot and a met material inspired split ring structure. Also Ultra-wideband (UWB) systems have attracted significant research attention since the Federal Communication Commission (FCC) released a band of 7.5 GHz (3.1-10.6 GHz) as UWB in 2002. The proposed antenna with a compact size of 35 mm × 35 mm is fabricated and tested. The triple band antenna yields a ?10 dB impedance bandwidth of about 18.6%, 4.3% and 40.3% in 5.5, 6.7 and 9 GHz bands respectively. Stable radiation patterns with low cross polarization and high average antenna gain of 6 dBi are observed for the operating bands.

Design a Dipole Antenna for the Time Varying Electric Field Frequency Measurement for the Future Space Mission

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

Krishna Thulasi | Dr.Vipin.K.Yadav , Jismi K

Abstract

The solar system and bulk of universe comprises matter which is strongly in the form of plasma. Any plasma having finite plasma density has a natural frequency of oscillations and the free energy sources present in that plasma may provide sufficient energy to the natural frequencies to propagate are termed as plasma waves. Plasma wave exist in the frequency range between Hertz to Kilohertz. Strong interactions are created between the charged particles in plasma results instabilities. To measure plasma parameters efficient antenna is required with less mass and small power consumption. The plasma wave instrument uses an electric dipole antenna to detect electric fields, and two search coil magnetic antennas to detect magnetic fields. Dipole antenna is preferred to operate in smaller frequency range to measure the local plasma wave parameters for the future space mission. Design the dipole antenna using HFSS software help to observe the frequency variation of plasma wave. The advantages of dipole antenna is that, it can be folded in to smaller dimension, shows Omni directional behavior, provide good directivity ,gain and radiation characteristics can be utilized in PWD instrument.

Design and Analysis of Airborne Thermo Graphic Cameras for Night Vision in Maritime Surveillance Applications

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

Sonika Obheroi | Vetrivelan P

Abstract

In this paper, we endeavour to discuss and analyse the operation of a thermographic camera embedded in an airborne vessel (surveillance aircraft) for maritime surveillance applications subject to properties such as response time, range, imaging time, suitability of material for infrared detection, resolution and contrast enhancement, operating temperatures, etc for given wavelengths, to work towards an optimal design.

Design and Analysis of Fuzzy Based Wormhole Detection in MANET

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 20th June 2017

Abhijit Ghanshyam Raut | D. Vydeki

Abstract

Currently, wireless communication is becoming a major part of our day today life. Due to immense growth in the turf of wireless communications, different types of wireless networks such as Vehicular Ad-Hoc Networks (VANET), Mobile Ad-Hoc Networks (MANET) play a key role in communication systems. MANETs are the ones having free mobile nodes which can traverse throughout the system and can be a host, furthermore a router for transmitting /forwarding data packets to the distant node. As this system lacks centralized coordinator and is a self-organized, self-healing network without infrastructure, their adaptive nature and frequently changing topology it is more likely endangered to different security attacks such as black hole attack, wormhole attack etc. This paper emphases on providing a solution for secure transmission through the network. In this paper, we aimed at detecting wormhole attack in MANET using Fuzzy Inference System. As it is one of the dangerous active attacks on the network layer of MANET, in which data packet can get lost or replayed within the system by the wormhole nodes which can be more than a pair and are situated at different points within the system. To detect the wormhole nodes in the system, we have measured parameters such as No. of dropped packets, Reply packets, Forwarded packets to collect the data for analysis. The key objective of our paper is to detect the presence of wormhole attack in MANET. This is done by proposing soft computing algorithms such as Fuzzy Inference System (FIS). The suggested algorithm identifies wormhole nodes based on the above parameters.

Design and Analysis of Mems Cantilever Switch

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

Prof. Vijay Matta | Ms. Sayali Dhongade,Mr. Mayur Agrawal,Ms. Sumita Jana,Mr. Amol Bhongade

Abstract

The intent of this paper is to discuss about the MEMS switch ,its design in an optimized way .Various aspect in which MEMS switches are advantageous over semiconductor switches are also compared in it. Mechanical coaxial and waveguide switches have low insertion loss, large off-state isolation and high power handling capabilities, but they are bulky, heavy and slow. The semiconductor switches have faster switching speed and are small in size and weight but have high insertion loss hence more static power consumption and less isolation and power handling capacity; Whereas MEMS switches have the advantages of both , the Mechanical and Semiconductor Switches .They provide higher RF performance , low static power consumption but with smaller size ,weight and is available at low cost .The MEMS switches are designed and its result are obtained by using Coventorware and this software is explained in detail in pervious paper.

Design and Analysis of Pair of Pyramidal Horn Antenna Using HFSS

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

R. Pallavi | M. Sukanya , Umesh Kumar

Abstract

This paper discusses the design, simulation of medium gain, lightweight, wide beamwidth pyramidal horn antenna pair for terrestrial microwave line of sight communication in mobile & wireless applications. This antenna has been designed for Kband frequencies widely used in terrestrial microwave communication for mobile & wireless applications. Simulated horn antenna pair shows wideband characteristics of VSWR < 2 for bandwidth range of minimum 8GHz. Antenna is linearly polarized and show wide beam characteristics in azimuth plane with minimum gain of 16.9dB. E-field & H-field analysis for K-band Applications for pyramidal horn feeds have also been discussed. Absolute gain measurement techniques have been employed for the measurement of antenna gain. Design meets the ruggedness, strength & reliability, durability, weight, corrosion resistance, temperature variation requirements of terrestrial/ line of sight (LOS) communication. Design, Simulation & Optimization for K-band pyramidal horn antenna pair has been done on ANSOFT HFSS 13.

Design and Control of Flexible Pneumatic Glass Climbing Robot

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

Rasika Tade | Ketki Gowardipe, Yashika Chavan,Mr. Atul Sharma

Abstract

The main motive of glass climbing robot is to climb on vertical glass surface. For this purpose efficient attachment and detachment is an important aspect. The purpose of designing this type of robot is that they can take place of humans to carry out hazardous work such as cleaning of glass surfaces, fire rescue, inspection of high rise buildings, etc. this robot can also be used for security purpose and also to calculate the height of building. The robot can move in all the four directions up, down, right, left. This project is aimed at developing robot which can move on vertical glass surface when suction pump is on and even on ground surface when suction pump is off. One of the most challenging task is to make the robot’s weight as light as possible along with proper adhesion and locomotion system with low cost.

Design And Development Of ARINC 717 Protocol

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

Smitha M R | Aparna

Abstract

ARINC has provided leadership in developing specifications and standards for avionics equipment, and one of the standard protocol used for communication bus is ARINC 717. This communication occurs between Digital flight data acquisition unit (DFDAU) and Digital flight data recorder (DFDR). The basic unit of information defined by the ARINC 717 protocol is a 12- bit word. The Programmable bit rates of ARINC 717 are 384, 768, 1536, 3072, 6144, 12288, 24576, 49152 and 98304 bits/sec (32, 64, 128, 256, 512, 1024, 2048, 4096 and 8192 words/sec). The data is serially transmitted in ARINC 717. The top level architecture of the ARINC 717 protocol has 4 modules ARINC 717 transmitter, ARINC 717 receiver, Transmit and Receive 32*12-bit FIFO to store and fetch the data, and ARINC 717 clock generation. In this proposed work a Hardware Descriptive Language (HDL) based design and development of the ARINC 717 protocol for standard data bus communication. The input data is taken from Digital flight data acquisition unit. This continuous data stream is stored in a 32*12-bit FIFO. The encoder module at ARINC 717 transmitter converts a continuous data stream into a 12 bit encoded Harvard Bi-Phase (HBP) format which are then encoded to form ARINC 717 frames. This encoded data is decoded using both Harvard bi-phase and bi-polar return to zero at the receiver. The decoded data is stored in the Receive FIFO. Then the continuous stream of output data is taken for recording in Digital flight data recorder. The design and development is done using Xilinx software.

Design and Development of Bi-Phase Coded RF Signal Generator for Atmospheric Radars

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

K. Jaya Raj | P. Kamaraj, A. Suresh Babu

Abstract

The aim of the present work is to design and develop an RF Exciter in the VHF band frequency. The exciter provides pulse modulated Bi-phase coded RF signal at 53 MHz frequency. And it generates highly coherent Receiver local oscillator signal, as well as required auxiliary clock signal for synchronizing operations of all the sub-systems of the radar. The spectral performance of the 53MHz RF signal is achieved via use of quartz crystals in the Master Oscillator, and a variety of recently developed circuit technologies and frequency synthesis techniques.

Design and Development of Low cost Real Time Data Logger Based on Embedded Linux

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 7th June 2017

Dr. R. Lakshmi Narayana | Prof. K. Nagabhushan Raju

Abstract

BeagleBone electronic instrument power status reports generation system, based an inexpensive ARM Cortex processor board, which hosts its own web server to display and store data on database. A development platform that utilizes the low cost TI Sitara AM3358 ARM Cortex-A8 processor and runs an Debian operating system. An external real-time clock provides time and date-stamping for each captured quantity. The BeagleBone black captures the event from different equipments or electronic devices which ever going to monitor the status. The proposed system detects events when events happen, states how long between events, and counts how many events.

Design and Development of Radar Signal Emulator for Electronic Warfare Scenario Simulation

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

Gowriprasad, R | Nayana. K. S , Apoorva Kushal , Salila Hegde , A. R. Sachin

Abstract

The objective of this project is to design and develop software based Radar Signal Emulator (RSE) to generate various classes of modern radar signals synthetically and simulate complex electronic warfare scenarios. This involves formulation of time, frequency and spatial domain properties of radar signals such as frequency, modulation bandwidth, modulation slope, instantaneous amplitude, frequency and phase, waveform pattern, scan modulations etc. in the presence of additive white Gaussian noise. Analytical formulation followed by Matlab implementation of the candidate signal set has been carried out followed by actual generation of the same using vector signal generators. Proposed RSE provides a developmental platform for various electronic warfare systems, concepts and algorithms. RSE facilitates performance quantification under realistic threat scenarios with a broad class of signals and modulations.

Design and Evaluation of a New 802.11KT MAC Protocol for ADHOC Network

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

V.K.Taksande | 

Abstract

The main thrust of this research paper is to propose and design a new MAC 802.11KT protocol to overcome the limits of the IEEE 802.11 MAC protocol and improve the system performance in multi-hop adhoc networks. Proposed 1.5TDDIbackoff algorithm and proposed small RTS and CTS frame format of control fields are implemented in newly designed 802.11KT MAC protocol. The effect of proposed backoff algorithm and proposed control frame of new 802.11KT mac protocol would be examined and the results and insights obtained would be used to maximize the network packet delivery ratio, reduce end to end delay and reduce power consumption of the ad-hoc wireless network. The simulation analysis of existing IEEE 802.11 MAC protocol and newly proposed and designed 802.11KT MAC protocol is done using network simulator NS-2.Simulation results observed that proposed 802.11KT Mac protocol is superior in performance than existing IEEE 802.11 Mac protocol.

Design and Implementation Intelligent WSN System for Environmental Monitoring Applications

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

Mr. Manohar G R | Dr.M Nagaraja , Dr. M Z Kurian

Abstract

Wireless sensor network technology has been emerging as a violable solution to many innovative applications like industry, science, transport, civil industry, agriculture and security. A wireless sensor network system that is developed using open source hardware platform called Raspberry pi. The system is low cost and highly scalable both in terms of type of sensors and number of sensor node, which makes it well suited for a wide variety of applications related to environmental monitoring. The design of ZigBee Protocol is investigated using XBee module to establish WSN. A brief introduction to wireless sensor network(WSN) and temperature sensor briefing their characteristics and their applications, wireless crop management in agriculture. Monitoring agricultural environment for various factors such as soil moisture, temperature and humidity along with other factors can be of significance. Crop management system that is capable of watering the different kinds of crops with different amount of water according to their requirement based on environmental parameters of the field soil like moisture and temperature and monitoring the reservoir water level and sending necessary warning messages to concerned authority during water shortage in reservoir. A temperature sensor designed for weather monitoring applications.

Design and Implementation of 4x4 Pipelined Iterative Logarithmic Multiplier using Reversible Logic

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

Kavya Shree M S | Praveen Kumar Y G , Dr. M Z Kurian

Abstract

As the demand increases for low power dissipation in digital computing system, a new technique called Reversible Logic was introduced. Reversible logic is one of the promising field which solves the problem of power dissipation and also it is the basic requirement for the field of quantum computing. The multiplication which plays a prior role in DSP applications. Some of the important operations in DSP are filtering, convolution and inner partial products. These are the processes which requires multipliers so the speed and performance of their operations depends on the speed of the multiplication and addition. The logarithmic multiplier which is designed based on the Mitchell’s Algorithm proposed by Mitchell. The logarithmic multiplier convert multiplication and division problem into addition and subtraction.. This paper gives the design of pipelined iterative logarithmic multiplier using reversible logic.

Design and Implementation of a High Speed Multiplier Using Reversible Logic

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

Vinutha P | Praveen Kumar Y G

Abstract

The core of all the digital signal processor(DSPs) are its multipliers and the speed of the DSPs is mainly determined by the speed of its multipliers. Latency and throughput are the two important parameters associated with multiplication algorithm performed in DSP application. The performance of multiplication in terms of speed and power is crucial for most of the digital signal processor applications. In this paper, a design of 32 bit multiplier using the nikilam sutra to minimize the power delay product of multipliers intended for high performance and low power applications.

Design and Implementation of Camera Based Classroom Attendance System

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

Mrunal Sawant | Shrinivas Joshi, Laxmikant Bordekar, Sayesh Sawant, Jaidev Naik

Abstract

The face is one of the unique identity of a person. Image processing techniques are widely used nowadays to exploit this physical feature of a person. The attendance is taken in every schools, colleges and library. Traditional approach for attendance is professor calls student name and record attendance, which results in wastage of time. For each lecture this is wastage of time. To avoid this, we propose an automatic process which is based on image processing. The proposed system is based on face detection and recognition. The face detection differentiates faces from non-faces and is therefore essential for accurate attendance. The other approach involves face detection and recognition for marking the students attendance. The proposed system provides an efficient way to record and manage the attendance activity in a university/institution. The proposed system stores the details of each student as well as their facial features in the database and it compares the new patterns with the previously stored patterns as per the requirement.

Design and implementation of CMOS Domino Circuit for Low Power VLSI Applications

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

Aravind R | Manasa M G , Raju D H

Abstract

Dynamic logic style is used in high performance circuit design because of its fast speed of operation and less number of transistors requirement as compared to CMOS logic style. But it is not widely accepted for all types of circuit implementations due to its less noise tolerance and charge sharing problems. A small noise at the input of the dynamic logic can change the desired output. Domino logic uses one static CMOS inverter at the output of dynamic node which is more noise immune and consuming very less power as compared to other proposed circuit. In this paper we have proposed a novel circuit for domino logic which has less area and has less power-delay product (PDP) as compared to previous reported articles. Low PDP is achieved by using semidynamic logic buffer and also reducing leakage current when PDN is not conducting. Then comparison analysis has been carried out by simulating the circuits in 90nm CMOS process technology from TSMC using Tanner EDA 14.11.

Design and Implementation of Face Recognition System Using CORDIC-FFT

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

Pradeep Hulihalli | M.C.Chandrashekhar , Dr. M Z Kurian

Abstract

In the real world applications like access control and identification of an individual from a group of people which uses parts of human body called as biometrics, like finger prints, face, iris, Deoxyribo Nucleic Acid(DNA), palm print etc which are different for every individual, are being used abundantly in recent times due to their overwhelming features like uniqueness, the reliable results obtained by using them. CO-ordinate Rotation DIgital Computer (CORDIC) is used to find the trigonometric functions like sin ?,cos ?, tan ?, sinh ?, cosh ?, tanh ? of a given angle ?, logarithmic functions. Fast Fourier Transform(FFT) algorithm is used to compute the Discrete Fourier Transform(DFT) of a sequence or its inverse. Fourier analysis converts from time domain to the representation in frequency domain or vice versa. In this proposed work an efficient face recognition system is designed and implemented on FPGA using simulink.

Design and Implementation of Greenhouse Parameters Monitoring and Controlling System

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

N. Gayathri | G. Tirumala vasu, Dr. V. Rajesh

Abstract

This paper proposes a new approach towards the monitoring and controlling of Greenhouse environment which is based on GSM technology. Microcontroller reads the value of sensor periodically and transmits the sensed data from monitoring node to sink node via GSM module. This proposed system is implemented using ARM7, Sensors (Humidity sensor, temperature sensor, gas sensor), GSM modem. If any of the Greenhouse parameters exceeds the threshold value set by the user, necessary control action will takes place automatically. Also alert will be provided to the user through GSM module. The controlling action will takes place with the help of fan, motor. If the Greenhouse parameter falls below the threshold value, the controllers will be turned off automatically.

Design and Implementation of Multiple Access techniques Addressing Performance Issues in Data Encoding Techniques for Text Messages

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

M.Sridevi | Karthik S, Prashanth S, Gopikrishnan T, Ebenezer Abishek A

Abstract

Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) is a multi-carrier transmission technique in which single data with higher rate is partitioned into multiple lower rate data streams to exhibit the parallelism and orthogonality. Modulation technique is one of the important hand tools in OFDM based wireless communication system. In order to improve the OFDM based wireless communication system, it is better to design an efficient modulation technique for achieving efficient Area, Delay, and Power. Thus different types of modulation techniques such Quadrature Amplitude Modulation (QAM), Quadrature Phase Shift Keying (QPSK) modulation; Binary Phase Shift Keying (BPSK) modulation and M-ary PSK for different bits are proposed in this project. In order to reduce the AWGN noises in OFDM signal, an efficient encoders and decoder such as Hamming encoder and hamming decoder are proposed in this project. Performance measurement of this project is analyzed in terms of Lower power consumption, high speed and less area utilization.

Design and Implementation of nRF Based Smart Home System Using IoT

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

J.Krishna Chaithanya | Dr. T. Ramashri

Abstract

Presently, conventional wall switches are located in different parts of the house and one has to physically go near them and press them to turn the loads on/off. It becomes very difficult for the elderly or physically handicapped people to do so. We usually forget to switch off the electrical devices when they are not in use. This leads to wastage of lots of power resulting in wastage of money, and if more power is consuming more power is to be generated. To generate more power we need to use more energy resources and we know we are depending on conventional energy resources which are non-renewable which results in depleting enormous reserves of energy resources. So saving power techniques help us to save money, by preserving resources, it also useful for sustainable development, economical sustainability and enhances the quality of life by preserving energy resources. The home automation is one of the most emerging trends in modernization of home appliance control. With the advancement of Automation technology, life is getting simpler and easier in all aspects. In today’s world Automatic systems are being preferred over manual system. With the rapid increase in the number of users of internet over the past decade has made Internet a part and parcel of life, and IoT is the latest and emerging internet technology. Internet of things is a growing network of everyday objectfrom industrial machine to consumer goods that can share information and complete tasks while you are busy with other activities. In the proposed paper we are designing a smart home system such that we can reduce the wastage of power and can use the power efficiently so that no switch is unnecessarily turn on and we can also know power consumed by each and every appliances in our home such that we can manage the usage of electrical appliances and devices.

Design and Implementation of Remote Object Sensor Using MSP430

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

Vijayalakshmi G | Shalini M G

Abstract

Over 1.5 billion in the world the elders are suffering from challenges of some sort of memory loss. A very common discomfort is in forgetting where their valuable objects are located, at their residences, cars, offices, etc. Conventional electronic methods to help such people employ a radio signal to excite a beeper tag attached to the object being searched, so that the object is traced by tracking the audible beep. However for people who have auditory challenges and in environments where loud beeps are not encouraged, or at distances where audibility is low, a more sophisticated technology has to be employed, without significant increase in cost and complexity of operation. Considering specific challenges mentioned above the possibility of elderly user’s inability to read, write, type, this paper presents a novel method of object location using sensor networks and a locator tag attached to objects in residential settings that can be used not only to track objects, their location and neighbourhood. The system employs a simple, affordable, low-power mobile sensor tag that can either respond on demand to queries originating from a locator or proactively keep informing sensors about its locality, in addition to the legacy alarm sounding method. The paper presents the method and performance of such a system as shown by experimental results.

Design and Implementation of SCF method for PAPR Reduction of OFDM Signals Using ANN

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

Monika Patil | S.N.Prasad

Abstract

Clipping and filtering methods is considered one of the simplest ways to cut down high peak to average power ratio (PAPR) of orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) signals. The existing simplified CF method clips the high PAPR in single iteration with reduced complexity. However, these low complexity methods depend upon large complicated fast Fourier transform procedures. In this paper we come up with an advanced method which adopts trained ANN to incorporate with the SCF algorithm. Compared to SCF method, the advanced proposal based on ANN and SCF method provides good performance with respect to bit error rate (BER) with incomparably shortened computing complications. In addition to this it also presents an attractive metric which is a more efficient predictor than peak to average power ratio.

Design and Implementation of Sealing Unit based on PLC

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 31st May 2017

Chaitanya Prabhu Gaunker | Devendra Sutar,Manish Lenpale

Abstract

this paper presents machine vision approach to put and inspect the integrity of LPG cylinder seals. Programmable Logic Controllers (PLC) are used in industries over a decade because of its robust nature, computational power and applications beyond automation and control. Due to its advance features and high speed computations it can be easily used in designing a new sealing unit for sealing LPG cylinders. This paper focuses on Allen Bradley microtransistor 800 model which is widely used in the industries. PLC will be used to monitor the temperature, control the movement of LPG cylinders and seal them once they enter the unit. The whole sealing process should take place only if the temperature of hot air is above 250°C. This hot air will be passed onto the blue color plastic cover so that it seals it. SCADA will be used to monitor sealing unit from distance.

Design and Implementation of Security Management Using Haar Classifier With Call Alert and Live Video Streaming

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

Kopparthi Venkata Thejesh Reddy | Ch.RajaKumari

Abstract

This paper concentrates on the security systems in banks, jewellery shops etc..We are concentrating on a method to accurately and rapidly detect faceswithin an image. This technique can be adapted to accurately detect facialfeatures. However, the area of the image being analyzed for a facial featureneeds to be regionalized to the location with the highest probability ofcontaining the feature. By regionalizing the detection area, false positives areeliminated and the speed of detection is increased due to the reduction of thearea examined. We have used advanced Rasberry Pi processor for the implementation.

Design and Implementation of Serial Protocol Convertor/Translator on FPGA

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

G.Mallikarjuna | C.Vijaya Bhaskar

Abstract

In the world of multiple application based product it is very much a mandatory to have multiple devices connected to a system, this includes peripherals following different communication protocols as well. These requirements give rise to the need for an intermediate system which can act as a bridge between two devices following different communication protocols. Today a system is connected to a number of devices and makes the communication smooth and fast. Communication protocols such as I2C, SPI and UART protocols are commonly used protocols. The PC, ADC and DAC will require an interface for communication between them. It is used to minimize system-level interconnect. FPGA is mainly uses serial communication to communicate with peripherals. Therefore serial communication plays vital role in embedded system design. In this paper we focus on the implementation of protocol converter to convert standard protocol of one device to the protocol of other device [SPI, UART, and I2C].The proposed work simulated by using VHDL code in Xilinx 14.7i and implemented on Spartan 3E FPGA.

Design and Implementation of Smart Bins System for Waste Management

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

Suman Fernandes | Kajal Patil , Nikita Haveri , Pushpa Perike

Abstract

One of the main concerns with our environment has been solid waste management which in addition to disturbing the balance of the environment also has adverse effects on the health of the society. The detection, monitoring and management of wastes is one of the primary problems of the present era. The traditional way of manually monitoring the wastes in waste bins is a complex, cumbersome process and utilizes more human effort, time and cost which is not compatible with the present day technologies in any way. This paper proposes an advanced method in which waste management is automated. Sensor based system is one of the most promising and anticipated technologies in recent years. The system makes use of IR sensor and GSM support. This work presented here certainly provides a novel approach in handling and disposing off the day to day solid wastes in an efficient and easy way. The system consists Metal Casing, Compressing mechanism, Sensors, Transmitter, Power source and Smart Monitoring and Controlling system using GSM. The proposed system would be able to automate the waste monitoring process and management of the overall collection process. The technologies that would be used in the proposed system are good enough to ensure the practical and perfect for solid waste collection process monitoring and management for green environment.

Design and Implementation of Speech Based Scientific Calculator

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

Harish K | Shantha Suresh M, Rajesh K L, Chandan K , Ms. Bindu K

Abstract

In recent days speech recognition based systems are gaining more prominence and are used in a wide range of applications. Calculator has become an indispensable part of our lives, used at home, at local retail shops or at workplaces like banks, IT companies, medical laboratories etc. Speech recognized calculator is one of the speech recognition systems, in which the digits and operators spoken by the user with pauses in between are analyzed using various algorithms and finally one of the 10 digits (0 to 9) and one of the 5 operators(+, -, *, /, =) The objective of our paper is to design and implement the speech recognized calculator in MATLAB and Standalone Microcontroller. This designed system is able to take detect the digits and operators of the arithmetic expression whose result is to be calculated. In this paper we have used linear predictive method for recognizing the digit/operator in MATLAB and Analog Speech Recognition Chip.

Design and Implementation of Super Resolution Reconstruction Based On Efficient Restoration Techniques

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

Kamalavva Totagi | Chidananda Murthy M V , M Z Kurian

Abstract

Super Resolution (SR) image can be obtained from a set of Low Resolution (LR) images with noise and blur. The main object of Super Resolution is to get high resolution, high quality image from Low Resolution images. To remove the blur and noises caused by the imaging system as well as recover information, restoration techniques are used. Super resolution imaging processes one or more low resolution images acquired from the same scene to produce a single higher resolution image with more information. Recently, it has been one of the most active research areas to get high-resolution image from a low-resolution image, and for the communication purpose it is necessary to compress the information. To achieve SR, it should be restored properly and free from artifacts such as noises, blur and aliasing. In this paper, the various restoration techniques are designed and implemented. It significantly improves the quality and resolution of image. Restoration recovers the original image by degradation.

Design and Implementation of Supervising Robot Using GSM

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

Prof. S. V. Viraktamath | Neha Vernekar , Nivedita Patil, Priyanka Angadi, Shruti Kulkarni

Abstract

The hot emergence of remote monitoring and control systems in recent years is closely related to the outstanding advance in electronics and instrumentation techniques. In the present scenario, there were many recent developments of robotics and communication on a large scale. The objective of designing this robot is simply to facilitate the humans in the future for security purposes. As robotics plays an integral role in all aspects of manufacturing, medicine, industries, home basic and more and it will take on even greater importance in the future. Controlling the robot by using GSM module is a most suggested mechanism for mobile robot which has the capability of changing directions for the long range distances & effectively allows control from a remote area to the desired location. The main aim of the work will be to design a SMS electronic robot control toolkit which can replace the traditional robot control devices. The toolkit receives the short message service (SMS), validates the sending mobile identification number (MIN) and performs the desired operation after necessary code conversion. The system is made efficient by SIMs so that the SMS can be received by number of device boards in a locality using techniques of time division multiple access. The need to be physically present in order to control the robot of a certain location is eliminated with the use of our system.

Design and Implementation of TCSC Controller for Power Flow Enhancement

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

Dr.K.C.Sindu Thampatty | P. Geetha Sai Lakshmi

Abstract

In the present day scenario, transmission systems are becoming more insecure with unscheduled power flows. The transmission and distribution losses are increasing day by day because of high demand. However, many high voltage transmission systems are operating below their thermal ratings due to constraints, such as voltage and stability limits. This leads to reduction of life of transmission lines and is less economical. The power flow through the transmission network is mainly limited due to line impedance and load angle of the generator. To control the real power flow through any transmission line it is needed to control the impedance of the line or load angle. This control can be achieved by Flexible Alternating Current Transmission System (FACTS) device. In this paper, Thyristor Controlled Series Capacitor is used to compensate the line reactance of transmission line and look up table based TCSC controller is proposed for power flow control. The design and hardware implementation of TCSC control is discussed in this paper. The system stability is analyzed with and without TCSC Controller. It can be achieved by introducing TCSC through a transmission line. The effective impedance of the transmission line is changed by giving series compensation to the transmission line, thus compensating line reactance. This system is tested in laboratory set up for open loop and closed loop control under different operating conditions.

Design and Implementation of Vehicle Tracking System Using Can Protocol

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 31st May 2017

P. Yaswitha | Y. Veda Samhitha, B. Madhavi

Abstract

Avoiding Vehicle Theft is making buzz in present automobile industry. Design and development of a theft control system for an automobile, can be achieved by making use of ARM LPC2148, GSM and GPS. The developed system makes use of an GSM that is embedded in the vehicle with an interfacing to Engine Control Module(ECM) through Control Area Network (CAN) Bus, which is in turn, communicated to the ECM. The vehicle being stolen can be stopped by using SMS feature of GSM and GPS is used to get the location information and this information is used by the owner of the vehicle for future processing. The owner sends the message to the GSM which is embedded in the vehicle which has stolen which in turn controls the vehicles engine by locking the working of the engine immediately. The developed system accept the message and broadcasted to the Vehicle Network through CAN Bus. The engine can be unlocked only by the owner of the vehicle by sending the message again. The goal behind the design is to develop security for vehicles and embedded system to communicate with engine of the vehicle.

Design and Implementation of Wireless Notice Board Using Wi-Fi

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

P. Rosireddy | J. Rajanikanth

Abstract

The project is todesigned by using ARM-LPC2148 interfaced with LCD display. At present, when information has to be up dated in a notice board, it has to be done manually. The main objective of this project is to introduce the developed wireless notice board on displays messages sent from the user by using Wi-Fi, notice board is a primary thing in any institution /organization or public utility places like bus stations, railway stations and parks. But sticking various notices day-to-day is a difficult process. The notice board is a common display for effective mode of providing information to the people, but this is easyfor updating the messages instantly. This system is enhanced to display the latest information through an Android application of smart phone or tablet by using messages.

Design and Realization of Low Power Multiple Sensors Node & its VLSI Implementation

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

P.Kiran Kumar | G.Thirumala Vasu , Dr.V.Rajesh

Abstract

The sensor intelligence has been emerged with a low power processor model. Sensor node within single chip has been developed and implemented on a high performance FPGA kit. This paper is for the purpose of designing a FPGA based data acquisition system, utilizing the high processing speed feature of FPGA The FPGA data acquisition module is designed by the VHDL and simulated by the ISE software. This system has the advantage of being a simple unit with low power consumption and being used to collect data from different sensors. In proposed System, FPGA can sense the maximum of 8 analog channel input from ADC. After conversion of analog to digital. No need to store the corresponding digital data with external memory. You can able to store the digital data in FPGA embedded RAM itself and also the Stored digital data in Xilinx Platform PROM (XCF01S).So that digital data is not erased, until again reprogramming the FPGA ic. The prototype is implemented in SPARTAN- 3E FPGA board and coding used is VHDL.

Design and Simulation of Secure Hash Algorithm -512 with APB Programming Interface

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 20th June 2017

Rajashree | Ravindra K. S.

Abstract

A message digest or hash function is used in the place of the original input message, which is obtained by converting the input of arbitrary length into an output of fixed length. Specific files containing the protected works are represented by message digest hash numbers. To detect changes and alternations to any part of a message or to protect the integrity of a piece of data message digest are designed. Secure Hash Algorithm-512 (SHA - 512) operates on message of length 1024 bits and generates hash value of length 512 bits, making them more resistant to possible attacks. SHA-512 creates a message digest of length 512 bits out of a message less than 2128 bits. Advanced Peripheral Bus (APB) programming interface is used to configure the registers for SHA-512 algorithm

Design and Simulation of SOI Based Piezoresistive Pressure Sensor

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

Shruti Gudur | Ajayakumar C Kategeri , Kirankumar B , B G Sheeparamatti

Abstract

Amongst various pressure sensors, Piezoresistive type of pressure sensor is widely used because of its simple processing and fabrication. Hence in this paper a Piezoresistive pressure sensor is designed using SOI diaphragm.SOI material used to improve sensitivity and also used to achieve high reliability.The simulation is carried out using COMSOL/Multiphysics by considering the membrane geometry size, shape and location of piezoresistors.

Design and Study of a Small Tesla Coil for Wireless Power Transmission in Domestic Sector

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

Anandita Goswami | Diptanu Dey , Bharat Kumar Boyanapalli , Prasenjit Debnath , Rajnish Kumar Chaudary

Abstract

This paper has focused on the step-by-step design of a high frequency medium size (1-3 kW) air-cored resonance transformer commonly called tesla coil, that can be easily used for measurements and general research. Therefore, the task is to minimize the number of stochastic and unknown parameters influencing the device functionality and pointing out pros and cons of each solution. The physical dimension of the tesla transformer has been chosen due to cost effectiveness and availability of the regarding components. This design has mainly two units’ viz., a power supply and tesla coil. The power supply which fed the Tesla coil having voltage rating 12kV and current rating 120mA has been designed by using three microwave oven components. These components are assembled as dual MOTs voltage doubler circuit and necessary simulation has been carried out by using MicroSimSchematics for the verification of performance.

Design and Verification of AMBA 3 AHB Lite Protocols by using GO2UVM Package

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

Asharani Pattedar | Saroja V. Siddamal

Abstract

The AMBA 3 AHB protocol design act as an interface between two different IP cores. The current project emphasis on AMBA 3 AHB lite where the design and verification of a flexible burst operation is proposed. Basically, AHB lite burst operation is a sequence of operations that happens with respect to the size given and it supports only three burst sizes. During the burst operation, the size acts as one of the inputs to the master. After each burst operation, the master or slave will go to the IDLE stage. The AHB lite design contains basic blocks like master and slave, and the working of these blocks is without arbitration scheme. According to this scheme one master can access the bus at one time. The present work is on AHB-Lite master and slave model, at different test cases and describing their simulation Accuracy is 100%. It is built by the standard language GO2UVM package on the relevant simulator Riviera.

Design and Verification of Nine Port Network Router on Network on Chip

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

Mr.Kadgonda Annasaheb Kupade | Mr R A Chougule

Abstract

The focus of this Paper is to design Network Router and Verify the functionality of the nine port router for network on chip using Verilog qualifies the Design for Synthesis and implementation. This Design consists of Registers, FSM and FIFO’s. This Router design contains one input port and Eight output ports, and it has packet based Protocol. Router drives the incoming packet which comes from the input port to output ports based on the address contained in the packet. The router has an active low synchronous input ‘resetn’ which resets the router. Thus the idea is borrowed from large scale multiprocessors and wide area network domain and envisions on chip routers based network. This helps to understand how router is controlling the signals from source todestination based on the header address.

Design Approach for Inter Vehicular Communication in ITS

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

Mrs.Pallavi M.Tayade | Prof.P.P.Ashtankar

Abstract

In today’s world, the number of vehicles is increasing; creating colossal traffic and more chances of any type of accidents. Efficient monitoring of vehicles is need of time for smooth traffic flow. Many technologies are in action for collision free traffic. So our focus is in using Inter-vehicular Communication(IVC) beaconing for increasing driver safety. In Previously study of Vehicular networking, safety-enhancing protocols and applications are only evaluated based on delays and packet loss rates that form the networking metrics. We present the evaluation scheme will quantify the probability of a crash by continuously monitoring and transmitting the beacon message to the possibly colliding vehicles. We investigated impact of safety messages between car approaching at intersection using road traffic simulator that allow selected vehicle to disregards traffic rules. We uses Intelligent Control Unit (ICU) and Vehicle to Vehicle communication to predict the collision probability at intersection. Our simulation results evince more details about regarding the criticality assessment of beacon messages, and as such they can be used to develop more sophisticated beaconing solutions.

Design of 512-Bit Ladner Fishner Adder

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

K.Sinduja | S.M.Dinesh , M.Vinisha , N.Devi Priya

Abstract

To make addition operations additional economical parallel prefix addition may be a higher technique. during this paper 64-bitparallel prefix addition has been enforced with the assistance of cells like black cell and gray cell operations for carry generation and propagation. This method offers high speed computations with high fan-out and makes carry operations easier. ISE Design suit 14.5 tool has been used for the simulation of projected 512-bit adder. The comparison are often created with the help numerous vary of inputs conjointly. The projected parallel prefix adder has made high speed computation and also efficient in terms of range of transistors and their topology and range of nodes.

Design of 512-bit Wallace Tree Multiplier by Sklansky Adder

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

S.M.Dinesh | T.S.Athira, Y.Hariesh

Abstract

Power consumption has become a crucial concern in today’s VLSI system style. The growing marketplace for quickfloating purpose coprocessors, digital signal process chips, and graphics processor has created a requirement for topspeed and space economical multipliers. A Wallace tree multiplier factor may be a improved version tree based mostly multiplier factor design. It uses carry save addition rule to cut back the latency. This paper aims at extrareduction of latency and power consumption of the Wallace tree multiplier factor. The simulation has been meted outmistreatment the Xilinx ISE tool.

Design of AES-256 with Three Stage Pipelining S-Box Using Logic Gates

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 31st May 2017

Pujari Munaswamy | N.Dilipkumar,N.Pushpalatha

Abstract

The cipher is the component which is responsible for performing encryption or decryption on blocks of input data, while the key expander is responsible for preparing the input key for use by the cipher in each round. The Advance Encryption Standard (AES) is composed of four different functions that are repeated in a number of rounds. These are byte substitution, shift row, mix column, and add round key. The AES algorithm is capable of using cryptographic keys of 128, 192, and 256 bits to encrypt and decrypt data in blocks of 128 bits. The number of rounds in AES is variable and depends on the length of the key, i.e10 rounds for 128-bit key, 12 rounds for 192-bit key and 14 rounds for 256-bit key. Each of these rounds uses a different 128-bit round key, which is calculated from the original AES key. When a key of size 256 bits is used, the number of rounds are repeated is equal to 14. The function Sub Bytes is the only non-linear function in AES, operating on each of the state bytes independently. The 16 input bytes are substituted by looking up a fixed table (S-box) given in design. The result is in a matrix of four rows and four columns. It substitutes all bytes of the State using a look-up table called S-Box. A more suitable method of implementing the S-Box is to use composite field approach for calculating multiplicative inverse in a Galois Field GF(28) followed by an affine transformation in the binary extension field , which is based on combinational logic. An efficient design is three stages pipelining for the byte substitution phase. The proposed Three Stages Pipelining S-Box Using Logic gates and efficient in terms of delay and area.

Design of Capacitor-less Low Drop-out Voltage Regulator for 100mA Load Current in 90nm Technology

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 7th June 2017

Mr. Nagendra Kumar N | Mr. Kumar N Krishna Murthy

Abstract

A capacitor-free CMOS low-dropout regulator (LDO) for system-on-chip applications to reduce board space and external pins is presented. The 1.5 V LDO with a power supply of 1.8 V with settling time of 0.5 ÎĽs is implemented in GPDK 90nm CMOS technology for load currents up to 0 -100 mA with a drop-out voltage of 300 mV. Simulation results show that the LDO achieves a PSR of -43.741 dB up to 1 kHz and -39.130 dB up to 1MHz. The LDO achieves Line regulation of 6.38mV/V and Load Regulation of 0.027 mV/mA. The proposed LDO design has less output ripple, fast transient response, and achieves current efficiency of 83.33%. T he area acquired by the layout of the design is approximately equal to 0.0299ÎĽm2 .Thus, the presented capacitor-less LDO voltage regulator is suitable for SoC solutions

Design of Elliptical Slotted Microstrip Patch Antenna for Mobile Communications

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

K. Jothilakshmi | Dr. P. JothiLakshmi

Abstract

the microstrip antennas, due to their great advantages, have increasingly wide range of applications in wireless communication systems as handheld mobile services, satellite communication systems, and biomedical applications. A rectangular microstrip patch antenna with elliptical slot is designed here for simulation and developed to examine the Ultra High Frequency (UHF) applications. The design and simulation have been done by Computer Simulation Technique (CST) Microwave Studio tool and further the fabrication is tested for analyzing the simulation results. The proposed design reveals the possibility of having slotted shapes in rectangular patch antenna for UHF – Mobile applications. In addition, the development and simulation depict consideration of slots in arrays of rectangular patch antenna to improve the application range from mobile applications to satellite and aerospace applications. These design considerations have led antenna designers to consider a wide variety of structures to meet the often conflicting needs for different applications. There is further scope for this concept by designing and implementing an array of such patch antennas as a substitute for traditional methods.

Design of Energy Efficient WSN Using Smart Sampling and Reliable Routing Technique

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

Mr.Veeresh | Mrs. Vinutha C B , Dr. M Z Kurian

Abstract

Wireless sensor networks have a great variety of applications to industry, science, transport, civil industry, and security. Efficiency of Nodes battery energy to improve the network lifetime is the fundamental challenge in wireless sensor network. The design approach of different layered protocols is investigated and since major portion of battery energy is utilized by communication process, it has to be effectively controlled. The concept of smart sampling and reliable routing in WSN is studied to understand that it would result in energy efficient, scalable and load balancing network. In this proposed method the energy efficient WSN is designed using reliable routing technique and smart sampling method

Design of Flex Ray Communication Controller for Automotive Communication System

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

Neethu Varghese | Abhila R Krishna

Abstract

the communication bandwidth, flexibility and bit rate has been a serious issue for the serial communication protocols like Controller Area Network (CAN), Time-Triggered CAN (TT-CAN) and Byte-flight in implementing real time applications. The lack of a suitable networking scheme that could handle the requirements such as more sophisticated safety systems and advanced networking application leads to the development of the new protocol, the Flex ray. The main target for the new protocol is the growing demand for massive and complex data exchange in the environment where real time requirements are critical. The Flex-Ray is a new time-triggered protocol which is designed to provide large bunches of data to be exchanged in real-time with high dependability between electronic control units, sensors and actuators installed in a vehicle .The Flex ray node consists of a host, communication controller and a bus driver in which the communication Controller (CC) is an electronic component in a node which is responsible for implementing the protocol aspects of the Flex ray communications system. Flex ray communication controller (CC) is the core of the Flex ray protocol specification. It performs all communication tasks such as transmission and reception of messages in a Time-Triggered protocol (TTP) cluster. The purpose of the the introduced system is to generate a Flex ray protocol frame and the design of Flex ray protocol operational states with Finite State Machine(FSM).The work is coded by Verilog and simulated by Xilinx ISE 13.2.

Design of Flexible Accelerator Based on Recoding Techniques

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

Sambhu P.G | Sreejesh Kumar R

Abstract

DSP accelerators are hardware modules attached to a processor core externally to enhance the performance and functionality of computationally intensive DSP functions. Domain specific hardware architectures forms ideal acceleration in terms of performance and power, but their inflexible data paths lead to increased silicon complexity. In flexible DSP accelerator functional computational unit (FCU) are incorporated to improve performance, reduce energy consumption and to provide flexible data paths. The architecture exploits carry save (CS) arithmetic to enable fast chaining of additive and multiplicative operations. However, the carry save optimization approaches have limited impact on data flow graph (DFG) dominated by multiplications. These limitations are tackled by exploiting CS to modified booth recoding, which consists of three algorithms, signed-bit Full Adders (FAs) and Half Adders (HAs) as building blocks. To validate the design, code can be developed using VHDL and synthesis & simulation will be done in Xilinx ISE Suite 13.2 & Model Sim SE 6.3f respectively.

Design of Grid Connected Buck-Boost PV Inverters for Residential Application in a Single Stage

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

Preethi Priya K | Mr. Abdul Azeez

Abstract

The Proposed design topology has numerous attractive (useful) features such as higher efficiency since photovoltaic array is utilized efficiently, compact size as only three switches are used in the inverter circuit, low cost, simpler control circuit. A combination of Sinusoidal Pulse Width Modulation (SPWM) and Square wave is used for switching the inverter circuit. To control SPWM duty cycle and to regulate instantaneous ac output current from the inverter and to stabilize the output as fast as possible, a closed loop control circuit is employed. The proposed design is mathema-tically modeled in MAT Lab Simulink and PSIM. Finally, the simulation results are presented to verify the viability of the proposed single stage three-switch buck-boost inverter for gridconnected PV application.

Design of H-Shaped Micro Strip Antenna for Satellite Application with Comparatively Simulation for Different Ground Plane Techniques

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

Dheeraj Garg | Roma Rewani

Abstract

The object of this Paper is design a micro strip patch antenna for satellite communication .This complete dissertation is software based. The satellite frequency bands which was commonly used for communication are the C-band, Ka-band, and Kuband. C-band and Ku-band are the commonly used frequency spectrums by today's satellites. The Ku band is the 12GHz to 18 GHz portion of the electromagnetic spectrum in the microwave frequency band. The Ku band offers a user more flexibility. A smaller antenna size and a Ku band system's freedom from terrestrial operations simplify finding a suitable antenna site. For the final users Ku band is generally cheaper and enables smaller antennas (both because of the higher frequency and a more concentrated beam).Ku band is less vulnerable to rain fade than the Ka band frequency spectrum. The proposed antenna have good return loss parameter, VSWR and radiation pattern.

Design of IIR Filter using Hybrid GA and BBO Algorithm

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

Aysha Sharma | B.S. Dhaliwal

Abstract

A novel design strategy of Butterworth IIR filter is proposed in this paper. It considers two most effective hybrid optimization techniques GA and BBO. The results show that GA and BBO based filter designer is able to find transfer function required for given magnitude response. The proposed algorithm doesn’t take unnecessary computation time and good in exploiting the solution as the solution doesn’t die at the end of each generation. Hence, the performance of proposed hybrid algorithm outcomes the performances of previous proposed algorithms for designing of a digital filter. The simulated results show that the design filter is highly stable and the filter gain is exactly same as that of the ideal filter. The magnitude of the filter is less than one (

Design of Sequential Adder by Using Multi Bit Flip-flop for Power Reduction Technique

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

G. Sravani | 

Abstract

In VLSI design the power consumption is increased for more transition memory elements. Flip-flop (FF) are the basic sequential components used for memory applications. An adder and multiplier are designed using Multi-Bit Flip-Flop (MBFF). In the proposed work one of the promising ways to improve performance of FF is merging of clock pulse. Operating memory arrays with less clock cycle will reduce the power taken by the FF which leads to total power reduction and maximum internal delay can also be reduced. Besides, reducing number of FF in the circuit design the total wire length reduces the complexity of MBFF. For dynamic storage the required number of FF selected by transformation check method. Transformation check method can be effectively enabled by dynamic combinational block with check task in the proposed work

Design of Shift Register Based on Multi bit Flip Flop for Universal Asynchronous Receiver and Transmitter

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

Mohammad Javeed | 

Abstract

In this paper I propose the design and implementation of first in first out shift register based on multi bit flip flop for universal asynchronous receiver and transmitter (UART).UART is a major communication component to interface the microcontroller with the external modules like GSM, GPS etc. One of the problems in embedded systems is the time consuming by the external devices to communicate with the controlling device. Here we are concentrating mainly on fast communication among the devices in embedded applications. Simulation results have been shown that the proposed system is 50% faster than the existing system. Code is written in VHDL and modeled in Xilinx 10.1 ISE, implemented with FPGA Spartan 3E hardware tool.

Design of Soil Condition Management System in Precision Agriculture Using Autonomous Wireless Sensing Nodes

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

Santosh.B.Panjagal | M Lakshmipathy , V.Harinath , Dr.G.N.Kodanda Ramaiah

Abstract

Main reasons for the global water crisis besides population growth, urbanization, and climate change are excessive water use, poor management, and inadequate irrigation. According to the United Nations World Water Development Report, 70% of freshwater worldwide is used for irrigation. The amount of applied water does usually not match the requirements of the irrigated crop, and either too much or too little water is used for irrigation. To enhance the resource utilization in a constrained manner an autonomous sensing platform is developed, where a number of wireless sensor nodesare installed in an agriculture land. Weproposed a system with three wireless sensor nodes by the exploration of “mesh network” to cover large area. Wireless sensor nodes observes the environment, samples and collects the heterogeneous data like soil moisture, temperature, from the interested field and transmits data to the server.A wireless mesh network (WMN) is a communications network made up of radio nodes organized in a mesh topology. It is also a form of wireless ad hoc network. When one node can no longer operate, the rest of the nodes can still communicate with each other, directly or through one or more intermediate nodes by using ZigBee and data of that node is transmitted to main server.

Design of Test Rig for Fuel Probes Pre-Installation Check in a Non-Linear Tank for Helicopter Using Embedded Systems

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

Nithin H V | Chiranjeevi S B, Naresh S S, Sujith H P, Sunil K T

Abstract

During the manufacture of helicopter and its subsequent assembly stage, it is required to test every component that goes into helicopter. The fuel probe is one among them. Large amount of fuel is required in order to travel more distance. For this purpose the amount of fuel in a tank is to be measured frequently and this task is performed by fuel probes. The normal operation of fuel probes need to be tested before it can be installed in helicopter. But the existing method is laborious and time consuming. Our project aims at reducing the time and effort required to test the probe and to display the quantity of fuel in the helicopter tanks. Helicopter fuel system consists of five fuel tanks. Each tank has fuel probes for measuring the quantity of fuel which will be displayed in cockpit. To check for proper working condition of fuel probes, the probes are tested in a common tank. The testing is done with the help of suitable microcontroller kit. The altitude of fuel indicates the different frequency levels with respect to fuel probes. The software part of project involves the coding of microcontroller. The calculations such as quantity of fuel in kgs and liters are done using the appropriate interpolation formula and display the calculated value on suitable LCD display.

Design, Development and Simulation of Microwave High Power Waveguide Dual Directional Coupler

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

Vijay Sarode | K.P. Ray, Shoba Krishnan

Abstract

This paper deals with design, development and simulation of waveguide type dual directional coupler operating at microwave heating frequency of 2450MHz ± 25MHz (ISM Band). The Ansoft HFSS13.0 software is used for carrying out the parametric study of performance parameters i.e coupling factor, directivity, VSWR, impedance, return loss etc. of the designed coupler. The simulation of the dual directional coupler is carried out by varying the various parameters of the dual directional coupler for both the forward and reflected ports. These simulation results are verified with experimental results of the fabricated dual directional coupler only for a single measurement because of hardware limitation of the coupler. The emphasize of this paper is on the simulation results of the coupler for variation in loop plate width, loop hole, angular rotation of loop plate from 0ş to 350ş and coupling gap of the coupler.

Designing and Analysis of Compact Crown Circular Patch Antenna by Using Artificial Nural Networks

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

Sangeeta Shekhawat | Ashok Kajal, Sudhanshu Singh, Kumar Vaibhav

Abstract

It is very demanding from commercial and military applications to have small size low profile multiband antenna. This proposed work gives a path to transform a dual band antenna into multiband antenna. The geometry of the antenna is defined by designing some circular crown fractal-like erosion in a conventional rectangular patch structure and found the best suited positions for slots which can give multiband operations. Fortunately finally selected position gives enhanced bandwidth and satisfactory return and other characteristics also. In this work we first proposed small size antenna which works on single resonance frequency then it is modified to get multiple resonance frequency operations. For newly designed multi band slot cutted shape antenna gives satisfactory results. Then the results are also processed by the ANN (Artificial Neural Network). Resonance frequency is simulated by IE3D simulator and then simulated results are used o train the neural network, both the results found are almost close to each, very less mean squared error occurs. It gives Return loss for all resonant frequencies less than -10db, VSWR less than 2 with multiband resonance frequencies. Applications of this multiband antenna are in the X, Ku and K band of Super High Frequency range.

Designing of Interpolation Using Matlab

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

Dr.P.C. Srikanth | Seetharamegowda.S

Abstract

Digital signal interpolation systems can be implemented in a variety of ways. The most basic interpolation system for integer upsampling cascades an expander unit with an interpolation low- pass filter. More complex implementations can cascade multiple expander and low-pass filter pairs. There is also flexibility in the design of interpolation filters.

Designing of Two Channel QMF In Matlab

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

Dr.P.C. Srikanth | Rekha B

Abstract

Digital Signal Processing (DSP) is one of the fastest growing techniques in the electronics industry. It is used in a wide range of application fields such as, telecommunications, data communications, image enhancement and processing, video signals, digital TV broadcasting, and voice synthesis and recognition. The focus of this thesis is on one of the basic DSP functions, namely filtering signals to remove unwanted frequency bands. Multirate Digital Filters (MDFs) are the main theme here. Theory and implementation of MDF, as a special class of digital filters, will be discussed. Multirate digital filters represent a class of digital filters having a number of attractive features like, low requirements for the coefficient word lengths, significant saving in computation and storage requirements results in a significant reduction in its dynamic power consumption.

Detection and Correction of Multiple Bit Errors in SRAM Based FPGA Frame

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

C.Harini | N.Vamsi Praveen

Abstract

Recent studies suggest that multiple bit upsets (MBUs) are a significant part of the error events in advanced memory technologies and that they will continue to grow in the next technology nodes. The errors in an MBU are normally caused by the same physical event and therefore affect memory cells that are close together. Existing techniques employ error correction codes with considerably high overhead to mitigate MBUs in configuration frames. In this paper, we present a low-cost error-detection code to detect MBUs in configuration frames as well as a generic scrubbing scheme to reconstruct the erroneous configuration frame based on the concept of erasure codes. The proposed scheme does not require any modification to the FPGA architecture. Implementation of the proposed scheme on a Xilinx Virtex-6 FPGA device shows that the proposed scheme can detect 100% of MBUs in the configuration frames with only 3.3% resource occupation occupation, while the recovery time is comparable with the previous schemes.

Detection and Tracking of Facial Features in Video Sequences

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

B. Sandhya | V. Sri Lakshmi Priyanka, CH. Kavya

Abstract

In this paper, we present face detection and tracking algorithm in real time camera input environment. The entire face tracking algorithm is divided into two modules. The first module is face detection and second is face tracking. To detect the face in the image, Haar based algorithm is used. On the face image, Shi and Thomasi algorithm is used to extract feature points and Pyramidal Lucas-Kanade algorithm is used to track those detected features. Results on the real time indicate that the proposed algorithm can accurately extract facial features points. The algorithm is applied on the real time camera input and under real time environmental conditions.

Detection of Abnormalities in Fetal By Analyzing FECG

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

Ashwitha. K Shetty | Dr. Jose Alex Mathew

Abstract

The main aim of this paper is to detect the Fetal heart rate. Fetal heart rate monitoring technique is important for obtaining the important information about the condition of the Fetal during pregnancy. This is obtained from the Fetal ECG Signal which is extracted from the composite Abdominal ECG. The reason for the interest in FECG signal analysis is in clinical diagnosis and biomedical applications. The extraction and detection of FECG signal from abdominal signals using powerful and advanced methods find wide applications in the field of biomedical. Here the primary noises are removed using various filtering techniques. Separation of FECG from Composite abdominal ECG signal is done using Least Mean Square (LMS) Adaptive Filtering technique and finally Fetal heart rate is detected.

Detection Of Brain Tumor Using Mri Image

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

Vrishali A. Walanj | V. K. Jadhav

Abstract

Medical images play a vital role in identifying diseases and detecting if organs arefunctioning correctly. Image processing related to medical images is an active research area in which various techniques are used in order to make diagnosis easier and various image processing techniques can be used. In this project, image processing is done for automatically detecting the presence of brain tumors in a given brain scan. We propose an automatic brain tumor detection and localization framework that can detect andlocalize brain tumor in magnetic resonance imaging. The proposed brain tumor detection comprises following steps: Image pre-processing (BGR to gray scale conversion), Histogram equalization, Smoothening, Erode and dilate, Blob detection.

Detection of Fluoride Contaminated Water in Dental Applications

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

Girijamba D L | Dr. Preeta Sharan,Dr. P.C. Srikanth

Abstract

Optical biosensors are highly sensitive devices for detection and analysis of bio-analytes that combines biological components with a physicochemical detector. Groundwater is the major source of drinking water for residents of urban or rural areas. Fluoride content in drinkable groundwater directly affects the quality of drinking water. In this paper we have demonstrated a 2-dimensional photonic crystal based biosensor with line defect which can detect different fluorides in water. Simulation and analysis has been done for calcium fluoride, cesium fluoride, potassium fluoride, lithium fluoride and strontium fluoride and peak has been observed. By detecting these fluorides various diseases that are caused by fluorides can be detected easily. One such major detection is to detect dental fluorosis caused by the fluorides present in water. Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) method has been used for the analysis. MEEP (MIT Electromagnetic Equation Propagation) simulation tool have been used for modeling and designing of photonic crystal.

Detection of Nutritional Disorders in Pepper and Pomegranate Plants using MATLAB and LabVIEW

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

Raikar Saishree D | Rohini S Patil , Beerappa Tirlapur , Pranav K , C.L.Chayalakshmi

Abstract

This paper provides identification of the diseases at early stages in pepper and pomegranate plants using image processing techniques. Image processing and standard data base is extensively used in the proposed work. Various nutritional disorders of pepper and pomegranate plant lead to change in color of the leaf. These visual symptoms are derived from images of the defected leaves of pepper and pomegranate plants. By detecting nutrient deficiency with this method, plant life span and yield can be improved by providing proper and suitable quantity of manure. MATLAB and Laboratory Virtual Instrument Engineering Workbench (LabVIEW) are the used tools in this process. LabVIEW provides Visual programming methods for image acquisition, image processing. MATLAB and LabVIEW provide easy and convenient methodologies for image processing techniques.

Detection of Streptococcus Pyogenes to Combat Rheumatic Heart Disease

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

M.Vilasini | R.Rathipriya

Abstract

Rheumatic Heart Disease (RHD) is a nonsuppurative complication of group A Streptococcal pharyngitis, Streptococcus pyogenes in particular. RHD is a significant cause for cardiovascular disorder in the world today.Despite a documented decrease in the prevalence of the disease, it continues topose medical and public health problems in both industrialized and industrializing countries. For at least five decades Rheumatic Heart Disease has been a concern of the World Health Organization and its member countries. Sentinel studies conducted under the auspices of the WHO clearly documented that the control of the preceding infections and their sequel is both cost effective and inexpensive. The project aims to provide a three way approach to the diagnosis of Rheumatic heart disease: identification of Streptococcus pyogenes, Allele analysis and Jones’s criteria. The initial identification is corroborated by a positive throat culture through a swab test. Allele analysis based on three ethnicities: Black, White and Indian, is directed toward determination of odds ratio. Jones’s criterion is divided into a set of major and minor criteria. The major criteria and the minor criteria together with a preceding instance of infection caused by Streptococcus pyogenes indicate the stage of the disease. However, till RHD remains to be conquered, optimal methods of prevention and management are required.

Detection of Tuberculosis using Lung Segmentation Technique

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

Raisa Mujawar | Shashikant Hippargi

Abstract

TB is the second cause of death due to infectious diseases in the world. Though TB can be completely cured if detected at early stage the problem is the unavailability of reliable detection methods. If TB not detected and hence not treated properly it takes lives of the patients. It mainly affects weak immune persons like childrens, old age people, HIV patients etc. Though TB infection can affect any parts of the body it mostly affects lungs of the patients. To detect lung TB X-rays of chest is used. Diagnosing TB using chest X-rays is most cheapest method along with it other tests are also required. This paper presents a method for automatic detection of TB using chest X-rays .Here image processing is used to improve the performance of the existing methods.The performance is tried to improve using different segmentation method.The syetm takes patients X-rays as input and processes it and give result as the case is TB positive or negative.

Development of a Two Wheeler IOT Product

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 20th June 2017

Clament John | Abhiram Dronavalli, Gerardine Immaculate Mary

Abstract

The automotive industry is going through a seismic shift towards electric and smart vehicles. But most of the development is being worked on the car platform, and the two wheelers (bike or scooter) are being left out. Two wheelers are a different field altogether when it come to making them smart. Most low-cost two wheelers have mechanical than electrical sensors. In this paper we attempt to address this issue with the minimal electrical signals we have (such as accelerometer, battery voltage, etc.) This data can be used to monitor the bikes conditions, like battery drain/strength, capacity, speed, acceleration, GPS location data etc. A prototype hardware for the two wheeler market which can do the above checks has been presented

Development of Algorithms for Contrast Enhancement of Remote Sensing Images

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

Ramkumar.M.U | Kavitha N Nair

Abstract

For many years remote sensing images have played an important role in almost all fields such as meteorology, agriculture, geology, education etc. As the rising demand for high quality remote sensing images, contrast enhancement techniques are required for better visual perception and color reproduction. In this paper we explained some new enhancement techniques which use dominant brightness level analysis and adaptive intensity transformation with discrete wavelet transform and dual tree complex wavelet transform, DTCWT with principal component analysis (PCA), and a mathematical method for knee correction. Although various histogram equalization methods are proposed in the literature. They tend to degrade the overall image quality by exhibiting saturation artifacts in both low- and high- intensity layers. The proposed algorithms overcome this problem. In one method the DWT is performed first and then decompose the LL subband into low- middle-high- intensity layers using log-average luminance. Intensity layer transfer functions are adaptively estimated by using knee transfer function and the gamma adjustment function based on dominant brightness level on each layer .After the intensity transformation the enhance image is get back by taking Inverse DWT. We can do the decomposition using DTCWT in second method for better result. The contrast enhancement is performed with PCA and alternate knee correction method along with DWT and DTCWT for better results. The performance of every method is evaluated with parameters such Mean Square Error (MSE), Measure of Enhancement (EME), Peak Signal to Noise Ratio (PSNR) and Mean Absolute Error (MAE).

Development of Anti-Honking Technology to Minimize Noise Pollution

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

Aswini Devadas | Uday P Chhatre

Abstract

Transportation sector is one of the major contributors to the noise pollution in urban areas. The most important factors increasing noise pollution in urban areas are vehicular traffic, railway and air traffic. Increased noise levels induce stress, increase accident rates at workplace and stimulate aggression and other anti-social types of behavior. Honking is one of the major causes for noise pollution. This increase in noise pollution due to honking needs to be controlled effectively. We propose a method that can be implemented to reduce the impact of honking on noise pollution.

Development Of Edge Detection Algorithms For Video Frames Using Rgb-Yuv Colour Modelsin Matlab

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 31st May 2017

K.Sai Prasad Reddy | Prof. K.Nagabhushan Raju

Abstract

An edge is a place of rapid change in the image intensity function. Edges are caused by a variety of factors. Image edge detection is an integral component of image processing to enhance the clarity of edges and the type of edges. Edge detection is the process of localizing pixel intensity transitions. The edge detection has been used by object recognition, target tracking, segmentation etc., Therefore, the edge detection is one of the most important parts of image processing. The purpose of edge detection is to discover the information about the shapes and the reflectance or transmittance in an image. It is one of the fundamental steps in image processing, image analysis, image pattern recognition, and computer vision, as well as in human vision. Edges of an image are considered a type of crucial information that can be extracted by applying detectors with different methodology. This paper presents a comparative study on different approaches to edge detection of video frames. These approaches are based on transforming the RGB frame to YUV model. Video frame edges are detected by using edge detector operator called Laplacian operator. This paper provides a deeper analysis regarding video frame edge detection by constructing video input object, selecting source for video acquisition, previewing a stream of image frames, capturing sequence of video frames from live video stream, matrices, partial derivatives and convolutions by using MatLab.

Development of Image Surveillance System using Android

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

Ashok V. Sutagundar | Ravikant Belagali,Padmaja Kuruba

Abstract

Smart image surveillance, is the implementation of automatic image technologies to closely monitor various situations. Nowadays, image surveillance is integral to security of many locations such as banks, shopping malls, museums, traffic management and even homes. The proposed smart image surveillance system uses the set of static images in detection of variation in the object positions in the monitoring area. Movement of the objects are may be due to the intruder in the target. The method used for object detection compares the current image and previously stored static image in the database, which is taken as the reference image. The idea is that, if the difference between the current image and the reference image exceeds a specific threshold function, a displacement of the object is detected. The proposed idea is implemented and tested using Android tool.

Development of Robotic Arm to Assist Differently ABLED and Elderly People

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

Janardan.M | Mallikarjuna Swamy.M.S

Abstract

Differently abled people who don’t have legs or arms have to depend entirely upon others to perform simple tasks, also elderly people suffer a lot to accomplish tasks that are important to lead daily life. Hence they need an assisting device which helps them to lead comfortable life. Application of robotics has become crucial and vital in the field of medical electronics in the present era, this paper deals with design of a robot which can help differently abled people to perform simple tasks such as pick and place through micro switch controlled signals and gesture control. The robot is equipped with intelligent sensing which alerts the presence of fire and water.

Diagnosing Coronary Artery Disease by Low Frequency Heart Sound Signatures

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

ishal Hariet Madtha | Preetha D’Souza

Abstract

Coronary Artery Disease (CAD) develops when major blood vessels that supply the heart with blood becomes damaged or diseased. As the currently available CAD detection methods are invasive, costly and not suitable to detect CAD at the early stage, more than 45% of people are dying suddenly from CAD without any prior symptoms of it. The aim of the current study is to develop a low cost method for noninvasive diagnosis of CAD, based on analysis of heart sounds obtained with a stethoscope using Auto Regressive method there by analyzing and comparing number of features that are extracted from frequency bands of heart sound recording.

DICOM Image Compression for Telemedicine based on Region of Interest (ROI)

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 31st May 2017

K.Gopi | K.M.Hemambaran,T.Ramashri

Abstract

In medical imaging due to increase in demand of storing and transferring the medical images results in need of sufficient memory and transmission bandwidth. Computed Tomography (CT), Magnetic Resonance Image (MRI) procedures produces prohibitive amounts of data, hence compression was introduced in the medical field to renovate these issues. Due to high quantity of information contained in the image, reducing it has become a necessity especially in the medical domain. There exist several compression methods in image processing both lossy and lossless compression. In medical applications Region of Interest (ROI) based compression is preferred to enhance the compression efficiency for transmission and storage. In some areas in medicine, it may be sufficient to maintain high image quality only in the region of interest, i.e., diagnostically important regions, but the cost of a wrong interpretation are high. Due to the reason that in medical filed the diagnostically important region should be compressed with better quality than background. Hence, Region Based Coding (RBC) technique is significant for medical image compression and transmission. Lossless compression schemes with secure transmission play a key role in telemedicine applications that help in accurate diagnosis and research. Block Truncation Coding (BTC) is used for lossy Compression technique and for lossless scalable RBC for Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) images based on Haar Transform and with distortion limiting compression technique for other regions in image. A detailed analysis is carried out on the basis of parameters like compression ratio (CR), mean square error (MSE) and peak signal to noise ratio (PSNR).

Different Memristive Functions For Implementing Memristor Spice Model

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 31st May 2017

N Khadar basha | Prof. T Ramashri

Abstract

Memristor is a novel two-port circuit element with a memory, as device that can be used in many applications such as memory, logic, and neuromorphic systems. As passive circuit element the memristor would be a useful tool to analysis circuit behavior via simulation. SPICE model is appropriate way to describe real device operation. In this paper, we incorporate a SPICE model of memristor with threshold logic circuit for nonlinear dopant drift. Various window functions has been proposed in nonlinear ion drift memristor devices. Circuit analysis of the proposed memristor models are studied by investigating and characterizing the physical electronic and behavioral properties of memristor device. The simulation output should have a current–voltage hysteresis curve, which looks like bow tie. The loop maps the switching behavior of the device. Then, make comparison of these memristor implemented circuit design between different type of memristor window models. The research verifies the proposed threshold memristor model and the possibilities of implementing memristor model in practical analog circuit

Digital Attendance System

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

Anjana K.Menon | Amrutha P V, Banaseer K.A, Janet Varghese , Kavya K , Narayanan P.P

Abstract

Attendance recording in educational institutions is an imperative task. Most present systems provide database management but still involve laborious manual data entry procedures. The design presented in this project offers a twofold solution to the problem. It relieves from handling paper records of attendance taken in the class by providing firsthand entry into a portable gadget. The attendance entered is transferred to application software residing on a computer through the serial port. ? Providing data such as date, department name, roll number of absentees, period, name and thumb impression of the faculty on duty. ? The data are entered through keypad within the device. ? The entered data are transferred to the proposed system of the main authority through zigbee.

Digital Image Protection and Self Recovery Using Source-Channel Coding

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

V.G Roja | P.Sreekanth , N.Pushpalatha

Abstract

Digital imaging has been rapidly developing in last two decades and digital multimedia products are utilized in countless applications. As a consequence popular and low cost access to image editing applications challenges the integrity of digital images. Digital images can be easily tampered with image editing tools. Tampering is intentional modification of images. Forensics applications have been used in digital images. One of the forensics applications is to protect the images against tampering. To fulfill the purpose of image tampering the algorithm should satisfy two cases 1) Detecting the tampered area of the received image 2) Recovering the lost information in the tampered zones. State-of-the-Art techniques perform these tasks by applying watermarks consisting check bits and reference bits. Check bits are used for detecting the tampered area where as information of whole image is stored in reference bits, but the problem of recovery the lost reference bits still exists. To overcome this problem SPIHT technique is used in which if the tampering locations are known then image tampering can be modeled and dealt with as an erasure error. Therefore reference bits are protected against tampering by designing an appropriate channel code. The total water marking bit budget is dedicated into three groups 1) Source-encoder output bits 2) Channel code parity bits 3) Check bits. In watermark embedding phase, the original image is source coded and the output bit string is protected using appropriate channel encoder. For image recovery erasure locations are detected by check bits. Check bits help channel erasure decoder to recover the original source encoded image. This technique significantly outperforms recent techniques in-terms of image quality of water marked and recovered image. The water marked image quality gain is achieved through spending less bit budget on water mark. The quality of recovered image is considerably improved as a result of consistent performance of designed source and channel codes.

Digital Night Vision Enhancement using Histogram Processing

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

Megha Kolhekar | SamrudhiKaulapure, Vidhya Gowda, Rutuja Rajput,BeilaithaKhithie

Abstract

A poor image puts a contrast constraint to the human eye visibility at night,which is one of the main reasons for increase in accidents at night.Digital Night Vision Enhancement is a processing technique to improve night vision by image processing. These techniques can enhance the images captured by ordinary cameras under low light conditions and can be implemented completely in software. This work deals with few basic techniques like histogramequalization,adaptive histogram equalization, contrast limited adaptive histogram equalization and their implementation using python. Also the related work in this field and proposed work using homomorphic filtering has been discussed in brief

Digital PLL as Frequency Synthesizer

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

Pauline John | Resmin Serah Thomas , S Shruthi , Steffy Elezabeth Sam , Binu C Pillai

Abstract

The paper describes a digital PLL circuit design as frequency synthesizer and its implementation using MULTISIM, to meet the increasing needs of high speed operation. It includes a Phase-Frequency Detector, a Loop filter, a Voltage Controlled Oscillator and a Divide by N Counter. The main aim is to decrease the power dissipation as compared with the conventional PLL. It ensures better stability, a shorter locking time and as a result, high accuracy as well as a lower sensitivity to power supply variations.

Digital Stethoscope: Electronic Auscultation and Processing

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

Prabhakar Sharma | Swarnima Verma, Shanmukh Sarode, Puneet Sharma, Dr. Vijay Mishra,

Abstract

Stethoscope is one of the basic diagnostic tool used in the medical world. Traditional auscultation of heart, gastrointestinal and lungs sounds requires good listening skills and comes with experience. An attempt is made to modify the acoustic stethoscope in order to ensure efficient auscultation and diagnosis of a patient. The electronic stethoscope enables signal storage, processing, filtering and analysis of signals. It offers an advantage of amplification, noise reduction over the classical stethoscope. The BPM count predicts the abnormalities in the heart and can detect diseases. Through the GUI, a user can control different functionalities of the device. This paper aims to design and develop an electronic stethoscope with minimum complexity and lower cost.

Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum Power Line Communication For Home Automation

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

Hema Singh | Sunita Siyag , Kriti Parashar

Abstract

The power line communication is used for transferring data over low voltage power line, where electrical power is transmitted over high voltage transmission line distributed over medium voltage & used inside the building at lower voltages. This technology can be extensively used in centralized electric meter reading, remote monitoring of electrical equipment, building automation and security control, stage lighting and street lighting control applications, information displays To overcome the electromagnetic strong polluted channel a direct sequence spread spectrum concept s used with its inherent processing gain.To achieve a simple design to adapt the spectrum to the channel by chip-shaping and use sub optimum detection scheme to avoid synchronization loops.

Disease Detection in Paddy Using Image Processing

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

Ganesh K | Usha B M , Sachin G , Sanjana.K.S , Mohammed JafferSadiq

Abstract

India is predominantly an agrarian economy with more than 75 percent of its population living in villages and depending on agriculture and allied activities for their livelihood. Land has traditionally been the basic income yielding assets of Indian farmers. Whilst most farmers are familiar with conventional farming practices, they are often ill positioned to promptly deal with diseases and plant infestations affecting their crops. Current advisory systems tend to be generic and are not tailored to specific plots or farms. Our project comprises an agriculture advisory model to provide an agriculture disease mitigation system. The image of diseased/infected paddy crop is captured using the camera. The images are processed in such a way as to provide a visual representation of the affected paddy leaf. A digital image is further analyzed by taking RGB feature of that image and then classified. That classified information can be used for precision farming by farmer for decision support system.

Driver Assistance System Using Lab VIEW

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

Jose J Edathala | Megha Varghese, Mereena Thomas, Navya Athira Ram, Vrinda Krishna

Abstract

This project aims in automising certain features of a car. The two features automised are the wiper system and headlamp system. Both of these are implemented using a graphical platform called LabVIEW.Windshield wipers play a key role in assuring the driver's safety during precipitation. The traditional wiper systems, however, requires driver's constant attention in adjusting the wiper speed and the intermittent wiper interval because the amount of precipitation on the windshield constantly varies according to time and vehicle's speed. The manual adjustment of the wiper distracts driver's attention, which may be a direct cause of traffic accidents. Similarly the automatic dimming of headlamp makes it effortless for the driver’s thereby ensuring it to be a reliable mode of transport. Thus the project is an endeavor towards an effective design and development of an automatic windshield wiper system and headlamp system.

Drones in the Field of Agriculture

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

Krishna | Saran Kumar G, Rohit M, Pradeep J, Muni Rahul

Abstract

This paper describes the use of Unmanned Aerial Vehicle in the field of Agriculture. Drones, or unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs), have been used by the military since WWI for remote surveillance. In the last decade, farmers have begun using them to monitor their fields as well as aiding precision agriculture programs. There are estimates that 80 to 90% of the growth in the drone market in the next decade will come from agriculture. The ease of use and ability to specialize each system means there will be a UAV for every situation. UAVs can monitor fields more often than satellites, take more detailed pictures, and are not obstructed by clouds. The different types of cameras can monitor data like photosynthesis rates or find where patches of weeds are in a field.

Dual band Omni-Directional Fractal Boundary Micro-Strip Antenna

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

E.Suresh | Dr. J. Lakshmi Narayana

Abstract

Compact fractal boundary dual band Omni-directional antenna is proposed for circular polarization (CP). Total four antennas were proposed by taking different fractal curves as the sides of a square patch. Optimization of indentation parameter is done to design the compact dual band antennas. The proposed antenna works at dual band of operating frequencies at 5.4 GHz and 8 GHz. Results show that an excellent CP is attained with dual band characteristics utilising a single probe feed, besides diminution in the antenna size by applying fractal boundary concept.

Dual band Wireless Sensor Network with Reduced Routing Overhead

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

Rijimol V.J | Subeena S

Abstract

Wireless sensor networks have been widely used in health care monitoring systems. With improved technologies in health care monitoring, the demand for high data rate transmission has also increased. Ultra wideband (UWB) is a short range wireless physical layer technology which is used to achieve high data rates in wireless sensor networks, without compromising the power consumption limits. The hardware implementation of UWB receivers is complex and also it consumes high power. This drawback can be overcome either by using a transmitter only method or by using a less complex narrow band wireless technology for receiver. The later method is proposed here with a narrow band feedback system, which increases the throughput. Second part of the paper deals with reducing the routing overhead of the network with a probability based method exploiting the neighbor coverage area. Simulation results show that the proposed methods improve bit error rate and throughput.

Dual-Polarized Antenna with Four Capacitive Feeds at Ultra-Wideband Range

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

G. Surendra Babu | Dr..P.Geetha , Dr.D.Leela Rani

Abstract

The design and analysis of a UWB (Ultra-Wideband) dualpolarized antenna with four capacitively coupled feed micro strip antenna suspended above the ground plane is presented. It has been demonstrated that the proposed approach can used for designing antennas with high impedance bandwidth and gain at UWB range. The proposed work includes the designing of dualpolarized UWB antenna for the applications of Global positioning system in handheld equipment and radar imaging. The UWB antenna will operate at the range of 3 to 11 GHz. An FR4 substrate of dielectric constant 4.4 and dielectric loss tangent of 0.027 is used in the present work. This antenna configuration can be used for Bidirectional radiation patterns required over wider bandwidth.

Dynamic Power Reduction of LFSR with Clock Gating Technology

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

M.Shobhana | RPVG. Ashok Reddy

Abstract

A modified Linear Feedback Shift Register is designed in which power consumption reduction by deactivating the clock signal to Flip Flop when the output signal is same as input signal. The power consumption of the new LFSR is reduced due to the reduced switching of Flip Flop. To verify, the maximum, minimum and average. Dynamic power management (DPM) is a design methodology for dynamically reconfiguring systems to provide the requested services and performance levels with a minimum number of active components or a minimum load on such components. DPM encompasses a set of techniques that achieves energyefficient computation by selectively turning off (or reducing the performance of) system components when they are idle (or partially unexploited). In this paper, we survey several approaches to system-level dynamic power management. We first describe how systems employ power-manageable components and how the use of dynamic reconfiguration can impact the overall power consumption. We then analyze DPM implementation issues in electronic systems, and we survey recent initiatives in standardizing the hardware/software interface to enable software-controlled power management of hardware components.

Dynamic Traffic Grooming With Spectrum Utilization in Elastic Optical Networks

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

Naveen Varghese John | S.Vijayananth

Abstract

The massive growth of Internet and communication modes has made the networking technology a promising solution that provides services in a cost effective manner and with better scalability. The traffic in backbone networks is ever increasing. Future networks must be stuffed with advanced resources to meet the increasing traffic demands, the evolution of bandwidth hungry services, like video on demand, e-learning and grid computing applications. Optical networking provides an efficient solution to satisfy the requirements of today’s communication revolution, since it provides massive advantages in terms of bandwidth, which could be exploited to meet the performance requirements. Optical networks based on Wavelength Division Multiplexing provide wavelengths firmly allocated throughout the optical spectrum which is parted by 50 or 100 GHz. The Elastic Optical Network helps to improve the overall performance of the network by allotting multiple sub channels to future connection requests with smaller bandwidth granularity (hence the term elastic) by the use of a flexible spectrum grid. We compare three cases, including traditional coarse ITU-T wavelength grid and spacing, mini-grid and grid-less. Though grid-less is the most flexible of all, it is also equally important to evaluate the mini-grid case that lies between the cases of coarse grid and grid-less. This is because today most of optical components cannot really achieve fully grid-less tunability. The working of flexible-grid EONs to that of fixed-grid WDM networks under dynamic traffic, with and without grooming capability, in cases of blocking probability and overall spectrum occupation is compared, thus determining quantitatively the benefits of EON in comparison to grooming based WDM networks.

E-Bin for Waste Segregation

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

Suma N | Navya, NeethaNayak M, Bhavana M, Reji Thomas

Abstract

an E-BIN is a cheap, easy to use solution for a segregation system at households, so that it can be sent directly for processing. It is designed to sort the refuse into metallic waste, wet waste and dry waste. This employs parallel resonant impedance sensing mechanism to identify metallic items, and capacitive sensors to distinguish between wet and dry waste. Experimental results show that the segregation of waste into metallic, wet and dry waste has been successfully implemented using the EBIN. In recent times, garbage disposal has become a huge cause for concern in the world. A voluminous amount of waste that is generated is disposed by means which have an adverse effect on the environment. . In India, rag pickers play an important role in the recycling of urban solid waste. Dependency on the rag-pickers can be diminished if segregation takes place at the source level. Currently there is no system of segregation of dry, wet and metallic wastes at a household level. The purpose of this project is the realization of a compact, low cost and user friendly segregation system for urban households to streamline the waste management process.

Effect of Black Hole attack on MANET routing protocols

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

Akshata Prabhu | Shobha Krishnan

Abstract

Mobile ad hoc networks are the extension of wireless networks. They play an important role in military applications, home applications etc. these networks are threatened by various security attacks such as Modification, Fabrication attack, Denial of Service attack, Sybil attack, Worm hole attack, Sleep Deprivation attack, Routing table Overflow etc. Black hole attack is an active attack on mobile ad hoc network. Due to its nature , the attacker makes the source node send all data packets to a Blackhole node that ends up dropping all the packets. In this paper an effect of black hole attack on Ad hoc on-demand distance vector routing protocol (AODV) and Ad hoc on-demand Multi path distance vector routing protocol (AOMDV) routing protocols will be studied. Effect of attack on parameters like dropped packets, throughput and end to end delay is analyzed.

Effect of Load on Coefficient of Friction between TYRE and Road Surface

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

Tejas Anpat | Mangesh Khapale, Mayur Magar ,Aniket Chavan, Atul Aradhye

Abstract

The current situation of world is very cautious about energy sources. So we need to develop technology for saving or reducing the use of these sources. In this experiment, we have studied the importance of coefficient of friction between TYRE of vehicle and road for fuel economy. By experimentation, it is found that increase in weight of vehicle, increases coefficient of friction, which affects on fuel economy. So, for fulfilling these requirements, we have to reduce the load on vehicle TYRE, resulting in decrease in coefficient of friction, increasing performance of vehicle which will reduce use of fuel.

Effect of Particle Length and Radius on Movement of Metallic Particle in Single Phase Gas Insulated Bus duct

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

A. Giriprasad | M.Surya Kalavathi , PoonamUpadhyay , N.Rama Rao

Abstract

The invention of SF6 insulation gas has revolutionized not only the technology of circuit breakers but also the organization of electrical power transmission lines and substations. Gas Insulated Substations have found a broad range of applications in power systems for more than thirty years because of their high reliability, easy maintenance and small ground space requirement. Metallic contaminants are inexorable in GIS systems and most common causes are mechanical vibrations during shipment and service, thermal expansion/contraction at expansion joints. Free metallic particle contaminants in Gas Insulated Bus duct adversely affect the insulation performance because they can cause serious deterioration of the dielectric strength and thereby the breakdown voltage of the GIS system is reduced. Research studies reveal that free metallic particles seriously decreases breakdown voltage of Gas Insulated Systems. This paper deals with the effect of particle length on the moment of metallic particle in single phase gas insulated bus duct. The simulation of movement of aluminum and copper wire like particles are carried out for various bus voltages 75kV, 100kV, 145KV. The results of the simulation have been presented and analyzed.

Efficient Algorithm for Energy Reduction in WSN: Binary to Gray Technique

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

Swati P. More | M. S. Borse

Abstract

a wireless sensor network consist of many sensor nodes for doing some tasks like collecting and doing process so that information which is gained by sensor used for communication by means of transmitting and receiving with other sensor nodes in another in WSN. In WSN the sensor nodes are self organized or spatially distributed to monitor physical or environmental conditions such as temperature, pressure and sound etc. And transmit their data through wireless network to the desired location. As a WSN consists of multiple sensor nodes of hundreds of thousands number these sensor nodes have to perform their task without failure like reduction in battery. And in WSN it is very difficult to charge or replace the usable batteries. So for doing their transmission and receiving processes efficiently the sensor nodes should have efficient energy to perform their communication. And for this reason the energy reduction while communicating is to be developed. In this paper, by using gray code technique a new data transmission mechanism is developed to save transmission energy. The power drain in WSN is mainly because of communication, energy efficient communication protocols that can be implemented with low hardware and software cost are thus of paramount importance in WSN stored the device recharging cycle period and hence provide connectivity for longer durations.

Efficient Medical Image Compression based on Region of Interest

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

S. Muni Rathnam | T. Ramashri

Abstract

The Radiology places very high demands on the networking and digital storage infrastructure of hospitals. An Efficient method for segmentation and compression of medical images is proposed. In this paper we present a clustering algorithm called Adaptive Fuzzy C means for image segmentation which could be applied on general images and specific images (medical and microscopic images).This algorithm employs the concepts of fuzziness and belongingness to provide a better and more adaptive clustering process as compared to other clustering algorithm. Based on the results obtained the proposed algorithm gives better visual quality as compared to other clustering methods. Compression methods capable of delivering higher reconstruction quality for important parts are attractive in this situation. Only a small portion of the image might be diagnostically useful, but the cost of a wrong interpretation is high. Hence, for medical image compression and transmission Region based coding is necessary. In telemedicine applications Lossless compression schemes with secure transmission play a key role in accurate diagnosis and research. In this paper, we propose lossless scalable RBC for Medical images based on improved Ridgelet Transform and with distortion limiting compression technique for other regions in image. The main objective of this work is to reconstruct the image portions losslessly. For Medical images based on improved Ridgelet Transform and with distortion limiting compression technique for other regions in image. The main objective of this work is to reconstruct the image portions losslessly.

Efficient Modular Exponentiation Architectures for RSA Algorithm

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

S. Prasanth kumar | K.J.Jegadish kumar, B.Partibane

Abstract

Cryptosystems are used to send confidential messages in secure manner. The most important and efficient type of cryptosystem is RSA. RSA is used in various sectors such as Bank security and Internet protection. One of the various steps involved in RSA is Modular exponentiation, which is used in both Encryption and Decryption. It takes high memory and computation time of algorithm. In order to reduce the computation time of algorithm, the Modular exponentiation complexity is reduced. In this paper, we explain efficient novel Modular exponentiation. This is done by FPGA implementation using ZedBoard and comparing them with the previous methods.

Efficient Multiplication for the DSP Applications using Static Segment Method

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

Swathi Samanthapudi | Murali Krishna D

Abstract

The requirement to hold up different digital signal processing (DSP) and classification applications on energyconstrained devices has regularly developed. This applications usually execute matrix multiplications using fixed-point arithmetic , while indicating tolerance for some counting errors. Hence, improving the energy efficiency of multiplications is critical. In this brief, we introduce multiplier architectures that can tradeoff counting accuracy with energy consumption at design time. Compared with a actual multiplier, the suggested multiplier can consume 57% lower energy/op with average counting error of ?1%. Absolutely, we signify such a little counting error does not particularly failure the effect of DSP and the preciseness of classification applications.

Electricity generation using piezo-road with automatic traffic light and street light control

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

Chithra Pradeep | Devika S, Davood K K, Vinila M L

Abstract

Electricity has become a major need of present day civilization and its demand is increasing rapidly. Hence we need a non-conventional method of power generation. This paper emphasis one of the promising electricity generation method using piezoelectric material. Vibration energy that is generated by vehicle movement on the road converted to electrical energy by piezoelectric effect. Instead of considering traffic as a problem we can take it as an opportunity to produce energy. And the generated energy effectively utilized for the automatic control of traffic light and street light. Here, a solar panel is also used as an alternative energy source. Hence by all means a piezo-smart road can be developed.

Electricity Generator Pen (EGP)

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

Punyakeerthi.B.L. | 

Abstract

This paper tries to present new way to generate Electricity by using existing technology along with daily usable small physical material components by applying basic science laws and formulae.

Electro-encephalographic Study and Survey of Feature Extraction for Emotion Detection using Wavelets

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

Nayana | Dr.Cyril Prasanna Raj P, Mrs. Anuradha J P

Abstract

Emotions play a very important role in finding the state of mind of others, have role in non verbal communication and different emotions have got influence on the voluntary and non-voluntary actions of the human body. So by finding the emotions of a person we can predict in which state the person is and what the person wants to say. Emotion detection is one of the applications of Brain Computer Interface; it mainly helps the people with motor disabilities, neuronal disorders and other disorders by developing tool for them in real time. We mainly concentrating on extracting the features from the EEG and we have discussed about best wavelet for feature extraction and classifying the emotions using neural network. By considering the some of the intrinsic aspects of emotions this can also help in the treatment of Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), Attention deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and anxiety disorder. By developing a real time tool for detecting the emotions automatically can help these people. In this we are mainly classifying five emotions happy, excited, angry, fear and neutral emotions.

Electro-Mechanical Actuator Servo Design For Launch Vehicle Application

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

Lini M.Thomas | Mrs. B. Hemalatha

Abstract

In a launch vehicle the Electro-Mechanical Actuation (EMA) system gimbals the rocket nozzle and provides accurate steering of the vehicle. The adequate amount of force or thrust at the gimbal point is obtained by the small rotation of the gimbal. The force generated from the EMA system stabilizes and steers the launch vehicle in the required direction in to overcome the wind-gust disturbances and balance the aerodynamic movements. The mathematical model of the linear actuator is considered for the servo system design. In this paper the servo design of the actuation system is carried out for the launch vehicle application. The servo system integrates actuators, sensors and embedded intelligent systems for control, optimization and supervision which aim in improving the performance of the system. Due to high reliability demands of such systems, accurate supervision and fault diagnosis concepts are of particular importance.

Electronic Eye for Security System

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

J.Pallavi | P. Suresh Babu

Abstract

Humans interest in the heavens has been universal and enduring.As the automation is emerging technology these days,we introduceElectronic Eye which describes the design and implementation of Door image capture using Microcontroller based security system for homes and offices.It provides the user with efficient and reliable security system for Door image capture that supports the use of an sensor at the door to send the signals to control unit of electronic eye with buzzer alarm for security purpose with image capture as soon as the door opens with image capture at the output of laptop or PC with VB application.

Elliptical Curve Intermediate Key Methodology and its Implementation for 192 & 256 Bit Sizes

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

Kalasagarvarma.K | Neetha Tirmal, Kartik A, S C Rathnakara

Abstract

Data encryption is widely used to ensure security in Open networks such as the internet and wireless communications. Any security method used for protecting data should be more robust and highly difficult to break. Advances in technology have made the conventional security algorithms such as AES kind leading to sense of insecurity in using the channel itself. The Wellknown public-key cryptography algorithms RSA, El-Gamal, and DSA (Digital Signature algorithm) are highly secured but have a constraint of higher key sizes. Elliptical curve cryptography (ECC) is an efficient technique in public-key cryptographic methods, which has overcome the limitations of the current crypto systems in terms of security and the key sizes. But ECC cannot be directly implemented in encryption and decryption operations such as real time operations; it can be used standalone to encrypt and decrypt the public keys. A novel method, “Elliptical Curve Intermediate-Key Method” is proposed in the paper to addresses the direct implementation of elliptical curve cryptography in the context of encryption and decryption. This paper shows the implementation of the method and results with respect to 192 and 256 bit prime fields.

Embedded Security System for Home Automation

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

Prachi Gorate | Sakshi Bhide , Pinal Davda

Abstract

The aim of the home automation is to control home devices from a central control point with security, comfort and convenience systems. In this paper, we present implementation of low cost, flexible and secure internet base home automation system. The communication between the devices is wireless, protocol between units is enhanced to be suitable for most of the appliances. Homeowners can orchestrate and monitor appliances for multiple locations within the house or even remotely, via telephone and internet. We develop a remote website that provides secure internet access and other services during installation to protect against security threats. We include features that uses local control home temperature and ability to integrate different home functions by Global Home Server Target Machine.

Embedded Solution for Aircraft Fault Detection and Passenger Safety System Using Wireless Technology

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 31st May 2017

Jayendra Chavan | Ajit Shinde, Hrishikesh More, Ravindra Patil,Sachin Gurav

Abstract

The recent years were quite bad for aviation world due to serious aircraft crashes. Lots of human being lost their lives in plane crashes over last 3 years and this became very serious & sensitive issue in the world. So we are proposing the idea of detachment of passenger compartment on the detection of major problem in an aircraft which predicts the fatal crash of airplane. We are using some advanced sensors to detect the accidental occurrences of defects or faults in an aircraft. These sensors are selected according to most common problems of aircraft crashes. On detection of sensors data, the data is compared with threshold limits & if the data reaches beyond threshold it predicts the possible crash of plane and gives signal to the detachment control panel On the signal of sensors, the passenger compartment will get ejected from the fuselage and with help of parachutes or will land safely on ground without any fatal loss. We are using arduino platform with AVR ATmega328 microcontroller. It is 8 bit microcontroller with 32kb memory. This controller board comes with 14 digital I/O pins and out of these 14 pins fro 6 pins provide Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) output signal. This board also comes with 6 analog input pins. This board can be powered by USB as well as external dc jack with 5 to 12 v input supply.

Embedded Solution for Street Light Automation and Security

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

Ayesha.I.Nejkar | Nitin.B.Naik

Abstract

In today’s era rampant increase in population has become risk generating factor which has led in indecent utilization of resources for different purposes and applications, which will be ultimately resulting in extinction of resources. This paper proposes and deals with optimum utilization of the resources in the city. The main objective of this paper is to analyze various problems and provide efficient and secure solution resulting in monitoring and controlling the parameters. In current scenario the switching of street light is having fixed routine at fixed time interval irrespective of feedback of darkness & human or vehicle interpretation which instigate street light to glow continuously whose consequence may upshot devastation of electricity & resources . In our proposed work switching of street light is ensued dynamically wherein the switching mechanism is based on different time interval and on the feedback of density of vehicle & human. The another provision developed in the proposed work is detection of violence, threat or safety measure by providing message wirelessly to monitoring or control unit of municipal corporation.

Embedded System For Driver Assistance & Autopilot Technology

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 31st May 2017

Medha Yadav | Apurva Sachan,Dr. Gerardine Immaculate Mary

Abstract

Among the many reasons that can be accounted for the increasing number of accidents; major one is the latency in the reaction of the driver. Recent studies show that one third of the number of fatal or serious accidents are associated with excessive or inappropriate speed, inattentiveness and faulty judgement of the driver. Thus technologies have been developed which would aid the driver for better response to the incoming vehicle or obstacles or any sort of anomaly. The objective of this project is to provide a solution to these minor negligence of the driver which can become a grave danger to himself and others on the road. This project provides a modest combination of multi sensors featuring lane change assistance, obstacle detection and speed control of the vehicle. These features are collectively put under the auto pilot mode which is at the driver’s disposal.

Embedded Web Server using Raspberry PI

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

Prof. Y. R. Risodkar | Ghanshyam Talele

Abstract

The presented paper aims at designing embedded web server with ARM1176JZF-S 700 MHz Raspberry Pi processor and Ethernet module kit. The paper is focused on ARM-11 and Ethernet based design of an embedded web server using Apache server. The embedded web server data base includes a complete web server data with MySQL.

Energy Harvesting on Aircrafts Statics Charge – Energy Generation

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

Joshit Mohanty | Goutam Misra , Bhismadev Meher

Abstract

A novel energy harvesting concept is proposed for treating local electrostatic energy developed on flying composite aircrafts. This work focuses on the feasibility research on collecting static charges with capacitive collectors. The existing energy harvesting system and the electrification of the typical carbon fiber composites (CFCs) aircraft hasbeen reviewed. The detailed model experiments were then designed to characterize different configurations for electrostatic energy harvesting on aeroplane. In the lab, the static charge was produced by a corona discharging device, and a capacitor or a metal sheet was put in the electric field to collect the charges under four different configurations. After that, the rest results for these configurations were analyzed, which is followed by the discussion about the results application on the aircraft. This work has proved that it is feasible to collect the local static electricity on flying aircraft, and it could provide a new direction of energy harvesting system in aviation field.

Energy Saving Embedded Solution For Authenticate Car Parking System

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 31st May 2017

Rishikesh S. Sutar | Rohan K. Kumbhar, Sushilkumar S. Kothale, Guide Ayesha I.Nejkar

Abstract

Nowadays increase in population and luxurious living of life have led people to utilize number of means of transportation or convenience say vehicles, cars, bikes etc. The ratio of utilization of vehicles has increased to a greater extent, where in the land or the parking space is comparatively smaller1. This issue has led to decline and resulted in design and implementation of proposed system. In current scenario punctuality and disciplinary routine play a vital role which is affecting any human being whether it is an industrial, organization or a management? In this proposed system we have used the sensor module to detect the car or any other object & light intensity. In response to the sensor output, controlling action will be taken place to meet our proposed objectives. Image processing through MATLAB has been done to recognize the authenticated number plate and meanwhile access will be provided3. However our proposed work will contribute in proper time management, discipline and reduced human efforts by providing authenticated and authorized car parking system. Improper utilization of resources will ultimately result in its extinction; hence through our proposed technology we have made an effort in utilizing renewable energy resources. The proposed system has been added with a provision such that it reduces wastage of the time for turning on-off of the lights in parking area which results in efficient consumption of electricity and indirectly saves the fuel also which leads in optimum utilization of natural resources.

Enhanced LTE-A Model for Improving Energy Efficiency in LTE-A Relay Networks

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

C.Viswanath | Dr. V.R. Anitha

Abstract

In future wireless communication, the networks will face the dual challenge to support large traffic volumes by providing reliable service for delay-sensitive traffic. To get this challenge, the relay network is introduced here as a new network design for the fourth generation (4G) LTE-Advanced (LTE-A) network. The resource allocation is investigated including subcarrier and power allocation, under statistical quality of service (QoS) constraints for 4G LTE-A relay networks. Filter Bank Multicarrier with Offset Quadrature Amplitude Modulation (FBMC/OQAM) is recognized as an appropriate modulation scheme for 4G/5G wireless technologies. In this paper, we investigate an enhanced LTE-A model for improving energy efficiency in relay network with an extremely low Adjacent Channel Leakage Ratio (ACLR). Our result suggests that the improvement of energy efficiency with extremely low ACLR, when compared with schemes A, B, C & D. With an extremely low ACLR, FBMC/OQAM scheme is a suitable candidate for cognitive radio (CR) applications.

Enhancement of Node Authentication and Security in Mobile ADHOC Network

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

Manohar B N | Suchitra V

Abstract

The wireless networks play major rule in networking field. Routing and mobility are the major problems in mobile ADHOC networks. These problems can be avoided using clustering based authentication of approaches. In these paper describes The implementations of secured node verification scheme that authenticates the true nodes to access network and detects attacker nodes and Q–LEACH based clustering so that external and internal attacks also avoided. Every node in the network can act like self originating nodes to their neighbors. So every node is builds its own IP address. The wireless networks is used in military application. The mobile adhoc network vulnerable nature not secures. Assign the authentication key for every node to achieve the energy saving of the battery. Therefore it is necessary to adapted Intrusion Detection System mechanism to prevent and detected the Network from attackers. In the other hand Enhanced Adaptive Acknowledgement is proposed as an IDS. In this paper a both IP-trace back with End-to-End Adaptive Acknowledgment getting acknowledgments or information in both ends.

Enhancement of sensor deployment Using Interactive Artificial bee colony algorithm

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

Diana Anto | Amrutha V Nair

Abstract

IABC(Interactive artificial bee colony algorithm) is used for sensor deployment.IABC algorithm will perform better than that of artifial bee colony algorithm(ABC) and particle swarm optimization(PSO).In this paper,compare the IABC and ABC algorithm.IABC algorithm improve the network lifetime of node by finding the best position for the nodes.There are three bees in IABC which are employed bee and onlooker bee.Employed bee provides the neighborhood of the source in its memory.The onlooker bee select the food source.A heuristic is used for the scheduling of sensor nodes which will maximizes the network lifetime.IABC outperforms than that of ABC algorithm.IABC algorithm mainly used for solving optimization problems.

Enhancing Quality of Service and Security for Heterogeneous Networkusing Game Theoritic Algorithm

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

M.Divya | S.Sivaneeshkumar

Abstract

The emergence of various new generations in Differentiated applications along with their services will greatly increase the accessing of base station in use of multiple accessing nodes in wireless sensor networks. The presence of several users in a wireless media will cause the disturbance for the user in the required access range. Due to this disturbance the unwanted links will increase. In order to minimize that disturbance, we have to provide the interconnection of Expected access and suitable Security. But in regular these two techniques are treated in a unique form not in a combined form. And also have some problems in treating these two in a combined manner. Due to this combined form of usage we have to introduce the approach of playing game with each other on the basics of bandwidth and delay between user and base station. And the solutions are shown in graphical representations.

Eog Less Automatic Accident Prevention Using Arduino

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 31st May 2017

Miss.Patil S.S. | Miss.Patil N.M,Miss.Yadav P.J

Abstract

Now-a-days, accidents due to drowsiness condition are one of the major problems on highway. These types of accidents occurred due to drowsy and driver cannot able to control the vehicle, when he/she wakes. Accidents due to drowsy is prevented and controlled when the vehicle is out of control. Also the drunken drive also prevented with the help of alcohol detector in the vehicle. Here we are using accelerometer sensor for recognizing the driver is in the drowsiness condition. The drowsiness is identified by the accelerometer sensor by measuring the angle of tilt of the driver’s head. The accelerometer sensor is worn by the driver by means of the spectacles frames or cap. The alcohol consumption is also verified during the starting process of vehicle using alcohol detector. If the driver is drunk then the buzzer indicates and the vehicle doesn’t allow the driver to start the vehicle. If the driver is in drowsiness condition then the system will give alarm signal and the speed of the vehicle is reduced. The ultrasonic sensor will sense the obstacle to avoid collision with that and vehicle will be parked with indications. Also the message is displayed on LCD display in the vehicle to aware the passengers that the driver is drowsy through GSM.

Error Correction in Parallel Filters Using Error Correction Codes

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

Saju Raju | Sreejesh Kumar R

Abstract

Digital filters are widely used in communication and signal processing systems. In modern signal processing circuits, it is common that several filters are operating in parallel. In some cases, the reliability of those systems are very critical and thus a fault tolerant filter implementation is necessary. Triple Modular Redundancy (TMR) protect the filters from errors by adding redundancy at the logic or system level. But it requires larger area and power for protecting the digital filters from errors. This drawback leads to an alternate solution, which is the error correction codes (ECC) used to protect parallel filters from errors. In this work, hamming code is used as an Error correction code (ECC). It mainly focus on detection and correction of multiple bit errors occurring in parallel filters that have either the same impulse response or the same input data. This technique provides more efficient implementations when the number of parallel filters are large. This scheme focus on more powerful protection using advanced error correction codes (ECC) that can correct failures in multiples modules.

Estimating the Context Switch Overhead and Data Acquisition in Wireless Sensor Networks

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

Rajesha N | H L Viswanath

Abstract

To meet the prerequisites for creating MCUs, it is proposed to utilize a frivolous as well as multithreaded OS by means of a file system named Flash File system in favour of limited required Wireless Sensor Platforms. The most critical task for adding to the module is to deal with the partial sources upon WS stages along with towards bolster an appropriate software replica in favour of WSN function programers. The principle advance for the software replica is in the direction of embrace an agreecapable threading replica for empowering the multi-threaded software, even as diminishing the overhead of link switching as well as decrease the code volume in MCU. The effeciency of the scheduler is optimized by predefined algorithms as opposed to utilizing direct hunt down threads. One of the best approaches is to overcoming resource free localizations for virtual memory, wireless reinventing and memory kernel. Virtual memory can be accomplished without hardware bolster however small hardware change and code addition next to order moment. PIC is a fitting path in the direction of deal with accomplishing active stacsiblingsg.

Experimental Investigation on Modified Exhaust Treatment System for Diesel Engine Emissions

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

T.Devarajulu Reddy | F.Anand Raju

Abstract

A new kind of exhaust after-treatment system having Diesel Particulate Filter, Three Way Catalytic (TWC) converter (in substitution of SCR & Oxidation catalyst) with new kind of DEF/Ad blue-Dosing Module with Manual Control, Supply Line strategy and Supply module, is prepared in order to Finding the scope for increasing the efficiency of a Urea-SCR system. The results show that there is a 85% reduction in the CO and HC emissions after arranging the setup. It is also found that on an average there is a 75% reduction in the NOx.

Face Recognition Utilizing Motion Blur, Illumination and Pose

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

Mekha Unnikrishnan | Minu Mariya Thomas, Reenu Sara Rajan, Sudhin Sara Kurian , Muth Sebastian

Abstract

The existing face recognition techniques cannot deal with non-uniform blurring conditions which arise from tilts and rotations in cameras. Different factors such as exposure time, stability of the platform and user experience affects the degree of blurring. In this paper a method is proposed for face recognition across motion blur, variations in illumination and pose. Images of different persons are collected and stored in the gallery. The probe set is formed using the set of above images with different blur, illumination and pose. One image among the probe set is selected and its blur is estimated using hessian matrix. A threshold value for blur is fixed. If amount of blur is greater than threshold then the estimated blur is applied to the entire gallery. The LBP (local binary pattern) features of the blurred gallery images and the given probe image is extracted and the distance between them is calculated. The gallery face which gives the minimum distance is recognised as the probe face. If the blur is less than the threshold, gaussian filter is applied to the probe image and DCT is calculated. The 3/4th of the probe image as well as all the gallery images are cropped. The HOG of LBP is found out from the cropped probe image. DCT (Discrete Cosine Transform) and HOG (Histogram of Gaussian) of LBP forms the extracted feature set. PCA (Principal Component Analysis) is used to reduce the dimension of the feature set. The feature so obtained is compared with the RDF model of all the gallery images and thus the correct user is found out.

Fair Resource Allocation Based on Max Weights in Cognitive Radio Networks

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

Aman Rana | Rajoo Pandey

Abstract

With the tremendous growth in wireless technology the increasing demand for spectrum resources is causing spectrum scarcity. Several surveys show that most of the time and at most of the places licensed bands are underutilized. Cognitive radio (CR) is a promising technology which has the ability to deal with the increasing demand of spectrum bands as it adapts itself according to the surrounding environmental conditions and transmits its data only through that band which is idle. To do this the CR needs to monitor the activity of licensed user continuously which is known as spectrum sensing. Spectrum sensing and sharing both are basic and essential functions of a CR to find the unused spectrum and share it efficiently. A limited amount of network resources have to be shared among many users in cognitive radio networks (CRNs). As per given channel conditions and total amount of available resource the system may allocate resource to users according to some performance measures. To maximize system throughput the system will allocate more resource to the users with better channel conditions, this causes starvation of resources in other users. So, fairness in resource allocation is equally important for efficient utilization of the available frequency bands. In this research paper we have proposed two max weight based methods to add fairness during resource allocation in a cognitive radio network. The simulation results obtained on MATLAB and their analysis is also presented.

Fault Detection using Image Processing and Orbit Analysis

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 31st May 2017

Shreyas Gawde | Sangam Borkar,Suryakant Gawde

Abstract

Vibrations have been traditionally associated with trouble in machines. However, vibrations are merely symptoms of good or bad mechanical behavior. Today these symptoms are used to detect and solve many mechanical problems. To prevent the great loss in production due to motor failure, early detection of faults with diagnosis of its root cause is necessary. This project is an approach for fault detection in rotating machines using orbit analysis of shaft and Image processing. Several works have been focused on detecting early mechanical faults before damage appears in the machine. All these techniques such as Motor Current Signature Analysis, Vibration Monitoring, Thermal imaging, Oil particle analysis are very effective their way. In this project a new methodology for low speed rotating machines is proposed for identifying and detecting different faults in motors. Through Image Processing Based on Orbital Analysis, different faults will be studied, generating characteristically different patterns that are used for fault identification

Filtering of Volume Clutter in Pulse Surveillance Radar using Discrete Wavelet Transform

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

Nimisha O A | 

Abstract

Moving weather systems will have a nonzero Doppler response at rate at which the rain droplets are approaching the radar system. The complete data the radar collects contain the returns of both the target and the clutter. The signal processing block in a radar system uses filtering operations to extract the target information while suppressing the clutter. Typically the filters are designed based on Doppler Frequency using a Fourier filter bank. Instead of the frequency domain, the wavelet analysis allows the time-scale domain in processing. The filter bank in this project utilizes Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT), DWT coefficients represent the results of a multi-resolution analysis of the radar signal. The experiments indicate that the Fourier filter bank filter the volume clutter very well. However, a DWT filter bank has different time resolution for different frequency ranges. The experiments were performed in MATLAB environment as well as python and data is real radar rain clutter data from PSR, TERLS(low PRF). The objective of this paper is to develop a DWT based filtering system and to test it’s operation in one situation of volume clutter and then plotting PPI.

Fingerprint Liveness Detection From Single Image Using Low-Level Features and Shape Analysis

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 31st May 2017

B.S.S.Ram Naryan Reddy | M.Sri Vamsi,A.Santhosh Kumar,Dr .J. Subhashini

Abstract

Fingerprints are good source for individual identification by biometric authentication. Password based authentication systems are less secure than that of the fingerprint authentication where fingerprints and Iris are unique for every Individual.to reduce the fraud cases in biometric authentication ,we propose a static approach where we extract low level gradient features and texture analysis using dynamic score level integration algorithm.The proposed method is very much helpful to reduce the spoofing attacks in fingerprint authentication.

Fire Fighting Robotic Vehicle

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

Suhas kumar M. S | Vinayak K Nase, Praveen kumar. R ,Vidya pragnya. K ,Geetha R

Abstract

The project is designed to develop a fire fighting robot using RF technology for remote operation. The robotic vehicle is loaded with water tanker and a pump which is controlled over wireless communication to throw water. An 8051 series of microcontroller is used for the desired operation. At the transmitting end using push buttons, commands are sent to the receiver to control the movement of the robot either to move forward, backward and left or right etc. At the receiving end three motors are interfaced to the microcontroller where two of them are used for the movement of the vehicle and the remaining one to position the arm of the robot. The RF transmitter acts as a RF remote control that has the advantage of adequate range (up to 200 meters) with proper antenna, while the receiver decodes before feeding it to another microcontroller to drive DC motors via motor driver IC for necessary work. A water tank along with water pump is mounted on the robot body and its operation is carried out from the microcontroller output through appropriate signal from the transmitting end. The whole operation is controlled by an 8051 series microcontroller. A motor driver IC is interfaced to the microcontroller through which the controller drives the motors. Further the project can be enhanced by interfacing it with a wireless camera so that the person controlling it can view operation of the robot remotely on a screen.

Flow Mobility Modeling In VANETS

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

Sandeep Kaur | Nikita Arora , Deepti Tara

Abstract

The most important feature of Vehicular Ad hoc Networks (VANETs) is the high mobility of nodes, which makes the mobility model one of the most important parameters that should be carefully selected when evaluating any protocol. To correctly and faithfully evaluate protocols in a simulation study, the model should be as realistic as possible. Vehicles communicating wirelessly play an important role in the simulation of Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks (VANETs). In this paper, one of the main mobility modeling approach is discussed to the extent that it can help to understand models formulation and integration strategies with network simulators. This approach is called as flow mobility modeling. It is put into the discussion and elaborated in such way it clarifies basics of flow modeling and its impact. It also finds a different ways of modeling and implementation into existing traffic simulators viz. SUMO, VISSIM etc.

Fluorscent Noise Circumvention In Optical Wireless Communication

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

Neethu Varghese | Ms.Swapna Davies

Abstract

Infrared wireless systems plays a significant role in indoor communication. It had replaced the existing RF wireless systems. There are several challenges for the practical implementation of the optical wireless communication. For this reason, the indoor optical wireless transmission systems are not easy to design and hence new design solutions are needed to be explored. One of the challenges faced by the LED optical wireless communication is the optical noise generated by the AC-LEDs or conventional fluorescent lamps. The main objective of this work is to circumvent background optical noises using OFDM. The orthogonal subcarriers which are affected by interference can be used to send training symbols rather than sending data. Training symbols can be used for channel estimation, based on the estimated parameters equalization is performed at the receiver side. Combining FEC along with OFDM an efficient optical wireless system can be designed.

Fortuity Notification Using Ardu-Analyser

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

Mr. S. Satheeshkumar | S. Boopathiraja,E. Edward Rozario,C. Mullaivendhan

Abstract

Due to the technology revolution people don’t care about what’s happening around them they keep on moving without any care because of which we designed a system to detect accident. This is used to detect the accident automatically and victim analysis plays an important role to reducing the time laps which will reduce the death rate. As the name indicates this project is about advanced technologies in cars for making it more intelligent and interactive for avoiding accidents on roads. By using ARM7 this system becomes more efficient, reliable & effective. As now a day’s mobile is common electronic gadget that is present with everyone and this problem can be solved by it only. By the short message service (SMS) on of the fetcher of mobile will help to solve this problem. There are only few system which is used to detect accident only and this system is most common in the luxury cars. This module consist of real time sensor which will not only detect accident but also reduce the speed of the cars in the publ ic place The main components of the system consist of number of real time sensors like gas, eye blink, alcohol, fuel, impact sensors and a software interface with GPS and Google Maps APIs for location

Fortuity Notification Using Ardu-Analyser

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

Mr. S. Satheeshkumar | S. Boopathiraja,E. Edward Rozario,C. Mullaivendhan

Abstract

Due to the technology revolution people don’t care about what’s happening around them they keep on moving without any care because of which we designed a system to detect accident. This is used to detect the accident automatically and victim analysis plays an important role to reducing the time laps which will reduce the death rate. As the name indicates this project is about advanced technologies in cars for making it more intelligent and interactive for avoiding accidents on roads. By using ARM7 this system becomes more efficient, reliable & effective. As now a day’s mobile is common electronic gadget that is present with everyone and this problem can be solved by it only. By the short message service (SMS) on of the fetcher of mobile will help to solve this problem. There are only few system which is used to detect accident only and this system is most common in the luxury cars. This module consist of real time sensor which will not only detect accident but also reduce the speed of the cars in the publ ic place The main components of the system consist of number of real time sensors like gas, eye blink, alcohol, fuel, impact sensors and a software interface with GPS and Google Maps APIs for location

FPGA Based Image Enhancement and Noise Removal Using Bilateral Filter

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

S Parvathy | Anas A S

Abstract

Image restoration refers to genre of techniques that aim to recover a high quality original image from degraded version of image which is given a specific model for degradation. The common forms of degradation that an image suffers are loss of sharpness and noise. The bilateral filter is a nonlinear filter that smoothens the noise while preserving the edge structure. This novel FPGA design architecture of bilateral filter is described in Register Transfer level (RTL). This feature of kernel based design is supported by input data into groups so that internal clock of the design is a multiple of pixel clock given by a target system.The bilateral filter is implemented by combining these features as highly parallelized pipeline structure. This method is non iterative and simple which combines both grey levels and colours based on their photometric similarity as well as geometric closeness and prefers near by values to distant values in both domain and range. The photometric component and the geometric component has been combined to form photo-geometric filter component which reduces the structural complexity while serving the process.This bilateral filtering operation is coded in VHDL and can be simulated using ModelSim and Matlab.

FPGA Based Solution for Filtering of Data Generated Through DDS

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 7th June 2017

Ms. Rekha B | Dr. P.C Srikanth

Abstract

This paper is concerned with removing the unwanted noise signal present in the original signal by using the digital (FIR) filter whose cut off frequency is 2.5Mhz.The input signal to the filter is generated using DDS IP core. The whole design is simulated and synthesized using Xilinx ISE Design suite 14.1 version and verified using the Matlab

FPGA Design For Location Independent Hand Posture Recognition System

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

Aleena Lal | Anas A S

Abstract

In the present era of smart electronics, hand sign recognition has a significant role. A hand sign recognition algorithm based system employing a hybrid SOM-Hebb network is designed. The input posture image is pre-processed and feature vectors are extracted from them. These are then mapped on to lower dimensional neurons on the self-organizing map (SOM). The input image is compared with the hand posture images in the database. The algorithm offers a stagnant response irrespective of the change in location of the input image. The work is to develop a design that supports real- time FPGA implementation using onboard camera. The set of default images in database used as the current input. The input image is pre-processed and converted to a binary image. The feature vectors are extracted using Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT) and fed to the hybrid classifier network for recognition. FPGA implementation enhances its use in portable embedded applications. The system offers better recognition accuracy and faster response. The system is designed for robustness against change in location of input image. The algorithm is coded using VHDL and simulated in Xilinx ISE 13.2 and MATLAB 2013.

FPGA Implementation of Distributed Canny Edge Detector for Low Clarity Images

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

Rinjo A J | Remya K P

Abstract

Edge detection is the most common preprocessing step in many image processing algorithms. Edge detection is the method to find the image brightness changes sharply or, more formally, has discontinuities. The points at which image brightness changes sharply are typically organized into a set of curved line segments termed edges. The purpose of edge detection is to reduce the data in an image. Canny detector has high latency, because it’s a frame level processing. So in order to avoid that problem new canny edge detection developed. It’s a block level processing. The entire image divides into block. In the original canny compute the high and low threshold values based on the frame level.. In the new distributed canny detector have a histogram, which helps to give more clarity to the image. The synthesis tool used here is Xilinx ISE 14.2. Using hardware description language (Verilog) the system can implement on Spartan 6 FPGA.

FPGA Implementation of High Throughput Dual Key based AES Encryption and Decryption

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

Naveen Kumar M S | Manjunath C Lakhannavar

Abstract

Data security plays a major role in today’s technology. Cryptography is one of the industry standards in providing data security since many years. Federal Information Processing Standard (FIPS) is approved Advance Encryption Standard (AES) cryptographic algorithm that can be used to protect electronic data. But the conventional scheme of AES is vulnerable for cryptanalysis, due to static S-box which will never vary with the input text/key. Noticeable drawbacks with AES are, it can only support one key, and is prone to easy reverse engineering which can lead to insecure data. Thus S-box value is necessary for changes in input key. In this paper, a new scheme of AES is discussed which involves in the generation of Key based S-Boxes, with dual key AES and implemented in pipeline architecture to improve the throughput with low latency.

FPGA Implementation of Lms Filter

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

Prajna K | Charishma

Abstract

LMS algorithm is one of the algorithm which is used in digital Signal Processing used to minimize the noise present in the input signal. This algorithm is best due to its simplicity and efficiency. The algorithm is implemented in many of the applications.FPGA implementation of the LMS algorithm is done using Simulink model.

FPGA Implementation of Reconfigurable Pulse-Shaping FIR Interpolation Filter with Carry Select Adder

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

Devikarani H S | Lakshmi Shrinivasan

Abstract

This paper proposes the Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) architecture implementation of reconfigurable RootRaised Cosine (RRC), Finite Impulse Response (FIR) filter in which all the adders present in the designed filter are replaced by the modified Carry-Select Adders (CSLA), which is mostly used in Digital Up Converter (DUC). The proposed filter can be reconfigured with one of three different interpolation factors of 4, 6, and 8 for 25, 37, and 49-taps filters respectively and one of two roll-off factors. The basic element of a filter is multiplier and 2-bit Binary Common Sub expression Elimination (BCSE) algorithm is used in the design of the multiplier in this work. It is a two-step optimization technique of designing a reconfigurable VLSI architecture of interpolation filter to reduce the number of slices required for the filter. The maximum operating frequency analysis is carried out using Xilinx Synthesis Tool (XST) and Cadence software.

Fractal Antenna as a Multiband Antenna for WiMAX Applications

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

K.L.Rupika | K.Vijay Bhargav, K.Srinu, G.Anjaneyulu

Abstract

With the advancement in antenna technology, there is a great need of a low profile, multi and wide band antennas for wireless communication. Fractal antennas are different from others because of their self-similarity and space filling properties. Fractal micro strip patch antennas have small size, light weight and support multiple frequencies. In this paper, a multiband square fractal antenna is designed and analyzed. This antenna is a direct fed and has truncated ground plane. Antenna properties such as return loss, gain, VSWR, and Bandwidth are analyzed and discussed in this present work. Design and Analysis of fractal antenna is done by using software named HFSS (High Frequency Structural Simulator). This antenna can be used for Wi-Fi and WiMAX applications.

Frequency Synchronization Using OFDM in Long Term Evolution

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

Mihila L | Chithra M

Abstract

Multi-carrier modulation has been used in many wired and wireless communications. It was used in many military high frequency radios, audio-video broad casting and DSL. Multi-carrier modulation can be digitally implemented using Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM).Inter symbol Interference can be completely avoided in OFDM by inserting cyclic prefixes. In OFDM wide band channel breaks into multiple parallel narrow band channels. Fast Fourier transform and Inverse fast fourier transform in the OFDM system makes the circuit simple, cheap and low cost. Long Term Evolution (LTE) introduced by third generation partnership project is an emerging standard for high speed wireless communications. This standard benefits from the OFDM technology in the down link which provides several advantages, includes high bandwidth efficiency, fit to multipath fading and simplicity of equalizer. OFDM in LTE is a candidate for air interface in fourth generation cellular system. OFDM systems in LTE transforms frequency selective wide band channels into a group of non-selective narrow band channels. OFDM is susceptible to disturbances like CFO. Time and frequency synchronization of OFDM avoids the disturbances in OFDM.Thus synchronization is an essential part in the receiver section of OFDM. The VHDL language is used for coding, Synthesis can be done in Xilinx ISE Design Suite 13.2 and simulation can be done with Model Sim 6.3f.

Fruits and Leafs Disease Detection using Naive Bayes Algorithm

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 23rd June 2017

Pramod D Huddar | S Sujatha

Abstract

India is an agricultural country wherein most of the population depends on agriculture. Research in agriculture is aimed towards increase of productivity and food quality at reduced expenditure, with increased profit. Here in this paper using naive bayes algorithm we will be storing the data and with help of probability we will be checking for different leaves and fruits weather they are effected with disease or not, if yes characteristics of the disease will also be know. This project is implemented in matlab with help of image processing technique

Future Trends in Distributed Renewable Systems

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

Suresh Mer | Seema Dudhe, Santosh Suryawanshi

Abstract

This paper gives a review of Future Trends in Distributed Renewable Energy System. Distributed Renewable Systems (DER) or Distributed Generation (DG) systems are small-scale, on-site power sources located at or near customers’ homes or businesses. Some common examples include rooftop solar panels, energy storage devices ,fuel cells, micro turbines, small wind, and combined heat and power systems. Customers with these types of generation systems connect to the local electric grid and use the grid both to buy power from their local electric company during times when their DG Systems are not producing enough to meet their needs and to sell power to their electric Company when their systems are producing more electricity than is needed.

Fuzzy Controlled Myoelectric Arm using Lab VIEW

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

Mishel Ann Mathew | Nimisha Mohan P, NimithaThampy, VidhyaRaveendranath,K M Abubeker

Abstract

The technology of myoelectric arm is developing day by day to make it more beneficial for the patients .This paper describes the design of myoelectric-controlled partial-hand prosthesis to help physically disabled people, who had traffic or industrial accident and the lost function. The proposal focuses mainly on extract electromyogram (EMG) signals generatedduring contraction of the biceps. The detected EMG signals must first be processed, digitized, and converted to Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) signals, which are then used to control the designed prosthesis mechanism. The knowledge required to implement the proposed prosthesis design project thus covers signal-processing techniques, labview interface design, and a scheme for controlling a servomotor mechanism.

Gaussian Noise Removal from Gray Scale & Color Images by Using Adaptive Window Techniques

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

Priyanka Katkar | 

Abstract

Information transmitted in the form of digital images is important part of communication system, but restored image obtained after transmission is often corrupted with noise. The restored image needs processing before it can be used in applications. Aim of the image processing is to visually enhance some aspect of an image which is not readily apparent in its original form. Image processing gives greater perception & vision but it does not add any information content. Image captured by any system is the degraded version of an original image. The degradation is due to sensing environment when it acquire through optical, electro optical and electronics medium. It is necessary to restore such image for further image processing & other tasks. By keeping the integrity of the image information, Gaussian noise removal is a critical issue. The function of the proposed algorithm is to replace each corrupted pixel is by alpha trimmed value of pixels inside an adaptive window. Using threshold which is calculated from noise variance the adaptive window is formed. According to Peak signal to noise ratio (PSNR) performance proposed algorithm is better and effective for images which are highly corrupted by Gaussian noise

Generation of YUV Color Channels for TMO Images – An Analysis

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

N. Neelima | K. Ravindra, Y. Ravikumar

Abstract

Tone mapping is a technique used in image processing to map one set of colors to another to approximate the appearance of high dynamic range images to a medium that has more limited dynamic range. Tone Mapping Operators (TMOs) mostly operate on the image luminance channel intensities. In this paper, a Rani TMO has been proposed. Its performance is compared with three important tone mapping operators named Durand, Drago and Raman and analyzed for YUV color spaces. These results are obtained by first converting HDR image to LDR image using TMOs then processed for YUV color spaces. Objective assessment parameters such as MSE, mean, median, Luminance, PSNR and mPSNR have been calculated. The results reveals that proposed Rani TMO is more efficient compared to other TMOs. The work presented in this paper finds applications in the fields of remote sensing, digital photography, image editing and virtual reality.

Gps Based Hawk Eye – Unmanned Aerial Vehicle

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

Mr. R. Arangasamy | Mr. S.Satheesh Kumar AP,R. Aravindhan, P. Muralidaran,E.Santhosh

Abstract

Robotics is an upcoming field in the present trend. Micro and Nano-electronic systems have their equal share in robotics. With the usual aid of future in mind, this paper deals with the application of robotics for human welfare which possibly is a way to analyze, summarize, record, observe and comfort a havoc situation. The usage of reasonable cost materials and open source electronics with optimum coding acquaintances that can yield a better understanding of an environment and to protect the life in it is the purpose. Arduino open source boards which come along with the Arduino software forms the base for the system. The system runs the various accessories from the I/O ports of the board. Vision sensors, infrared sensors, altitude sensor, proximity sensor and GPS devices are connected. Using the APM and manual control operations the bot can be controlled and operated. Further this Bot can work on its own i.e. it uses Artificial Intelligence to counter all obstacles and provide the data to the nearest base station. Its main application is to save human life from risks and enhance accuracy over menaced places.

GPU Accelerated Image Processing using Bilateral Filter

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

Sonal D. Nikhade | Mayuri L. Kale, Krutika Y. Bhagwatkar,Anjali B. walke, Dhiraj K. Thote

Abstract

The future of computation is the GPU, i.e. Graphical Processing Unit. They are developing into great parallel computing units with the promise that the graphics cards have shown in the field of image processing and the computational capability that these GPUs possess. Compute Unified Device Architecture i.e. CUDA is NVIDIA’s parallel computing architecture. It enables dramatic increase in computing performance, by completely harnessing the power of the GPU. Initially we generate a MATLAB code for image processing using bilateral filter, and then we interface GPU with CPU using CUDA and create the related code of image processing for GPU for this filter. By changing the values of distinct parameters of the images, we have obtained variations in the output images and their corresponding computational time on CPU as well as on GPU. Further these computational times are compared and it is observed that the time taken by the GPU is 70 to 80% less than that of CPU.

Grape Farmland Monitoring Using Wireless Sensor Network

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

Soumya G S | Swathi C , Vishal khade , Karthik L B , Mrs A Poonguzhali

Abstract

In this paper, we have proposed the system for monitoring the growing status of the Grape plants continuously and intimate the agriculturist using wireless sensor network (WSN). The upsurge increase in the technological and scientific innovation makes advancement in agricultural field. But in practice, cultivator faces too much effort in the farmland. This paper makes eases the work of the farmer in cultivated land through the usage of different kind of sensors. The humidity sensor will compute the moisture level in the corn field, if the level decreases, then it automatically switches ON the DC motor. Another sensor is Water level sensor will anticipate the water level, if the water level aloft the level then it switches OFF the motor. All the particulars of farmland are sending to the farmer through GSM and revel in the LCD screen. The temperature sensor will find the intensity of heat present in the soil. PH sensor is used to find the soil alkalinity which is essential for plant nutrition. With this less cost and energy utilization, WSN is a hopeful method for harvesting the grape crop and also improves the quality of the Grape crop and reduces the usage of pesticides, thereby increasing the overall profits for the farmers.

Greenhouse Monitoring Using Advance Sensors & Biogenetic Technology

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

MayurHulke | Radhabhoyar,Radhikasabnis,Juileesathone,Achal p. pannase

Abstract

Agriculture in India is faced with many dare such as more production of food on fewer acres to keeping to outdated farming technologies. We can make rely farming on sensor technology. Sensor network has elaborated advantages in greenhouse environment.The technology shows that the network stability is good, the data is consistent with real conditional environment, and thus sensor technology can meet the requirements in the applications.

GSM Based Remote Energy Meter Monitoring USING RASPBERRY-Pi Board

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

Neha Jodhe | Oshin Ramteke,Priti Kapse,Priya Gaydhane,Shubhangi Gedam,Shraddha Waghmare

Abstract

GSM Based Remote Energy Meter Monitoring Using RASPBERRY-PI Board is used to continuously monitor the meter reading and give weekly information about the number of units consumed along with its cost to the consumer and electricity department. Major components used in this project are RASPBERRY-PI board, GSM model, LCD display, energy meter circuit, and load. RASPBERRY-PI is a credit card size minicomputer developed in UK. It acts as a fast processor system. RASPBERRY_PI is a central unit of this project. RASPBERRY_PI board is connected to monitor, GSM, LCD, and energy meter through various ports. In this project consumption of energy through variable load stored in an internal memory location of RASPBERRY-PI board. ADE 7757 IC counts the number of units consumed which get displayed on a LCD display along with its cost. The same information is provided to the electricity department through GSM Modem. This system enables the electricity service provider to read meter reading regularly without the person visiting each house so that manual meter reading will get reduced. Customers will get weekly update regarding power consumption through SMS. Power theft can be detected as this system gives information about the no. of units consumed along with its cost.

GSM Based Securing For Smart Car Parking System Using LABVIEW

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

K.R.Prabha | P.Sakthivel , R.Pradeep Kumar , P.Naveen Prasath

Abstract

The main aim of this proposed system is to develop a smart car parking system. This system not only helps in parking of the vehicle but it also helps the user in finding the free space along with a security system. This is just a step forward to reduce the traffic created on the roadsides due to parking of vehicles. Each and every Public places like offices, shopping malls; Entertainment Plazas have a major problem for finding free space for parking along with a security system. Even after finding space for parking a human power is getting completely wasted for the whole day to maintain the parking system which is practiced now a day with the platform of GSM and Lab VIEW a smart car parking System is to be designed. The major task performed by this proposed system is, helping the user in finding the available free space with the help of sensors. Automatic token monitoring system and along with that the system is developed in such a way that it avoids and protects itself from accidents that is, it stops automatically when it finds an obstacles. This system satisfies the major requirements of a parking system. This system will be smarter than the existing system to a greater extent.

GSM Based Water Theft Detection System

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

Poonam P. Patil | Shraddha A. Kumbhar , Ashwini S. Koshti , Ayesha I. Nejkar

Abstract

Water represents a primary necessity, for everybody's daily life and for an effective accomplishment of many industrial processes. In the most remote and isolated regions, as in the most urbanized ones, water provisioning to domestic premises represents a fundamental living necessity. In today’s current scenario consumption and utilization of water has increased to a greater extent as a result of this anyone can theft the water easily by taking outlet from main pipeline. Water theft or unauthorized consumption is a potential illegal use of the water, water theft can be in the form of a straight unauthorized fire hydrant usage a struct meter or unauthorized usage. In this project it is proposed to develop the GPS system based water theft and leakage prevention.

Haemoglobin Measurement Using Non Invasive Technique

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

Chaitali Dilip Haldankar | 

Abstract

Haemoglobin is the protein molecule in red blood cells that carries oxygen from the lungs to the body's tissues and returns carbon dioxide from the tissues back to the lungs. Haemoglobin is made up of four protein molecules (globulin chains) that are connected together. The normal adult haemoglobin (Hbg) molecule contains two alpha-globulin chains and two beta-globulin chains. Haemoglobin is usually measured as a part of the complete blood count (CBC) test from a blood sample. There are several invasive methods for determining Hb concentration. Invasive methods include clinical examination and referencing the colour of a drop of blood on filter paper to a standardized colour comparison chart. Here is an attempt to design a system for non-invasive haemoglobin monitoring . A total description of setup for noninvasive haemoglobin monitoring using near infrared is presented. It includes projection of near infrared radiation on a figure of subject and sensing the resultant radiation after absorbance by haemoglobin .Here the haemoglobin count is attributed to the voltage level which are standardized through a series of experiment and analysis

Hardware Demonstration of a Home Energy Management System forManaging End-use Appliances.

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

Pavani C | M. Murali Krishna

Abstract

A Home Energy Management (HEM) system plays a crucial role in realizing residential Demand Response (DR) programs in the smart grid environment. It provides a homeowner the ability to automatically perform smart load controls based on utility signals, customer’s preference and load priority. This paper presents the hardware demonstration of the proposed HEM system for managing end-use appliances. The Hem’s communication time delay to perform load control is analyzed, along with its residual energy consumption. In general, an HEM unit comprises:a) an embedded device running a GUIsoftware application, which includes a DR algorithmthat serves as the brain of the HEM system. It makes a decisionto switch ON/OFF selected end-use appliances based onthe utility signal received, as well as homeowner’s load priorityand preference settings. It is also responsible for collecting electricalconsumption data from all load controllers and providingan interface for homeowners to retrieve appliances’ status andreview their power consumption; andb) An HEM communication module, which provides communication paths between theHEM unit and its load controllers. This module is attached tothe HEM unit and enables the HEM unit to send load controlcommands to all load controllers, and receive responses back.A Linux with a Zig Bee-enabled communicationmodule is used as the HEM unit for this demonstration. The concept will be implemented on a Single Board computer containing ARM 9 Processor an Embedded device with embedded Linux. The hardware components used in this project Friendly ARM Mini 2440 (Single-Board Computer) with 400 MHz Samsung S3C2440 ARM9 processor, Zigbee Modules, Light, Motor, 8051 microcontroller. The software’s used OS: Embedded Linux2.6.32, Language: C++, IDE: Qt Creator2.1.0.

Hardware Simulation for Bio-Signal Acquisition System

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

Ravi M | Suma K V

Abstract

Designing an amplifier board for Bio-signal amplification and filtering requires both software based simulation and hardware implementation of design and testing. There are many tools available today like LabViewTM, multisimTM etc for software simulation with available components. But hardware testing becomes difficult as the bio-signals are very low amplitude and low frequency signals and can be easily affected by coupling noise running through wires on breadboard and in the surrounding. The final testing requires PCB fabrication with proper noise reduction. It is a much time consuming and costly process as it requires multiple PCB to be fabricated for testing of each design. To solve this issue a single simulation board is designed in which all the stages in Bio-Signal amplifier stages are designed with proper noise reduction techniques. MultisimTM is used for simulation of each stage and final PCB is designed with proper noise reduction.

Hardware Trojans, A State Of The Art

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

Sudeendra kumar K | K.K. Mahapatra

Abstract

Time to market demand has forced integrated circuit design, manufacturing and testing to be done at different places across globe. This approach has led to numerous security concerns like overbuilding of chips from foundries, IP protection, counterfeiting and hardware Trojans. In this work, we focus on hardware Trojans in chips. In the process of finding the answer to above mentioned security issues, we present literature survey, interim results and a holistic view on possible future work. We also present the case study of hardware Trojans.

Hetero Motive Glove For Hearing And Speaking Impaired Using Hand Gesture Recognition

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

Mr. Jenyfal Sampson | Keerthiga V, Mona P, Rajha Laxmi A

Abstract

Gestures help us decipher meaning in communication. A gesture is a form of non-verbal communication, in which visible body actions communicate particular messages, either in place of or in conjunction with speech. Gestures include movement of the hands, face or other parts of the body. People move their hands while they talk, resulting in gestures. Gesture is even found in individuals who are blind from birth. Thinking of this hand gestures in communication, gives the idea of helping mute people to communicate in the normal way with others. Generally mute people use sign language for communication but they find it difficult to communicate with others who don’t understand sign language. This system consists of a glove attached with flex sensors and an accelerometer sensor. With the help of these sensors, the movements of the fingers are captured and the captured information’s are processed and the information is fed into the speaker. And to make it as a two way communication, we are capturing the speech of normal person and displaying it on an LCD screen, so that a normal person and a mute person can communicate at ease. We will be using Bluetooth for the signal transmission, incorporating the same with the help of Arduino. This can be easily handled and will be a gift to the mute people.

Hetero Motive Glove For Hearing And Speaking Impaired Using Hand Gesture Recognition

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

Mr. Jenyfal Sampson | Keerthiga V, Mona P, Rajha Laxmi A

Abstract

Human body is effectively tested only by the heartbeat. Based on the heartbeat rate many diseases can be found. In this paper, we have proposed effective method for detecting heartbeat. This method overcome the difficulties in the previous methods proposed like, subject movement in the unrealistic environment etc. The proposed method detects the feature point using GFT and SDM in Facial video. Before this Face quality Assessment is also included. This need to be tested on the MAHNOB-HCI database which includes realistic scenarios. This method will achieve good experimental performance. Gestures help us decipher meaning in communication. A gesture is a form of non-verbal communication, in which visible body actions communicate particular messages, either in place of or in conjunction with speech. Gestures include movement of the hands, face or other parts of the body. People move their hands while they talk, resulting in gestures. Gesture is even found in individuals who are blind from birth. Thinking of this hand gestures in communication, gives the idea of helping mute people to communicate in the normal way with others. Generally mute people use sign language for communication but they find it difficult to communicate with others who don’t understand sign language. This system consists of a glove attached with flex sensors and an accelerometer sensor. With the help of these sensors, the movements of the fingers are captured and the captured information’s are processed and the information is fed into the speaker. And to make it as a two way communication, we are capturing the speech of normal person and displaying it on an LCD screen, so that a normal person and a mute person can communicate at ease. We will be using Bluetooth for the signal transmission, incorporating the same with the help of Arduino. This can be easily handled and will be a gift to the mute people.

Heterogenous Documents Using Hierarchical Dirichlet Process

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

Gopi Krishna L | Sandeep Naramgari

Abstract

the hierarchical data groupings in text corpus, e.g., words, sentences, and documents, we conduct the structural learning and infer the latent themes and topics for sentences and words from a collection of documents, respectively. The relation between themes and topics under different data groupings is explored through an unsupervised procedure without limiting the number of clusters. A tree stick-breaking process is presented to draw theme proportions for different sentences. We build a hierarchical theme and topic model, which flexibly represents the heterogeneous documents using Bayesian nonparametric. Thematic sentences and topical words are extracted. In the experiments, the proposed method is evaluated to be effective to build semantic tree structure for sentences and the corresponding words. The superiority of using tree model for selection of expressive sentences for document summarization

Heuristic Approach for Network Lifetime Enhancement in Wireless Sensor Networks

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

L.Srimenaga | M.Maheswari

Abstract

By using the mobile sink, we can reduce the energy consumption of nodes and to prevent the formation of energy holes in wireless sensor networks(WSNs)and this was mainly used for delay-sensitive applications within a given time constraint. My approach is that mobile sink node only visits rendezvous point(RPs) and this may be opposed to all the nodes. In this sensor nodes not having rendezvous point(RPs) means multihopping can be done to the nearest RPs.To computing a tour, that visits all these RPs.Calculating the optimal tour is an NP-hard problem. To address the problem called as weighted rendezvous planning(WRP)is proposed, there by each sensor node is assigned a weight to its hop distance.WRP is to be validated through computer simulation and our WRP as a mobile sink to retrieve all sensed data within a given time constraint.WRP reduces energy consumption by 22% and increases network lifetime by 44%.

Heuristic Optimization Techniques For Node Localization In Wireless Sensor Networks

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 31st May 2017

Panyammary Kalyani | Dr. Tirumala Ramashri

Abstract

Wireless sensor networks(WSN) has a wide range of applications in different domains such as environmental monitoring , disaster management ,target tracking, military affairs etc. In WSN the sensors are randomly deployed in the sensor field and hence estimation of the localization of each deployed node has drawn more attention by the recent researchers.Node localization in Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs), plays a critical role In this paper some popular bio inspired optimization method Hybrid PSOGA is compared with the recent optimization method known as Firefly algorithm. This paper conducts experimental simulation, comparison and evaluation work in the node localization using Firefly algorithm and Hybrid PSOGA by considering distance factor and improved objective function . Giving the distances between a sensor and a few of its 1-hop neighbors, the proposed algorithm can estimate the sensor positions. Simulation results show that the proposed method can achieve better results than those obtained from the HybridPSOGA.

High Efficiency Low Complexity Chase Architecture for Reed-Solomon Decoder of RS(255,K)

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

Remalli Dinesh | Sandeep Bansal,Damandeep Singh, Shaik Shabeena

Abstract

In contrast to all existing ASD soft-decision decoding concepts for RS codes, only low-complexity chase algorithm can attain improved tradeoff in performance-complexity with significant coding gain on HDD with polynomial complexity. LCC decoding scheme utilized 2 ? test vectors having less computational complexity in addition to enhanced coding gain. Instead of short RS codes, LCC decoding is required to interpolate bulk of test vectors which results in long latency. Therefore, interpolations as well as polynomial selection are hefty part of LCC decoder with long RS code and significant value of ?. Besides, innovative designs being developed to alter the interpolation and polynomial complexity for the efficient recovery of the codeword for the given test vectors in LCC decoding. So, toward the codeword recovery for an RS (n, k) code erasure decoding, Neilson algorithm, coordinate transformation etc. being applied on the RS code segment. Also Chine search method can be applied over the interpolation output and it can be realized through constant multipliers which save the cost factor. For the selected 8 test vectors applied on RS (255, k) efficiency can be lead up to very high with power reduction for GF (210).

High Speed FSK Ultra Wide Band Transmitter

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

Grace Paul N. | 

Abstract

Ultra Wide Band (UWB) technology is a developing wireless technology which promises high data rate short distance communication. In this paper, propose an advanced method for generating UWB signal for many UWB related applications. Important area of application is Wireless Local Area Network (WLAN). The basic idea of the work is to develop pulses of nanosecond range for the UWB transmission and transmit using Frequency Shift Scheme (FSK) modulation scheme. Simulation of the transmitter section is done using High Frequency System Simulate (HFSS) tool. A micro-strip patch antenna is simulated for the transmission of signal, which gives maximum radiation in the transmitted signal frequency.

High Voltage Capacitor Discharge during Crash in Automobiles

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

Sunitha S | Dr. R. Karthikeyan

Abstract

During a vehicle crash or other vehicle damaging event, may cause unwanted electrical connections and the discharge of various fluids from the vehicle to occur. Because of the significant electrical power that is stored in the HV capacitor connected in parallel with the high voltage battery, it could cause potentially hazardous situations, such as electrifying of vehicle parts, fire hazards etc. The system/method disclosed here is of discharging a high voltage capacitor in the event of a crash. This system includes a discharge circuit having a HV battery, and a load for discharging the battery.

High-Speed, Low Area and Energy Efficient 32bit Carry Skip Adder using verilog HDL

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

Konduru Lakshmi  | Bhanu Prakash Reddy, Dr.S.Vijaya Kumar

Abstract

Adders are basic essential component used in DSPs Processors and Digital filters and widely used in the Digital Integrated Circuits and also in Analog ICs.In this paper, a carry skip adder structure that has a higher speed, Low area as well as lower energy consumption compared with other adders is presented. The speed and reduction in the design area can be achieved by using “HYBRID MUX” instead of conventional MUX for skip logic in the existing method. In addition, instead of utilizing compound gates (AOI&OAI), the proposed structure makes use of “HYBRID MUX” for the skip logic. The Proposed structure assessed by comparing their speed, delay, area & energy parameters with those of other adders using a 45-nm static CMOS technology. The results that are obtained by Xilinx tool. Simulation reveals, on average 45% and 40% improvements in the delay &energy, respectively compared with conventional one. The power delay product is the lowest among all adders.

Home Automation using Lab VIEW

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

Rebecca Rajan | Praveena Richu Jacob,Priya Papechen,Priya Antony,Binu C. Pillai

Abstract

Home automation is an application of ubiquitous computing in which the home environment is monitored by ambient intelligence. It leads to the concept of smart home. Smart home is a house that uses information technology to monitor the environment, control the electric appliances and communicates with the outer world with the help of data acquisition in LabVIEW software. It has an intelligent control over the activities performed frequently in daily life to achieve more comfortable and safety life. This system is based on the LabVIEW software which controls home and also act as a security guard of the home. It is a complex technology, at the same time it is developing. The system has temperature monitoring and controlling system, internal and external lighting systems and burglar alarm system to ensure family security. The system also has internet connection to monitor and control house equipments from anywhere in the world. It can send warning messages to the user as e-mail. The approach comprises of both hardware and software technologies. The aim of this project is to map the processes yielding optimal utilization of smart home technology, to ensure as many users as possible having access to the technology most relevant for their needs.

Human Aura: The Human Body is the World’s Best Machine of Generating, Transmitting & Receiving of Signals

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

Gajjala Ashok | Sagi Naga Kalyani

Abstract

The work is take up with completely different analysis. The paper provides proofing of action of generating modulating resource of signal in human body, this kind of intuition not materialized in technical, physical, engineering research. Everyone knows the concept of Aura, is natural energy associated with all living organisms. But the typical study here is the behavior of human Aura is mysterious. I wonder about Aura, ten years back I had information that the Aura can Expandable maximum up 27 feet’s. I started research since past ten years by investigation and experimenting by own ,found so many hidden behaviors of Human Aura. My innovation is “Human Body is the best Generation and modulation machine of signals with associate field called Aura. Aura is the Electromagnetic field generated by the human body, the reason for electromagnetic field is the potentials produced by neurons. I found human Aura have four different colors 1) Block 2) Red 3) Yellow 4) White spectrums, every person has only one kind spectrum but we can change spectral characteristics by using certain process. Every person has by nature, have base frequency those are mention above. The paper has information how the interaction happens between different Auras? In that journey, I found 16 possible spectrums and their interaction B-B, R-R, Y-Y, W-W, B-R, B-Y, B-W, R-B, R-Y, R-W, Y-B, Y-R, YW, W-B, W-R, W-Y. Like Kind field interactions emits Low Heat energy and other emits heat , how much quantity is emitted, based on combined patterns.

Human Identification Using ECG Feature Extracted From Fiducial and Non-Fiducial Approach

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

Chinthana S | Chethana K S

Abstract

Electrocardiogram (ECG) will be employed in clinical identification for cardiac perform. Also, because people have completely different electrocardiogram traces, therefore, they can be non-inheritable as promising biometric options for human identification. According to the utilized options, the existing ECG based mostly biometric systems is classified to fiducial and nonfiducial systems. The identification of fiducial features needs the correct detection of fiducial points that is a terribly difficult task. On the other hand, non-fiducial approaches relax the detection process however typically result in high dimension feature area. This paper presents a combined approach of these two strategies for electrocardiogram primarily based individual identification. A fiducial based approach that utilizes a feature set chosen by local features of heart beats for biometric template style. Furthermore, a non-fiducial wavelet based mostly approach is projected. To avoid the high dimensionality of the resultant wavelet coefficient structure, the structure has been investigated and reduced using principal component analysis. The proposed feature sets were examined and compared using SVM classifier. To the effectiveness of this approach, records from the ECG-ID database using single lead are used to check subject identification, yielding high accuracy in identification.

Human Tracking and Action Recognition Based on k-Nearest Neighbor Classifier

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

Shilpashree S | Dr. D.J.Ravi , Jagadeesh B

Abstract

Human tracking and Activity recognition is a field of computer vision which has shown great progress in the past decade. Starting from simple single person activities, research in activity recognition is moving towards more complex scenes involving multiple objects and natural environments. The main challenges in the task include being able to localize and recognize events in a video and deal with the large amount of variation in viewpoint, speed of movement and scale. It has gained more interest of late, among video processing community because they find various applications in automatic surveillance, monitoring systems, video indexing and retrieval, robot motion, human – computer interaction and segmentation. The proliferation of surveillance cameras and smart-phones has dramatically changed the video capture landscape. There is more video data generated each day than ever before, it is more diverse and its importance has reached beyond security and entertainment (e.g., healthcare, education, and environment).This project deals with the single person tracking and action recognition of that person. And also it deals with combining the advantages of both tracking and action recognition in a single framework. Here based on STIP single person tracking is done, kNN classifier is used for action classification and recognition. Finally, coding is done in Matlab.

Hybrid Image Classification using ACO with Fuzzy Logic for Textured and Non-Textured Images

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

Subba Rao K | Dr. Sambasivarao N , Dr. Sammulal P

Abstract

Classification is the process of arranging the pixels into groups, called clusters that have some common characteristics. In this paper a Hybrid, and yet powerful classification method is proposed, which can be used to classify the textured and nontextured images. Traditional classification methods such as statistical classifiers, knowledge-based systems, and neural networks have number of limitations in classifying the images because of strict assumptions, particularly in the presence of the coarse pixels. The Ant Colony Optimization (ACO) is used to generate classification rules from the training set. Due to feedback property of the ACO, it considers all the changes into account in constructing the rules. These rules are then used in the process of classifying test set of the image. An entropy based fuzzy partitioning along with ACO is used to generate rules. ACO enables to construct simple rules to obtain better performance.

Hydro Pneumatic Riveting Machine

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

K.S.Patil | Monika Thumar , Aaditya Sangle , Keshav Yendait

Abstract

The hydro pneumatic riveting machine is used to covers the inner surface of material slowly on every type of shoe by rivet and derive. To get the excellent qualities of energy, force, rigidness and inflexibility heavy duty steel structure is used in the machine . Thus, by combined pneumatic and hydraulic acting system become an high working force using a low quantity of air under pressure greater than that of the atmosphere in which its is treated by taking a gas ,vapor or air at some limited pressure and rescue the air at a high pressure.

Identification of Bulk CM File Status in EMS

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

Kasthuri S | Pawankumar B

Abstract

Cellular 3G-network usually often have poor penetration and response in certain areas such as indoors. A fem to cell is a device that is used to increase the strength of the wireless signal in a small area, mainly indoors. This is a small cellular base station, also known as a wireless access point that connects to the Internet connection and transmits it to the radio in the coverage area. Fem to cells can be deployed in different places and there is a need for a control system to ensure the possibility of FCAPS functionality for this device. Fem to device must be set up and registered on an element management system (EMS). In the process of configuring devices, bulk CM-file is produced, which is loaded and used by the fem to cell. This paper proposes a methodology to register the fem to cell and determine the status of bulk CM file.

Identification of Diseases on Pomegranate Fruit by Image Processing Techniques

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

D. S. Gaikwad | K.J. Karande, S.V. Surwase

Abstract

Diseases in fruit causes foremost production and financial losses in farming trade widespread. Present paper gives system to automatically detect the diseases on pomegranate fruit. Image processing is used to examine the diseases on pomegranate fruit. For classification of images support vector machine concept is used. The contaminated pomegranate fruit shows a precise symptoms colored spots that will occur on the pomegranate fruit. Segmentation is used to discover spot in the diseases image that is qualified as diseased area. The bacterial blight and anthracnose fruit spot diseases on pomegranate fruit have been preferred

Identification of Ocular Pathology in retinal fundus images

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

C. Sai Praneeth | D.N. Kuldeep Shamgar

Abstract

Automated fundus image analysis plays an important role in the computer diagnosis of ophthalmologic disorders. A lot of eye disorders, as well as cardiovascular disorders, are known to be related with retinal vasculature changes. Many important eye diseases as well as systemic diseases manifest themselves in the retina. While a number of other anatomical structures contribute to the process of vision, this paper focuses on retinal image analysis and their clinical implications. The most prevalent cause of blindness in the industrialized world is age related macular degeneration. Nowadays, the digital retinal image is frequently used to follow-up and diagnoses eye diseases. In age related macular degeneration, the macula is responsible for the sharp central vision needed for detailed activities such as reading, writing, driving, face recognition and ability to see colors. Age related macular degeneration is degeneration of the macula area and the delicate cells of the macula become inactive and stop working. Unfortunately, age related macular degeneration cannot be completely cured, but if diagnosed at an early stage degeneration laser treatment can help some people to prevent further deterioration of macula. The algorithm locates disease affected pixels on macula and displays their location. After pre-processing particle analysis tool is applied to locate the effected parts on the fundus image.

Identification of Seizures in EEG Waves using Determinant Analysis

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

Sharanya A R | Chethana K S

Abstract

Electroencephalogram (EEG) signals are electrical signals that are recorded from the scalp. They can be used to carry out the analysis and identification of brain disorders. EEG signal are non-stationary. Feature extraction of EEG always remains as a major because of the non stationary behavior along with their accurate classification. Support vector machines are supervised learning models used for classification & regression analysis. LDA classifiers are also used for classification. The main objective of the proposed work is to identify the seizures in the EEG waves. Real time databases are collected and filtered to remove the noise. Each EEG channel is normalized & trained using Support Vector Machine (SVM) and Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA) classifiers to locate the seizures. Their results are compared based on their performance.

Identification of various writer’s handwritten Marathi Text using ORB(oriented fast & rotated brief)

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

Shweta Shevgekar | Mrs. Prof. M. S.Deole

Abstract

Handwritten character recognition is a demanding task in the image processing because handwriting varies from person to person. And also handwriting styles, sizes and its orientation make it complex. Applications like, handwritten text in reading bank cheques, Zip Code recognition and for removing the problem of handling documents manually, digital data is necessary. Recognition of handwritten characters using either a scanned document, or direct acquisition of image using Mat lab, followed by the implementation of various other Mat lab toolboxes like Image Processing to process the scanned or acquired image. Here OCR block diagram explained that how character are recognize accurately. Many feature-based algorithms are well-suited for character recognition like like SIFT, Language Independent Text-Line Extraction, Thresholding, Robust, Training, Ullman Algorithm, Structured Learning, ORB(oriented fast & rotated brief), SURF. But Oriented FAST and Rotated BRIEF (ORB) is a very fast binary descriptor which is faster than Scale-invariant feature transform (SIFT), it can be verified through experiments.Fast key point detector and BRIEF descriptor are important because of they have best performance and resonable cost. The recognize method for object recognition is Scale invariant feature transform (SIFT), which is very useful for feature extraction but it is computationally difficult due to its weighty workload required in local feature extraction and matching operation. Therefore for better performance and low complexity,ORB provides better solution.

Identification Of Wheat Rust Disease In Digital Images

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

Jishu Varghese Pt | Jyoti Kadam, Swati Kardile, Prof. Roma Jain

Abstract

Rust disease in wheat cause calamitous problems in economic losses and wheat production worldwide .In this paper, a solution for the determination, classification and prevention of wheat rust disease is proposed and experimentally verified. We have composed a scheme that uses image processing techniques. In this scheme some state of the art features are extracted from the segmented image and finally the disease is recognized using template matching technique. This work has been implemented on MATLAB platform. The proposed technique is accurate and economical with small relative error.

Image Based Visibility and Speed Estimation under Fog Condition

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

Jeevan S | Usha L

Abstract

Fog is considered to be one of the causes of road accidents while driving a vehicle. Therefore, In order to reduce the accidents or at least limiting their impact, vehicles are equipped with Advanced Driving Assistance Systems (ADAS). For this reason, there is a need of system which is capable to detect the presence of fog, estimate the visibility distance and maximum speed that the vehicle should travel. It works for day time fog detection on images.

Image Fusion with Adaptive- Guided Filtering

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

C.Siva Gangi Reddy | G.Tirumala Vasu , Dr.N.Sreekanth

Abstract

A quick and effective image fusion technique is proposed for creating a noticeably informative fused photograph thru merging a couple of photos. The proposed method is to evaluate the categories of wavelets utilized in photograph fusion and to improve the fusion technique by using integrating with Guided filtering method. The results are comparing visually and statistically display that Guided-filtering method can improve the fusion effects, reduces the ringing results to some extents and entire image smoother. Evaluation of the very last consequences is affected by the kinds of wavelets orthogonal, Bi-orthogonal, undecimated orthogonal and un- decimated Bi-orthogonal tiers.

Image Fusion: Different Methods and Performance Evaluation Metrics

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

Parveen Saini | Rama Rao , Shraddha Panbude

Abstract

Medical image fusion is the process of registering and combining multiple images from single or multiple imaging modalities to improve the imaging quality and reduce randomness and redundancy in order to increase the clinical applicability of medical images for diagnosis and assessment of medical problems. Multi-modal medical image fusion algorithms and devices have shown notable achievements in improving clinical accuracy of decisions based on medical images. This paper explains the concept of image fusion. It explains how image fusion is advantageous. In this paper different techniques have been reviewed for combining multispectral images available. It includes IHS transform, High Pass filtering, PCA analysis, Wavelet transform and DCT, Graph Cut method.

Image Inpainting Using Cubic Hermite Spline Technique

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

A. S. Awati | Pooja Y. Belagal , S. P. Deshpande , M. R. Patil

Abstract

Image inpainting is popularly used to automatically recover the damaged or missing regions in digital images and is used to remove the unwanted objects from images. This paper presents a technique for recovering the curves of damaged regions of digital images using cubic splines. The proposed technique is divided into two steps. In the first step the curved structure of the object in the damaged region is recovered using splines. The user marks a reasonable number of points on the structure of the object around the damaged region. Using these points a spline is constructed and the isophote lines arriving at the contours of the damaged region are interpolated into the damaged regions using that spline. After recovering the structure of the object in the damaged or missing region, in the second step, a fill in process is done to fill in the color information in the damaged region. Any inpainting technique can be used in the second step to fill in the texture information into the damaged region. The proposed algorithm is tested over a large variety of images and has shown excellent results.

Image Mining Process for Biopsy Images

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

Ms. Nikita Ramrakhiani | Mrs. Shoba Krishnan

Abstract

Biomedical imaging is becoming increasingly important as an approach to synthesize, extract and translate useful information from large multidimensional databases accumulated in research frontiers such as functional genomics, proteomics, and functional imaging. Image mining is rapidly gaining attention in the field of data mining, information retrieval and multimedia databases because of its potential in discovering useful image patterns based on color, texture, shape and basic descriptors of any image. Image mining system can help in reducing the time lag with the results as well as dependency on observations by naked human eye. This paper explains the algorithm for detecting pathogenic cells in renal tissue.

Image Processng Based Intelligent Traffic Controller

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 31st May 2017

P.Ravi Kumar | P.Gowri Rekha,T.Narasimha Sai

Abstract

Traffic congestion is a major problem mainly in developing countries. This shows an effect on the emergency vehicles such as ambulances, fire trucks which has to reach their destinations earlier by wasting their valuable time more at the traffic jams. Emergency vehicles must reach their destinations in order to save many lives. So, there is necessary of a system over the traffic jams which gives priority to the emergency vehicles in order to move on their way. These system proposes the way to emergency vehicles without any obstacles.

Image Transmission using LDPC with Stationary Wavelet Transform

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

Priyanka Chavan | Chitra M

Abstract

The two approaches to represent some data are videos and images. Image compression is a method through which we can increase the storage capacity for images and videos and increases transmission process’s performance. During transmission of data disturbances present on the transmission channel may degrade the performance, therefore we use channel coding such as turbo coding and LDPC coding which ensure transmission with minimum errors on transmission channel. Some of the application such as for mobile and space communication uses these coding techniques. In this paper we are using few transform technique. Discrete cosine transform (DCT), stationary wavelet transform (SWT) and discrete wavelet transform (DWT) with channel coding technique, low density parity check (LDPC) code has been used.

Immersive Virtual Tour of Difficult Terrain Based On Virtual Reality

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

Kanika Sharma | V A Velvizhi

Abstract

Virtual Reality can be referred to as immersive multimedia or computer simulated life , replicates an environment that simulates physical presence in places in the real world or imagined worlds and lets the user interact in that world[2]. Virtual reality artificially relates sensory experiences, which can include sight, hearing, touch and smell [6]. The simulated environment can be similar to the real world in order to create a lifelike experience for example, in simulations for pilot or combat training or it differs significantly from reality, such as in VR games [4]. The proposed solution stands on virtual reality, for providing a virtual tour of a mine. Cardboard, an easily affordable gadget which enables virtual reality for the headset, is used for this purpose. Software magic takes over, then. The software splits the screen into a right and left pane, one for each eye. The effect is a stereoscopic image that completely fills the field of vision, and immerses into a virtual world.

Impact of a Wireless Power Transmission System using Medium Distance Mode for Low Power Applications

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

Neelam S. Pinjari | Nutan Y. Attarde, U. Tade ,Rekha Sonune

Abstract

Wireless power transmission is still in its infancy as a topic. Although devices and applications have been designed that transmit power over short distances, their price and design complexity keep them out of the reach of ordinary users. There is a need for a simple, efficient and cost-effective system which can create the changing electromagnetic field required to initiate wireless power transfer.Wireless power transfer is a challenging task because very few people till now have ever been able to perform it efficiently at distances longer than few meters and then to only with a very low amount of power. At present also no one has been able to implement long distance wireless power transfer (exceeding 2meters) in our commercial and domestic applications, such as in our own homes to light a lamp / LED / fans without the actual hard cored wiring. The area of my research proposes in developing a wireless power transfer system (a simulation model with a appropriate tool or a prototype model) that is targeted at delivering enough power to light a lamp or LED / or switch ON the fan in our homes using the principle of resonance induction, coming under the category of middle distance wireless power transmission mode. There are many applications that would also benefit from the ability to transfer power wirelessly( even at low wattage ) such as charging a laptop, personal computer and cell phone ; for the appropriate technology must be developed to satisfy these applications.

Implementation and Analysis of Sign Extension and Baugh WOOLEY Multiplier in Ant Architecture

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

Vallem Hari Charan | B Leela Kumari

Abstract

Multiplier is the most crucial part in any digital signal processing (DSP) system applications. Designing a reliable multiplier in the deep submicron era is a challenging task. Deep sub micron technology needs low power, high signal to noise ratio, reliability and etc. There exists always a trade of between low power and reliability. The approach in this paper is to compromise both the reliability and low power in designing a multiplier. This paper deals with, implementation of reliable low power multiplier for signed bits and performance analysis of sign extension and Baugh wooley multipliers in ANT (Algorithmic Noise Tolerant) architecture with fixed width RPR block.

Implementation and Testing of PCI Express IP Core using SpartaN 6 FPGA

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 20th June 2017

Megha B. Kumbar | Sukesh Rao M.

Abstract

The motherboards nowadays come with PCI Express (PCIe) expansion slots in order to communicate with the external world. The data which is going to be received by the system is the radar data which will be in the form of Serial Front Panel Data Port (Serial FPDP) frame format. But the processors of the system can only understand the information in the form of PCI Express frame format. Thus the data has to get converted into PCI Express frame format. Therefore PCI Express IP core is used for the formation of PCI Express frame format. Once the data in the form Serial FPDP frame is received then data will be extracted and will be stored in buffer memory. Then the PCI Express IP core receives the data from memory and frames the data into PCI Express frame format and will be sent over PCI Express expansion bus to the processor. Thus in order to understand whether the PCI Express IP core works properly or not a loopback test needs to be done. Thus the PCI Express IP core is implemented on Spartan 6 FPGA along with the Bus Master DMA. In this paper the implementation and loopback testing of PCI Express IP core is mentioned.

Implementation of Error Trapping Techniqe In Cyclic Codes Using Lab VIEW

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

Aneetta Jose | Hena Prince, Jismy Tom, Malavika S, Indu Reena Varughese

Abstract

In modern communication system, multimedia contents in digital form are used to transmit the information. Probability of error is higher during this transmission which will affect the extraction of data. This paper considers the implementation of cyclic codes encoder and decoder for multimedia contents in the form of sound data using National Instruments LabView software. Cyclic codes can be defined by two parameters, which are code size n and information bit size k. LabView is user-friendly software which has many features for designing and prototyping. This project is based on channel coding implementation using cyclic codes in LabView. 16- bit sound data are used as test subjects for cyclic code encoding, decoding and error correction. The design can correct two-bit error in last n-k positions of the codeword. The design can correct short twobit error in last n-k position of the codeword.

Implementation of FPGA Based Hand Gesture Recognition System for Blind People

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

Salma Shapurkar | Bhooshan K Kalamani , Basavaraj I Subhedar , Mallikarjun Kallimani , Tejashree Deshpande

Abstract

The proposed work describes the design and implementation of the hand gesture recognizer system for controlling the hardware appliance in real time. FPGA based implementation proposed for hand tracking system includes the image preprocessing state and feature extraction state that consists of bounding box and Center-Of-Mass based computation in terms of area segmentation. Through the features extraction state, the object’s Center-Of-Mass and bounding box attributes are extracted to be applied for gesture sign classification. The main modules in this image processing system employ the developed system exploits the parallelism architecture of the FPGA to achieve real time processing. There are many applications using hand gesture as a nature control interface, such as human machine interaction and interactive entertainment. With the advancement of computer vision and machine learning, the development of vision-based hand gesture recognition systems has received more and more attention in recent years. However, much previous research was focused on software algorithms running on a PC-based platform, which makes it inapplicable to real-time applications. In this proposed work we have implemented gesture recognition system based on improved optical flow was proposed to accelerate the execution and achieve real-time operation. Experimental results showed that the proposed framework is feasible and can reach the speed of 30 frames per second.

Implementation of Full Subtractor Circuit using Reversible Gates

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

Anala M | Harsha M V

Abstract

Reversible logic finds many applications, especially in the area of quantum computing. A specified n-input, n-output Boolean function is called reversible if it maps each input assignment to a unique output assignment and vice versa. The key objective of today’s circuit design is to increase the performance without the proportional increase in power consumption. In this paper a full subtractor is designed using Feynman, Double Feynman and Fredkin gates.

Implementation of High Precision Fixed Width Multiplier for DSP Applications

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

G.Niharika | B.Santosh Kumar

Abstract

Significant improvements in area, delay, and power can be achieved with truncated multipliers. Fixed-width multipliers generate n-bit (instead of 2n-bit) products with low product error, but use only about half the area and less delay when compared with a standard parallel multiplier. In them, cost-effective carry-generating circuits are designed, respectively, to make the products generated more accurately and quicklyThe proposed method aims at tree reduction using proper ratio of full adders and half adders. The advantage of doing so, is experimentally we can achieve better area. The output is in the form of LSB and MSB. Using the most significant methods like reduction, deletion, truncation, rounding and final addition in order to compress the LSB part. In previous related papers, to reduce the truncation error we use error compensation circuits. But here, there is no need of error compensation circuits, and the final output is precise.

Implementation of High Speed 64-bit Parallel Cyclic Redundancy Check Generation for Ethernet Application

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

Sinam Ajitkumar Singh | Patrick Y, L. Surajkumar Singh

Abstract

CRC is the most powerful tools for detecting and correcting error in data transmission. CRC can be implemented in hardware using Linear Feedback Shift Register. This paper emphasizes mainly on data transmission using Ethernet. Serial CRC can be implemented easily but it cannot achieve high speed. Using F matrix algorithm, Parallel CRC can be implemented, in which speed is drastically increased. While transmitting 64-bit data using serial CRC-32, an output is obtained after 64 clock cycle. However, using Parallel CRC-32 output is obtained after 9 clock cycle, which required 50% less cycles to generate CRC compared to serial CRC generator. The design method is employed with Xilinx ISE 9.2 Tool

Implementation of IEEE 1687 Standard for Access Instrumentation Using Verilog

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

Shruthi S | Yasha Jyothi M Shirur

Abstract

Technology in VLSI industry has improved in accordance with moore’s law , so density of transistor in Integrated Circuit(IC) is increased . Testing this IC with the bed of nail technique becomes very difficult so solution to this was given by IEEE 1149.1 boundary scan standard also called as Joint Test Access Group(JTAG) using which interconnects between the IC mounted on PCB was tested without physical access. The JTAG Test Access Port(TAP) was used for additional purposes in industry to access the embedded instruments within in the semiconductor device so to standardize the method to access, test, debug, configure and monitor IEEE 1687 standard was developed. This IEEE 1687 standard also called as Internal test Access Group(IJTAG).In this paper the IEEE 1687 is implemented in verilog and simulated in Xilinx 13.1 ISE sim and synthesized using RTL complier in 180nm technology library.

Implementation of Interleave Division Multiple Access (IDMA) and comparison using different Modulation Techniques in Wireless Communication System

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

Abhishek Kumar Srivastava | 

Abstract

This paper provides a review on the IDMA (Interleave Division Multiple Access) technology in wireless communication system based on Inter leaver. In this paper, IDMA technique is proposed in AWGN channel. IDMA is a multi- user scheme in which chip Inter leavers are the only means of user separation. The IDMA performance in terms of bit error rate ,error rate is discussed. Here comparison with different modulation techniques is done on the basis of error rates, maximum no. of symbols, Total no. of errors. The simulation is done in matab environment

Implementation of Interleave Division Multiple Access (IDMA) and comparison using different Modulation Techniques in Wireless Communication System

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

Abhishek Kumar Srivastava | 

Abstract

This paper provides a review on the IDMA (Interleave Division Multiple Access) technology in wireless communication system based on Inter leaver. In this paper, IDMA technique is proposed in AWGN channel. IDMA is a multi- user scheme in which chip Inter leavers are the only means of user separation. The IDMA performance in terms of bit error rate ,error rate is discussed. Here comparison with different modulation techniques is done on the basis of error rates, maximum no. of symbols, Total no. of errors. The simulation is done in matab environment

Implementation Of Low Power Dynamic Logic CMOS Circuits

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

J Mercy | Priya Stalin

Abstract

Today in Very Large Scale Integration (VLSI) technology several applications require high speed operation. To achieve this dual output dynamic logic using Source Coupled Logic (SCL) topology was designed and it provides high speed operation with area and power over head. In order to reduce the power in dual output dynamic logic with optimizable speed of operation half swing is introduced. With the help of half swing without altering the operation of the logic function power is reduced. The half swing technique is applied to clock as well as input level. The existing system NMOS (N- type Metal Oxide Semiconductor) differential tree logic is applied to NAND, NOR, Exclusive -NOR (EX-NOR), half adder, and full adder. Due to the usage of NMOS differential tree logic this circuit gives true and complementary outputs. The power dissipation of NMOS differential tree logic is 80% greater than Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor (CMOS). Compared to the existing system the power dissipation is reduced by 46% in the proposed half swing. The delay achieved with existing system is 0.2 ns. The delay in the proposed system increases by 33% which is less compared to power dissipation reduction that is achieved. Advantages of dual output dynamic logic circuit is it increases the speed, avoids noise, no charge sharing problem, no short circuit power dissipation and it eliminates monotonicity problem.

Implementation of Modified Jpeg-Ls Algorithm

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 23rd June 2017

Anil Kumar H L, | Dr. K V Prasad

Abstract

JPEG LS algorithm is the most simple and efficient algorithm which uses two different stages for the compression of the image ie context modeling and encoding this paper focuses on the implementation of modified JPEG LS algorithm which reduces the process time of the present JPEG LS algorithm With this method, while finding the best domain block for each range block, instead of calculating complete distance, only partial distance is found. If this partial distance is more than the previous value of distance, that domain is rejected before finding the complete distance. This reduces lot of computations and hence searching time reduces.

Implementation of MSEA using 8 bit reversible ALU

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 20th June 2017

Mishal Jasmine Ferrao | Mr. Kiran Kumar. V. G, Mrs. Megha N, Ms. Nisha

Abstract

Modified Symmetric Encryption Algorithm (MSEA) is an ARX algorithm. In other words, the encryption procedure includes arithmetic, rotation and XOR operations. MSEA is also a symmetric algorithm. A symmetric algorithm uses the same key for encryption as well as decryption. In this paper, we have a proposed a technique to make MSEA more efficient in terms of power and memory by using an 8 bit reversible arithmetic and logic unit (ALU). Reversible logic is an emerging technology. The fact that there is no loss of data amounts to the advantage of less power dissipation in the reversible logic. The 8 bit ALU to be used in the design will include operations like left rotation, right rotation, increment, XOR operation. These operations are implemented using the basic reversible gates like Feynman gate, Fredkin gate, Peres gate, HNG gate. These gates can also be used to do the basic operations like AND, NAND, OR, NOR gates.

Implementation of Novel PWM Algorithm for the Reduction of Torque Ripple and Common Mode Voltage in VSI fed Induction Motor Drives

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

Linganagouda R | Dr.Pradeep B. Jyoti

Abstract

This paper presents a high performance near state PWM (NSPWM) algorithm for the reduction of common mode voltage (CMV) in direct torque controlled induction motor drives. In the proposed algorithms, actual switching times are calculated using the concept of imaginary times. As the proposed method did not use sector identification and angle information, it reduces the complexity involved in conventional methods. To reduce CMV, in the proposed method active voltage vectors are used to program the output voltage. NSPWM algorithm utilizes three adjacent active voltage vectors for the composition of reference voltage vector. To validate the proposed algorithm, simulation studies have been carried out using MATLAB-Simulink and results have been presented.

Implementation of Proposed Highspeed, Low Power 16 Bit Multiplier

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 31st May 2017

Ankita Gupta | Mandeep Singh,Narula Sandeep Shrivastava

Abstract

We have proposed a 16-bit high-speed multiplier using VHDL. With this method, the number of partial products has been reduced and the carry during addition has been eliminated. It also reduces the switching power which makes this multiplier a low power multiplier as compared to other multipliers. Due to the elimination of carry, the delay has been reduced which makes it a faster multiplier as well. The RTL circuit is much simpler, this decreased circuit complexity which leads to a better circuit with lesser delay and easier, cost-efficient way to implement the hardware.

Implementation of Ternary Logic Gate

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

P.Koti Lakshmi | A. Swathi , Prof. Rameshwar Rao

Abstract

A ternary logic system was first proposed by the polish mathematician Jan Lukasiewicz, in 1920.The ternary circuits developed are shown to have some significant advantages relative to other known binary circuits like low power dissipation, and reduced propagation delay and component count. Nevertheless, the associated reduction in the word length in the case of the ternary circuits tends to alleviate to a large extent the pin limitation problem associated with VLSI implementation. In this paper the basic gate implementation is considered and the power requirements for different methods of realization was studied.

Implementation of Triple AES Encryption & Decryption Design for High Security Application

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

Harsha A | Santhosh Kumar G

Abstract

This paper presents a combinational logic based Rijndael S-Box implementation for the Sub Byte transformation in the Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) algorithm. Recent publications on AES implementation have shown that the combinational logic based S-Box is proven for its small area occupancy and high throughput, given the fact that pipelining can be applied to this SBox implementation as compared to the typical based lookup table implementation which access time is fixed and unbreakable. In this paper, the construction procedure for implementing a 2 stage pipeline combinational logic based S-Box is presented and illustrated in a step-by-step manner. Implementation of shift row, mixed column, ad round key with DNA keys are done.Finally, for the purpose of practicality, the depth of the mathematics involved has been reduced in order to allow the reader to better understand the internal operations within the S-Box. A worked example by hand is also provided to help the reader better understand the functionality of the internal operations.

Implementing Vedic Formula for Square Computation in FPGA - A Survey

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 9th June 2017

Subrahmanya Bhat K G | Dr. Jose Alex Mathew

Abstract

The performance of any processor depends upon its speed, area and delay. Vedic mathematics is an ancient mathematics that has a unique method of computation based on simple rule. This paper reviews Vedic mathematics based high speed operations. The Vedic formula Dwandwa Yoga or Duplex squarer is based on duplex property which is used for squaring of numbers.

Improved Double Tail Dynamic Comparator

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

Sana Afreen | P V K Chaitanya, Dr. K C B Rao

Abstract

Comparator is one of the basic building blocks of analog to digital converter. The need for ultra-low-power, area efficient and high speed analog-to-digital converters is pushing toward the use of dynamic regenerative comparators to improve speed and efficiency of power. In this paper, an analysis on the delay of convectional dynamic single Tail comparator, Double Tail Comparator and double tail comparator for low power will be presented. The sub threshold leakage of transistors has usually been very small in the off state, as gate voltage is below threshold. But as voltages have been scaled down with transistor size, sub threshold leakage has become a considerable factor. Hence, to reduce the sub threshold leakage a new CMOS dynamic comparator using conventional CMOS inverter and switches method is proposed. The circuit has a dual input single output differential amplifier which is suitable for high speed analog to digital converters with improved speed and low power dissipation. The simulation results confirm the analysis and show that in the proposed dual tail dynamic comparator both power consumption and delay time are significantly reduced even in small supply voltage.. The simulation results will be shown in Mentor Graphics.

Improved Wavelet Based Compression With Adaptive Lifting Scheme in Comparison to Traditional Scheme And Optimized Bit Error Rate Analytical Approach Using Different Modulation Techniques

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

Shabrin MR | Jithendra PR Nayak

Abstract

In this paper, we've an inclination to propose a spanking new theme for data transmission supported orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM). In OFDM theme we've an inclination to match fast Fourier Transform (FFT) primarily based OFDM with wavelet based technique. In this technique DWT-HAAR (Discrete wavelet Transform) and ADWT-Adaptive lifting theme (Adaptive discrete wavelet Transform) is used for wavelet decomposition, we've an inclination to match ADWTAdaptive lifting theme with ancient DWT-HAAR that reduces procedure complexness and conjointly we've an inclination to prove that ADWT-Adaptive lifting theme wavelet will yield higher performance. we've got a bent to match our wavelet based OFDM with state-of-art criteria like FFT based OFDM, ancient DWT-HAAR based OFDM which we tend to prove that our methodology will yield better results compare to previous methodology supported bit error rate calculation in QPSK, 16-QAM, 64-QAM, 128- QAM, 256-QAM theme.

Improvement in object detection using Super Pixels

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

Shruti D Kadam | H.Mallika

Abstract

Most of the object detectors performance is degraded due to change in illumination, variant background and camera position. A method to enhance the detection performance of an offline generic detector is proposed in the paper. In this approach, all the detections are represented in Bag of Word fashion considering super pixels as its feature of classification, combining super pixels extraction and bag of word improves the object detection of a generic offline detector, object shape extraction from its background is segmented using graph cut algorithm. In standard, proposed approach takes the detection bounding box generated by a generic detector as input and improves the detection with better average precision. Bounding boxes are reduced with the objects shapes giving better performance using graph cut algorithm.

Improvement of Contact Fatigue Strength of Gear Teeth on Application of Cuprous Oxide

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

Kalathur. Kumar | V. Jagadeesh , M. Bhargav Reddy , R. Mahesh , N. Prudhvi Kumar

Abstract

In this paper, it combined with the gear with the existence of cuprous oxide conversion coating and the gear tooth fatigue experiment of the system gear was conducted using a basic experiment and automatic shift of gear tooth fatigue of a simple substance gear pair. Consequently, it was proved that the gear which gave the cuprous oxide conversion coating had high pitting proof load capability by improvement in the initial familiarity nature of a gear pair, an improvement of lubricating oil holdout, and direct contact prevention of metal. Analysis of the pitting- proof fatigue characteristics of cuprous oxide conversion coating processing specification and the gear tooth wear characteristic etc. performed the engagement gear by one of the two or both in the experiment.

Improvement of SNR in Lidar signal using Wavelet Thresholding Methods

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

P.Dileep Kumar | T.Ramashri

Abstract

Lidar is a remote sensing active instrument provides vertical profiles of atmospheric parameters and the range of lidar signal is affected by various noises like background noise in the middle atmosphere . Nowadays, wavelet transform (WT) is widely used in the real time signal denoising. Despite there are several achievement s in denoising through wavelet thresholding methods, these do not disclose an optimal configuration. In this paper, we proposed a comparative performance analysis of several thresholding methods using WT; lidar signals are denoised to obtain performance metrics. The efficiency of particular thresholding methods: rigrsure, sqtwolog and heursure using hard and soft thresholding are compared.

Increased Learning In Retinal Blood Vessel Segmentation Approach Based on Fuzzy-C Means Clustering and Mathematical Morphology

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

Naluguru Udaya Kumar | Tirumala Ramashri

Abstract

One of the major diseases that cause severe threat to the eye is named as Diabetic retinopathy. It creates thereby blindness among the people in the small age itself. The retinal image processing is used for analyzing and detecting the disease with the retinal blood vessels. By analysing and detecting of vasculature structures in retinal images, The most widely recognized manifestations of diabetic retinopathy incorporate cotton fleece spots, hemorrhages, hard exudates and enlarged retinal veins. A patient with diabetic retinopathy malady needs to experience intermittent screening of retina.we can early detect the diabetes in advanced stages by comparison of its states of retinal blood vessels. In this paper, we present blood vessel segmentation approach, which can be used in computer based retinal image analysis to extract the retinal image vessels. Mathematical morphology and FCM clustering are used to segment the vessels. To enhance the blood vessels and suppress the background information, we perform smoothing and sharpning operation on the retinal image using mathematical morphology. Then the enhanced image is segmented using FCM-means clustering algorithm.The main focus of this proposed work is to design the algorithm based on segmentation with clustering,for detection of Retinal blood vessel with the help of MATLAB with maximum accuracy.The proposed approach is tested on the DRIVE dataset and is compared with alternative approaches.Experimental results obtained by the proposed approach showed that it is effective as it achieved best accuracy of 98.23%

Indian Number Plate Recognition using MATLAB

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

Ms. Snehal B. Salunkhe | Mr. Swapnil M. Jawahire

Abstract

The Indian vehicles number plates detection is the most interesting and challenging research topic from past few years. It is observed that the number plates of vehicles are in different shape and size and also have different color in various countries. This paper presents an approach based on simple but efficient morphological operation with edge detection method. This approach is simplified to segmented all the letters and numbers used in the number plate by using bounding box method. After segmentation of numbers and characters present on number plate, template matching approach is used to recognition of numbers and characters. The concentrate is given to locate the number plate region properly to segment all the number and letters to identify each number separately.

Industrial Iot Implementation Using Scanner Based Monitoring

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

Ashwin Jose | Karthik Bekal , Kavita C ,Khomal Kalyan Kumar ,Jayaraj N

Abstract

The Raspberry Pi is a miniature computer that can be used in electronic projects. The Pi’s functionality ranges over quite a lot of domains; this can be exploited to entirely replace different devices to interface Human Interfaces or Programmable Logic Controllers (PLC). In our project we explore the idea of a raspberry Pi functioning as a standalone client computer, which interfaces with a ttl interfaced Barcode scanner while communicating with a server. The Pi also interfaces with different interfaces to help the operator interact with the client side computer. The Pi has sufficient computing power to behave as a PLC to control the various testing equipment and control machinery used in the production line, where this project was initially conceived to be implemented.

Industrial Pollution Monitoring System

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

Nabila D’Souza | Laxmikant Bordekar, Vrushali Kelkar

Abstract

As the countries become industrialized, the pollution level to our environments increases and hence is a major problem for the health of the population and also affects the ecosystem. The paper aims to devise a system to monitor pollution caused by the industries in a state by using the technology of wireless sensor networks (WSNs). The system is integrated with the global system for mobile communications (GSM) and the communication protocol used is zigbee. The system consists of sensor nodes, a control center and data base through which sensing data can be stored for history and future plans. The proposed system can be deployed to the industries for monitoring carbon monoxide (CO), sulfur dioxide (SO2) and noise concentration caused by industrial emissions due to process.

Information and Assistive System for Blind People Using Image Processing and RFID Technology

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

Ms.Neha .M.Kothalkar | Prof. S.P.Washimkar

Abstract

We proposed a camera based assistive system framework to help blind persons for reading text-labels and the product packaging from hand-held objects in their daily life and blind navigation assist system to get direction using text to speech conversion to show direction in the camera view we first find propose a efficient and effective motion based method to define region of interest (ROI). In extracted ROI, the text localization and recognition are conducted to acquire text information. Text characters are in the localized text regions are binaries and recognized by off shelf optical character recognition software’s. The scene capture component collects the scenes containing the objects of interest in the form of images /video, it corresponds to a camera attached to air of sun glasses . The live is captured by using web cam. The image format from the webcam is in format. The frames from the video segregated and undergone to the pre processing. The data processing component is used for deploying our proposed algorithms, including.

Ingenious speed and traffic controller for vehicles

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

S.Srikiran Rao | V.GuruKarthikeyan,K.Goutham

Abstract

Accidents that are prone near the traffic signal are mainly due to human errors in calculating the time period and the distance to cross the signal. In order to reduce these accidents we propose an intelligent traffic signal system with a speed controller device with a line follower which controls the speed of the vehicle when coming near the traffic signal, since we use line follower technique this reduces the traffic near the signals.

Intelligent Adaptive Traffic Light Control

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

S. Ms. Patil Nikita | Ms. Dudhane Shweta S , Ms. Udgave Komal J , Mr.Diwakar T.M

Abstract

Traffic congestion is one of the major problems, the world is facing today. Traffic monitoring and controlling is a difficult task. The aim of the traffic research is to optimize the flow of vehicular traffic and goods. One way to improve the traffic flow and safety of the current transportation system is to apply automation, intelligent and adaptive signal control methods. Adaptive traffic control and traffic density monitoring system aims at automatically adjusting released time of vehicles as per density available to the roads at the intersection. To reduce the manual work & utilize the time allotted by traffic signal effectively for better transportation system & to help the emergency vehicles to reach their destination faster. We are designing this project to control traffic light through microcontroller. It consumes less time & reduces human efforts. The main advantage of this project is traffic light control according to vehicles density on the roads. Fuel consumption and toxic gases emission can be reduced. Emergency vehicles can reach their destination in less time. This proposed system will be used to build a smart city with less traffic jams.

Intelligent Control for Detection of Hazardous Event in Mining Industry Through Helmet

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

Mrs. G.Sathya | R..Keerthana Priyadharshni , S.Elakkia , D.Deepika

Abstract

A smart helmet has been developed that is able to detect of hazardous events in the mines industry. In the development of helmet, we have considered the three main types of hazard such as air quality, helmet removal, and collision The first is the concentration level of the hazardous gases such as CO, SO2, NO2, and particulate matter. The second hazardous event was classified as a miner removing the mining helmet off their head. IR sensor was then used to successfully determine when the helmet is on the miner’s head. The third hazardous event is defined as an event where miners are struck by an object against the head with a force. An accelerometer was used to measure the acceleration of the head and the HIC was calculated in software. Tests were successfully done to calibrate the accelerometer. The experimental prototype consists of three sensors namely gas, infra red and proximity sensor for their usage and the sensor data are monitored in pc via zigbee transceiver unit.

Intelligent Fault Detection In Optical Fiber Cable Using Arduino.

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

Prachi Patil | Sonali Padekar, Poonam Adake, Shital Ghorapade

Abstract

in an intelligent fault detection system using Arduino in optical fiber communication. The idea behind this fault invigilating module is to monitor the received power supply in optical fiber. The Arduino UNO which consists of Atmega 328 microcontroller is used along with the sensor unit. The output of the sensor is designed and simulated by employing Proteus ISIS simulators to monitor the received power supply in the optical fiber. The sensor unit is used for the simulation consists of a LDR along with an op-amp. If there are any abrupt changes in power of optical line, the fault message is displayed on the LCD which is interfaced with Arduino and at the same time the date and time of fault occurrence will be transferred to LCD and RF transmitter, RF receiver receives this signal and send message through GSM.

Intelligent Fire Sensing and Extinguishing Robot

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

Rosy Roy | Ruby K Joseph, Rosmy Alex, Rosna Cherian , P Careena

Abstract

A fire fighter run into risky situations while extinguishing fire and rescuing victims. In contrast, a robot can function automatically or can be controlled from a distance, so that firefighting and rescuing activity could be executed by using a robot instead of putting fire fighters at risk. This robot uses gear motors, microcontroller, sensors, RF controller and an extinguisher. Microcontroller acts as the brain of the robot. Fire Fighting Robot continuously monitors the temperature of four temperature sensors fixed at four sides of the robot and if presence of fire is found to be true, the robot moves in the direction to which the temperature is relatively high among the four sensors and puts down the fire with the extinguisher. As the fire sensors sense the fire, it sends signal to the microcontroller via a comparator circuit. As soon as microcontroller receives the signal an alarm sounds. Also a predetermined message will be sent to the fire station using GSM modem. After sounding the alarm microcontroller drives the robot towards fire place. As the robot reaches near the fire source, the extinguisher is turned on and the fire is extinguished. Also any obstacle in its path can be detected by means of an ultrasonic wall detector. If the robot gets blocked or trapped in any situations inside a room, the robot can be externally controlled by using an RF controller from outside.

Intelligent Home Appliances Operates Through Email Using Raspberry PI

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

Smita Babaladi | Prof.S.S.Shirgan

Abstract

Due to rapid development in home automation technology people are demanding for smart home in which the home automation system is implemented or home appliances work automatically and by remotely. The existing system such as Zigbee and Bluetooth module are having several drawbacks. They are limited range of access, less secure and expensive Putting all these things in mind proposed system is designed which consists of control system based on Raspberry pi with WIFI module. This system uses WIFI module to read mails, matches the subject of mail and perform the particular action. Python script is used for writing the control algorithm which is generic and flexible.

Intelligent Shopping Cart

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

Rosamma Sebastian | Philip Chethalan, Philip T Nedumpuram,Prathibha S Nair, Tomin George

Abstract

An intelligent cart for the customer at shopping malls. The objective is to make a user friendly cart for shopping process. By the development of this cart, the customer does not need to push the cart. It will automatically follow the person throughout the shopping by sensing the movements of the customer. When any item is put into the trolley, RFID reader will read the tag value of that item and starts billing operation. When any item is taken back, it will reduce the price of that item from the calculated bill amount. After completing the shopping, the customer can just pay the final bill amount after the pc in billing section gives a request command. Deactivating command resets the cart. When the customer reaches the main entrance, he or she can collect the bill and pay the amount easily without any time delay.

Intelligent Shopping Trolley with RFID and Wireless Technology

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

Mr. Ajjaiah H B M | Keerthi K , Keerthi Kiran

Abstract

The RFID (radiofrequency identification) technology offers the ability to provide many new services and conveniences in the retail environment. A huge crowd is seen at shopping malls on holidays and weekends. People purchase different items and drop them in their trolleys. After the purchases, one needs to go to the billing counter for payments. At billing counter the cashier bills the products using bar code reader which is time consuming and results in long waiting queues. In this paper, a product is being discussed which assists a person in everyday shopping in terms of reduced time spent while purchasing. The system consists of three key components/modules RFID reader with Bluetooth, RFID tags, user interface and display unit and GSM component. Smart cart equipped with RFID tags can verify the purchase of the products as they are dropped in the cart and communicate with the display unit through Bluetooth to automatically display the billing list of the purchases made.

Intelligent Spy Robot using Zigbee

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

B.Hima Chandana | Mrs. R. Priyadarsini

Abstract

The wireless communication technologies are rapidly spreading to many new areas, including the automation and the importance of the use of wireless technologies in the data acquisition, building control, monitoring systems and automation of manufacturing processes will grow. Intelligent mobile robots and cooperative multi - agent robotic systems can be very efficient tools to speed up search and research operations in remote areas. Robots are also useful to do jobs in areas and in situations that are hazardous for human. They can go anywhere that is not reachable my humans and can go into gaps and move through small holes that are impossible for humans and even trained dogs. Our preliminary aim in this project is to build an pc controlled robot, which could be able to send the environmental status, the temperature condition, and if there is any obstacle on its path, and what is the obstacle in any remote place which is not reachable by the humans and it will be controlled by ZIGBEE communication.This project uses regulated 5V, 750mApower supply. 7805 three terminal voltageregulator is used for voltage regulation. Bridge type full wave rectifier is used to rectify the ac output of secondary of 230/18V step down transformer.

Intelligent Traffic Control System for Congestion Control, Ambulance Clearance and Stolen Vehicle Detection

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

Ramesh.J | Ravi Kiran.V , Rajendar Jangid, Ravi Kumar.S , Mrs.R.Deepa

Abstract

This paper presents an intelligent traffic control sys-tem to pass emergency vehicles smoothly. Each individual vehicle is equipped with special radio frequency identification (RFID) tag (placed at a strategic location), which makes it impossible to remove or destroy. We use RFID reader, NSK EDK-125–TTL, and PIC16F877A system-on-chip to read the RFID tags attached to the vehicle. It counts number of vehicles that passes on a particular path during a specified duration. It also determines the network congestion, and hence the green light duration for that path. If the RFID-tag-read belongs to the stolen vehicle, then a message is sent using GSM SIM300 to the police control room. In addition, when an ambulance is approaching the junction, it will communicate to the traffic controller in the junction to turn ON the green light. This module uses ZigBee modules on CC2500 and PIC16F877A system-on-chip for wireless communications between the ambulance and traffic controller. The prototype was tested under different combinations of inputs in our wireless communication laboratory and experimental results were found as expected.

Internet of Things (IoT) based Mobility Service for Visually Impaired

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

Salma.M | Shobha.H, Vanishree.K, Shridevi.R, Vijayshree.R.B, M.S.Satyanarayana

Abstract

Internet of Things (IoT) is the inter-connection of things through Internet along with the wireless technologies such as Radio-Frequency Identification (RFID). The independent mobility for Visually Impaired (VI) people is very difficult in this growing world and they depend upon different travelling guide which are cumbersome. The aim of this paper is to provide a better understanding of surroundings and motivate VI person to live more independently in their routine-life by using Internet of things. This paper considered different locations. These locations are attached with the RFID tag at the entrance. VI person is provided smart phone and RFID reader which is interfaced with ARM7 (Advanced RISC Machines) microcontroller. If VI person wants reach any of the location, then he/she speaks (audio signal) to the smart phone about the location they want to reach. The navigational information (audio) is extracted from the server of the Internet and information regarding obstacle on the path is also informed to aid VI to reach the destination. The Server of the Internet has the navigational data base to reach the location. The navigational data is provided only to an authenticated person. The RFID reader which is available with VI, identifies the tag attached to the location and announces the destination location name.

Internet of Things as an Approach of Evolutionary Practice in Computer Applications

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

K.V.Sravani | C.Suguna Devi , A.Maheswarreddy

Abstract

The Internet of Things is a paradigm where everyday objects can be equipped with identifying, sensing, networking, and processing capabilities that will allow them to communicate with one another and with other devices and services over the Internet to accomplish some objective. Internet-of-Things envisions a future in which digital and physical entities can be linked, by means of appropriate information and communication technologies, to enable a whole new class of applications and services. The title of this paper may suggest different networking strategies, but we focus on latest research angles regarding the Internet of Things (IoT). These research angles includes all other disciplines and are in the process of being adopted by the IoT. Our paper serves a key purpose: from the perspective of closely connected technologies based on time, to review the evolutionary process of the IoT and depict the relations between the corresponding techniques which are largely missing in current literature in which the focus has been more on the introduction and comparison of existing technologies of the IoT. Through relations of particular focus in different stages of each technology, we get to know the current phase of the IoT and we can face future challenges. This paper aims to provide guidance in terms of the evolutionary process of the IoT and gives readers an overview of the IoT field without repeating what is already available in existing strategies.

Intrusion Detection Using Efficient Swarm Intelligence

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

A Shriya | B Harshitha , K Archana , B.Sujatha

Abstract

In the current age Intrusion detection is an interest in and challenging area. As there are now a few exploration works are as of now done and the outcome change is in advancement. In this dissertation a hybrid approach has been proposed which is based on association rule mining and Intrusion Detection Using Swarm Intelligence Based on Iterative Selection. The NSL-KDD dataset is used. First normal and attack nodes are separated. Then normal node is checked for suspicious behavior. Then association rule mining is applied to form the associated for the next preprocessing. Then we check the threshold value obtained for the different intrusion types. If it is passed the threshold velocity assigned, then it will be categorized as the specific attack. We have considered a Denial of Service (DoS), User to Root (U2R), Remote to User (R2L) and Probing (Probe) attacks in this research work. The results show the improvement in detection as compared to the previous method.

Investigation of Logic Level Techniques to Improve AES Throughput

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

Megha S Hallikeri | Raghuram Srinivasan

Abstract

Substitution Box(S-Box) is an important integral part of modern cryptographic cipher techniques like Advanced Encryption Standard (AES). There exists a bulk literature devoted to the implementation of AES. Combinational logic of implementation attains high throughput in terms of parameters like speed, area, delay etc. This paper represents the working principle of AES, Novel algorithmic approaches for S-Box. We mainly concentrated on combinational logic implementation of SBox in order to Improve Area. AES is programmed and executed on Xilinx 14.7 version, Spartan 3 Family, ModelSim Simulator. Cadence 180nm tool is used to verify the parameters. We examine the current work which exploits the mathematical properties of S-Box. Using this technique throughput is increased by 30%. We verified individual modules separately and waveforms are obtained.

IOT Based Digital Notice Board

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

K.Dinesh | M.Siva Ramakrishna

Abstract

This paper aims to present a technology based online notice board using Internet of Things (IOT). Down the years Display boards constituted one of the major role in mass communication medium. In order to reduce paper work, time and man power, the proposed model introduces an online digital notice board using IOT.IOT Connects things to the internet .So,we can access the Notice board from anywhere across the world through internet.The notice board is interfaced with the Ethernet module to provide internet access to the board. The Ethernet module which is installed at the digital notice board receives the message from designated user and gets presented on the notice board. From our proposed model the authorized admin enables to post the message from any corner and this message can be portrayed on the Led Display. The proposed model funds with multiple applications like help desks in transporting stations like railway, airways and bus stations which offers travellers to have up to date/updated info. It has a better impact in jammed regions as in supermarket to provide a hike and decremental cost prices. This directs the people/students in completely unfamiliar areas. Lesser to the infinity each remote areas of the world can be portrayed on the screen with the updated news and it can be possible only by the IOT.

Iot Based E-Puc System

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 31st May 2017

Maskar swapnil A | Patil omkar A, Satale rahul K, Shinde Rahul S

Abstract

Pollution is always been a major problem on earth. The best example and burning issue of air pollution is china and also our India’s capital Delhi. Which is suffering from air pollution. There are many reason stands behind air pollution but most of times it seems that vehicle is largely causes to air pollution. Now it is estimated that there are 60-70 million motor vehicles in India. An Indian government took this issue in serious manner, so they are emplacement and pollution control board to examine done by a vehicle. They develop a P.U.C system that checks the level of pollutant which is exerted by a vehicle. P.U.C is simple way to check the pollutant content Exerted by vehicle with some electronic equipment and less space. But now days we can see that the equipment is not in proper manner. And the P.U.C Holder examiner is not proper guided and has a less education ability. For this problem we have designed and device which is Internet of Things based E-PUC system, which has four sensors which detects pollution content of vehicle smoke. And automatically send the information to authorized government R.T.O office. Which analyze the data and send message to the particular vehicle owner. If the content of P.U.C is out of limit fine amount is cut through owner account. The advantage of this device is require less human resources, process is automatically and fast, no need to visit P.U.C center. This helps our governments to keep easily attention on pollutant vehicle and helps to keep nature of green India.

IOT Based Remote Health Check Up System

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

L Gautam | P Logeshwaran , D Loganathan , Khaleel naina , K.S.Rani

Abstract

Technology plays the major role in healthcare not only for sensory devices but also in communication, recording and display device. It is very important to monitor various medical parameters and post operational days. Hence the latest trend in Healthcare communication method using IOT is adapted. Internet of things serves as a catalyst for the healthcare and plays prominent role in wide range of healthcare applications. In this project the STM32 NUCLEO microcontroller is used as a gateway to communicate to the various sensors such as temperature sensor and pulse oximeter sensor. The microcontroller picks up the sensor data and sends it to the network through Wi-Fi and hence provides real time monitoring of the health care parameters for doctors. The data can be accessed anytime by the doctor. The controller is also connected with buzzer to alert the caretaker about variation in sensor output. But the major issue in remote patient monitoring system is that the data as to be securely transmitted to the destination end and provision is made to allow only authorized user to access the data. The security issue is been addressed by transmitting the data through the password protected Wi-Fi module ESP8266 which will be encrypted by standard AES128 and the users/doctor can access the data by logging to the html webpage. At the time of extremity situation alert message is sent to the doctor through GSM module connected to the controller. Hence quick provisional medication can be easily done by this system. This system is efficient with low power consumption capability, easy setup, high performance and time to time response.

IOT based Smart Campus

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

Pooja R | Chetan Naik J , Arun Kumar G C

Abstract

The word smart itself represents intelligence. The paper is based on the technological improvements to a campus using Internet of Things (IOT). Use of this technology is necessary to develop an institution. In this work, the four new methods of technology are explained. They are attendance monitoring system, automatic electricity consumption reduction system, campus monitoring system and floor cleaning. All these things are realized using IOT, PIR sensor, cloud storage, Arduino Mega Microcontroller.

IOT Based Smart GPS Device for Child and Women Safety Applications

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

Niti Shree | 

Abstract

This work is based on IOT (Internet of Things). As we know in present era everything is based on digital technology. Nowadays every person is connected with each other by many ways, where most popular communication is internet so it is internet which connects people. This paper proposes an Android based solution to aid parents to track their children in real-time. Different devices are connected with a single device through channels of internet. The concerned device is connected to server via internet. The device can be used by parents to track their children in real time or for women safety. The proposed solution takes the advantage of the location services provided by GSM. It allows the parents to get their child’s location on real time by SMS. Here, a prototype model (device) is created which is simulation based. The work comprises ARM-7 LPC2148 as microcontroller, along with GPS and GSM module. Embedded C core compile using Keil and virtual simulation check using Proteus 8.1 is done. A server is created which will collect all the data generated by our prototype system and send the same to server using GPRS. A Dummy server will be created by using Filezilla. This device will also have the facility of Emergency help key (SOS), if anyone presses the key , automatic help message will be sent to 3 registered mobile numbers on Server.

IOT Based Smart Water Leakage Detection

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 31st May 2017

N.P.Dharani  | K. Sai Sowjanya, A. Bhavya, M. Poojitha, G. Vishnu Sai

Abstract

water is the most essential element to live on earth. Technology provides people comfort, as there is a tremendous change in technology in every field our lives are becoming easier. Leak detection is a modern field of technology with the aim of standards and practices to facilitate control and maintain continual operation of transporting water, oil, gases, and other fluid products. Existing system for leakage detection is pressure deviation method which requires Force sensitive resistors (FSR’S) this is expensive. We have to use the sensors throughout the pipeline at different nodes and it becomes complicated. Adopting proper techniques for managing burst leaks is essential. To reduce this kind of burst and small leakages we are proposing the smart leakage detection system. In this paper we are implementing three modules such as water level monitoring, water pH level monitoring and water pipeline leakage detection using IOT Technology. By using this technology we can prevent wastage of water, here we are using 8051 micro controller to detect the three parameters namely Level, pH, Leakage. Here we have discussed about design and implementation of smart water leakage detection system and how it detects the leakage and at the same time the location of leakage and parameters data will be send to a smart phone by using an android application called Telnet through ESP8266 Wifi module. On usage of these two elements made this system smart and by implementing this system we can avoid huge water leakage in an easier way.

IOT’s Smart Home using TI Launch pad CC3200

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

Tanzeela Fayyazahemad Patel | Pooja Suresh Patil, Vaibhav.V.Khandare

Abstract

Developing the IOT’s smart home system by gluing on the potential future technologies of IOT and cloud computing is the primary objective. For this purpose, we have used TI CC3200 Launch pad with Grove temperature and light sensors connected to the IOT service establishments. The graphical plot relating to the sensor value is observed in the IOT platform. Whenever there is a requirement, the user can control the electrical appliances from his/her mobile application. So using this system one can keep an eye on home energy consumption, even thousands of miles away with smart phone and smart Wi-Fi solution within major appliances and lightning controls, switches in your home, for great peace of mind.

IPV4 to IPV6 Transition Complaint Media Streaming Using Arm 11

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

Manju Priya G | K. Rajasekar

Abstract

Internet Protocol version 6 (IPv6) is the next version of Internet Protocol (IP) which is currently in the transition phase from its predecessor, Internet Protocol version 4 (IPv4). With the number of IPv4 addresses almost completely depleted, the implementation of IPv6 has become a priority for many organizations. However, it is not all that feasible to just switch everything over to IPv6 without some type of transition. This project reconsiders the basic problems and key differences in IPv4-Ipv6 transition. IPv6 transition mechanisms are the technology that facilitates the transition of internet from its initial and current IPv4 infrastructure to the successor addressing and routing system of IPv6 (Internet Protocol Version 6). As IPv4 and IPv6 networks are not directly interoperable, these technologies are designed to permit hosts on either network to participate in networking with the other network. To meet its technical criteria, IPv6 must have a straight forward transition plan from the current IPv4. Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) conducts working groups and discussions through the IETF Internet Drafts (ID) and Request for Comments (RFC) processes to develop these transition technologies towards that goal. This will overcomes the issues of scalability and an another challenge is that operates are facing situations in which IPv6 only access networks are deployed but the majority of internet services remain in IPv4. Also the application layer translation is the key issues in the previous translation methods that will be analyzed and found better solution by this. ARM 11 processor design a flexible, low cost IPv4/Ipv6 converter which support the Session Initiation Protocol (SIP), Real Time Streaming Protocol (RTSP) in the IPv4 network data can be achieved through IPv6 network. It also automatically configure the routers depending on the destination network instead of manual routing. Streaming technology will be analyzed and it will be done between two or more PC (Personal Computer) in which one PC will be in IPv4 network and the other is on Ipv6 network where the Raspberry Pi will acts as the server to do the transition mechanism. Keywords:Nutritional deficiency, LabVIEW, Image processing, RGB color.

IR Drop and Electro Migration Reduction Techniques in Deep Sub-Micron technologies

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

D. Paramesh Kumar | Mr. D. Raja Ramesh

Abstract

Power is an important parameter in the recent years due to the ramp up of mobile devices, which need to support the device operation for longer times without need for external power source. So the voltage is scaling to help with this along with scaling of transistor. It helps in increasing the cell density in a given area, but needs higher current density and more no. of interconnects. To support this, the wire dimensions are also minimized, which causes more resistance due to which IR drop occurs. If enough voltage is not available at the cells, it affects timing; if available voltage is even lesser, it will lead to functional failure. If it happens on clock network, it causes skew. Increase in current density and decrease in dimensions of wire cause Electro migration which occurs due to the momentum transfer from electrons to the atoms in the wire. If more current is flowing and if it exceeds the current density limit of the interconnect, it leads to Electro migration. Due to this, the wire dimensions will decrease even more and cause more resistance, heat and current density. The project IR Drop and Electro migration Reduction Techniques in Deep Sub-Micron Technologies, discusses the techniques to find out the whether it is resistance or current which is causing the IR Drop in a region, and shifting the timing window of the instances in high IR drop region to avoid simultaneous switching. It also implements the techniques to find out the minimum width which is necessary in the present metal layer as well as in higher metal layer in order to avoid the Electro migration.

IRIS Recognition System Using Geodesic Active Contours for Non-Ideal IRIS Images

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

Rapaka Satish | Dr. P. Rajesh Kumar,Praneeth Inteti

Abstract

The stable unique epigenetic pattern of the iris make it a robust biometric trait for personal identification. The first stage of iris recognition is to isolate the actual iris region in a digital eye image. The segmentation stage is critical to the success of an iris recognition system, since data that is falsely represented as iris pattern data will corrupt the biometric templates generated, resulting in poor recognition rates. Most segmentation models in the literature assume that the pupillary, limbic, and eyelid boundaries are circular or elliptical in shape. Hence, they focus on determining model parameters that best fit these hypotheses. However, it is difficult to segment iris images acquired under non ideal conditions using such conic models. In this paper we use Geodesic Active Contours (GAC) for segmenting iris from the surrounding structures. Since active contours can 1) assumes any shape and 2) segment multiple objects simultaneously. Experimental Results on the UBIRIS and CASIA v4.0 iris databases indicate the efficacy of the proposed technique

Issues related to demand supply management in smart metering information system for smart grid

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

Nutan Y. Attarde | Neelam S. Pinjari, Ujwala. Tade,Rekha Sonune

Abstract

The most important features of the smart grid is the meter data management system (MDMS)which collects, exchanges, and processes the meter data with an objective of minimizing the power consumption and supply. Currently, the electricity consumption is not efficient .This results in the waste of a large amount of natural resources. This leads to arising different needs such as plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), which can potentially double the average load, It has increased the need of developing new methods for demand side management (DSM).We consider a smart power infrastructure, where several subscribers share a common energy source. Each subscriber is equipped with an energy consumption controller (ECC) unit as part of its smart meter. Each smart meter is connected to not only the power grid but also a communication infrastructure such as a local area network. This allows two-way communication among smart meters .Considering the importance of energy pricing as an essential tool to develop efficient demand side management strategies. We propose a novel real-time pricing algorithm for the future smart grid. We focus on the interactions between the smart meters and the energy provider through the exchange of control messages which contain subscribers’ energy consumption and the real-time price information. We analytically model the subscribers’ preferences and their energy consumption patterns in form of carefully selected utility functions based on concepts from microeconomics. Then we propose a distributed algorithm which automatically manages the interactions among the ECC units at the smart meters and the energy provider. The algorithm finds the optimal energy consumption levels for each subscriber to maximize the aggregate utility of all subscribers in the system in a fair and efficient fashion. After that we will show that the energy provider can encourage some desirable consumption patterns among the subscribers by means of the proposed real-time pricing interactions.

Lab On-Chip Detection of Tuberculosis

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

Noor Fatimah I.H | Shabana , Tina J , Vinay N. Sortur , Chrispin Jiji

Abstract

This paper presents a new method of Tuberculosis (TB) detection; a method made simpler, faster and more accurate. The blood samples of the individuals are subjected to inspection, through photonic crystal sensor to obtain the refractive index values. The sevalues are initialized into MEEP (Massachusetts Institute of Technology Electromagnetic Equation Propagation) software to obtain the flux values. A MATLAB (Matrix Laboratory) code is written employing Naive Bayesian Algorithm for classifying the test samples indicating either the presence or absence of TB. A further step is taken by us to make this user-friendly by displaying the corresponding results on a LCD using Raspberry Pi Model B+, supported by a voice message output too. The results at each stage are recorded and analyzed.

Learning a Phoneme Manifold Using Multitask Learning for DNN based Synthesis of Children's Stories

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

Naina Teertha | Sai Sirisha Rallabandi, Sai Krishna Rallabandi, Dr. Kumaraswamy, Suryakanth V Gangashetty

Abstract

Deep Neural Networks(DNNs) use a cascade of hidden representations to enable the learning of complex mappings from input tom output features and are shown to produce more natural synthetic speech than conventional HMM-based statistical parametric systems. However even though it offers greater flexibility and controllability than unit selection, the naturalness of speech generated by DNN SPSS is still below that of human speech, and cannot compete with good unit selection systems. DNNs are very powerful models and it might be the case that we haven’t yet found the best possible way to use them. In this paper, we investigate the learning of a phoneme manifold as a secondary task in a Multitask Learning setting for acoustic modeling and show that the hidden representation used within a DNN can be improved using such a method. The rationale behind the techniques is independent of the architecture and can also be extended to the recurrent/recursive variants of the neural networks.

Leveraging Innovation for Smart Agricultural Field

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

Punitha M | Goutham C , Arun Kumar G C

Abstract

Indian culture is agriculture and is the backbone of more than 60 percent people of India, who are highly dependent on monsoon. Drastic increase in India’s population will lead to food and animal feed problem in next 20 to 30 years. Food is the basic need for the survival of one’s life. The main objective of this paper is to provide a smart technique to create interest in the farmers to grow crops and to increase the yield by incorporating several smart techniques and the data is uploaded to cloud and the necessary actions are taken dynamically by the controller without the intervention of the farmer with the help of Internet of Things (IOT). Sensors and Actuator reading are processed and driven by Arduino Mega Microcontroller.

Li – Fi An Economical and High Speed Wireless Protocol

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

K.Rohith | 

Abstract

In Information-technology, a protocol is the special Set of rules that end points in a telecommunication connection use when they Communicate. Protocols specify interactions between the communicating entities. Wireless protocol's exchange information through the air waves i.e., without wires. Light Fidelity (Li-Fi is one of the wireless protocol and it is a visible light communication system running wireless communications travelling at Very high speeds. Li-Fi uses common household Light Emitting Diodes .(LED) light bulbs to enable data transfer, boosting speeds of upto 224 gigabits per second. LIFI is similar to that of Wi-Fi. Both transmit data electromagnetically. Wi-Fi uses radio waves where as Li-Fi uses visible light. Li-Fi accommodates a photo detector to receive light signals and a signal processing element to convert the data into 'Stream able content'. Light fidelity (Li-Fi) is a bidirectional, high speed and fully networked wireless communication technology similar to Wi-Fi. The high speeds of Li-Fi could make a huge impact on internet of things also .Li-Fi is more secure than the Wi-Fi. Since homes and offices already have LED bulbs for lighting purposes the same source of light can be used to transmit data. therefore it is very efficient in terms of costs as well as energy. In the present paper, the functions and performances of Li-Fi are discussed.

Li-Fi Based Audio Communication and Device Switching Using Web Server

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

Vikas B N | Adarsha D Doddabasava , Suresh R K , Narendra Kumar

Abstract

Powerful microcontrollers are used as parts of most home and office appliances of today. Integrating web servers to these intelligent devices will aid in controlling them over the Internet and also in creating effective user interfaces in the form of web pages. Assigning multiple functionalities to a single button on an appliance help manufacturers economize user interfaces, but, this can easily create confusion for the users. Since the cost of web-based interfaces is considerably low, they can be used to provide the infrastructure for the design of simple and more user-friendly interfaces for household appliances. Also, a web page based interface is much easier to change, when needed, as compared to a hardware interface. This paper presents a novel approach to control devices with embedded web servers over the Internet and to form device networks such that their components can make use of one another’s services and functions while improving the user interfaces. The main benefits of this approach include its lightweight design, automatic configuration, and, utilization of widely available and tested network protocols of TCP/IP and HTTP. The validity of the approach has been verified through a prototype system working with real appliances. In order to control the devices on the other hand by using light fidelity and a server based technology. This is mainly designed to control the devices which needs complete monitoring throughout the day hence in order to achieve this we use light fidelity (Li- Fi). Li-Fi would use transceiver-fitted LED lamps that can light a room as well as transmit and receive information and on the other hand that is to transfer the data on a longer distance we are using a server application which decodes the data and sends it in a relative format to the receiver side where again it is decoded and this information is helpful in controlling the devices.

LIFI Based Automation of Toll Gate Using Micro Controller

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

B.Surendhar | MS Sachin , Mohammed Sawoud U Zaman , Navya Reddy , Mrs.Savitha.H.S

Abstract

Li-Fi is transmission of data through illumination by taking the fiber out of fiber optics by sending data through a LED light bulb that varies in intensity faster than the human eye can follow. Li-Fi is the term some have used to label the fast and cheap wireless-communication system, which is the optical version of Wi-Fi. The term was first used in this context by Harald Haas in his TED Global talk on Visible Light Communication. At the heart of this technology is a new generation of high brightness lightemitting diodes, says Harald Haas from the University of Edinburgh, UK, Very simply, if the LED is on, you transmit a digital 1, if it’s off you transmit a 0,Haas says, They can be switched on and off very quickly, which gives nice opportunities for transmitted data The Automation of Toll Gate Systems working model can be explained, by taking Toll Gate Model, as follows: The Toll Gate Office is having a Personal Computer, which is connected with the receiver and the software to run Automation of Toll Gate System. To implement this System every vehicle must be fitted with remote transmitter, hidden behind the Number Plate of the Vehicle. The job of this transmitter is to transmit continuously the Number of Vehicle on which it is mounted, in coded form. When any vehicle enters the zone of Toll Office, the sensors fitted either side of the road, senses and sends the signal to the Toll Office Control Unit. This Micro-controller based Control Unit activates the Number Plate Sensor, which in result receives the Number of the entering vehicle [capturing the signal sent by vehicles remote transmitter] and sends it to computer. The computer scans its centralized database and displays the details of that vehicle with the current time and date. The details are: Registration Number and Model Number with vehicles body color, Owners Name and Address, Date of Registration, Current status Clear or is in black list of any department etc. If the vehicle records show its Current Status is Clear, then the gate will be opened automatically. Otherwise, the gate will not open and the vehicle owner will be called for further enquiry. The Regional Transport Office or RTOs can use this System to watch the unregistered vehicles or trace the other state vehicles. The Cargo Companies can intimate their on-road vehicles about the latest development in the delivery plan and give the next delivery address. The Public Transports can keep the details of each vehicles check-in and check-out times with number of rotations it makes in a day. The Police Department can easily stop the wanted vehicle, by posting the Vehicles Register Number on its Data Base. As the Toll Gate MC checks this Data Base and founds the Current Status as wanted, it does not open the gate and immediately alerts the concerned authority.

Literature Review on A Class of Different Sparse Adaptive Algorithms for Echo Cancellation

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

Ms. Dhanashri M. Kadakane | Prof. Mrs. A. P. Patil

Abstract

Echo is the repetition of a waveform due to reflection from points where the characteristics of the medium through which the wave propagates changes. Echo is usefully employed in sonar and radar for detection and exploration purposes. In telecommunication, echo can degrade the quality of service, and echo cancellation is an important part of communication systems. In hands-free telephony and in teleconference systems, the main aim is to provide a good free voice quality when two or more people communicate from different places. The problem often arises during the conversation is the creation of acoustic echo. This problem will cause the bad quality of voice signal and thus talkers could not hear clearly the content of the conversation, even thought lost the important information. This acoustic echo is actually the noise which is created by the reflection of sound waves by the wall of the room and the other things exist in the room. The main objective for engineers is the cancellation of this acoustic echo and provides an echo free environment for speakers during conversation. For this purpose, scientists design different adaptive filter algorithms. In the context of acoustic echo cancellation (AEC), it is shown that the level of sparseness in acoustic impulse responses can vary greatly in a mobile environment. When the response is strongly sparse, convergence of conventional approaches is poor. we propose a class of AEC algorithms that can not only work well in both sparse and dispersive circumstances, but also adapt dynamically to the level of sparseness using a new sparseness-controlled approach. The proposed algorithms achieve these improvements with only a modest increase in computational complexity.

Locker Security System Based On Face Detection Using Raspberry Pi

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

Dr. Manoj Priyatham .M | Madhukesh .S

Abstract

In current scenario, bank and locker robberies are frequently happening this means our locker is vulnerable to theft since it has no ultimate protection rather than a lock and key. Currently, most of the banks use two keys to open the lockers. One key is with the customer and another key is with the bank manager. This system is having some drawbacks. There is a possibility of losing the key which make the system to be insecure and duplication of keys may lead to unauthorized access of the locker. So in order to overcome that we are introducing Locker Security System based on Face Recognition and GSM (Global System for Mobile) technology, which can be used in Banks, Security Offices and Homes for giving protection to expensive possessions. In this system, only the authorized person can access the valuable things like money, licenses and jewels from locker. Face Recognition is done by using active appearance model algorithm with Bayesian classifier, which is used to identify the persons and verify their identity with the Raspberry Pi processor. RFID (Radio-frequency identification) and GSM technology are combined together for accessing the locker securely. When an authorized person tries to access the locker, the system will generate a one-time password and send to the registered mobile number of that person. If the password entered by him is correct, then only he will be allowed to access the locker. If he does any offensive acts on the locker, it will be sensed by the vibration sensor and the sensor will send the control signal to Raspberry pi processor and it will generate alarm sound.

Low Complexity Low Latency Error Correction Using BCH Codes

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

Pavithra P Vijayan | Rafeekha M J

Abstract

Bose Choudhuri Hocquenghem (BCH) codes are widely used in applications such as satellite communications, compact disc players, DVDs, disc drives etc. BCH forms a class of error correcting codes that are constructed using finite field. Reed Solomon (RS) codes are used in the previous architecture which forms more complicated finite field operation. In the proposed architecture BCH codes are used in which random error correction is possible. The encoder consists of MPCN (minimal polynomial combination network) block , XOR gates, registers and mux. MPCN blocks are used in architecture which avoids complexity and latency. Decoder consists of syndrome calculator, key equation solver, chien search logic and buffer. The decoder section decodes and corrects the output. Some of the merits of BCH codes are low amount of redundancy, easy to implement in hardware and thus they are widely used. Moreover it is highly efficient in terms of area, speed and power with minimum latency. The VHDL language is used for coding, synthesis was done by using Xilinx ISE and simulated by using ModelSim.

Low Cost Heart Multi Parameter Monitoring and Arrhythmia Analysis Using MATLAB

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

Ashwin N Sharavu | Prof.Prassanna Kumar C, Mr.Baalu Vaisista

Abstract

Recent years percentage of heart related diseases are in peak limit and to analysis heart diseases, ECG (electrocardiogram) one of best method to acquisition of ECG signals.The ECG devices are huge demand in market but when we deal with the cost, size and power its required to be minimized.In this paper present the ECG, Blood pressure, stethoscope signal acquisition using MPM board with C8051F380 development board and compare its power consumption with previous reference works. Output of MPM board is stored as .txt format and displayed the signals in MATLAB GUI.Finally processing of ECG .txt file using the pan Tompkins algorithm to track the QRS value and analyzing the arrhythmia using MATLAB graphical user interface (GUI).

Low Noise Amplifier for the MICS band in CMOS 180nm Technology

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

Apoorva N | K C Narasimhamurthy

Abstract

The main focus of this paper is to design a Low Noise Amplifier for the Medical Implant Communication Services (MICS) band. Low Noise Amplifier (LNA) is designed by utilizing the techniques of current-reuse, feedback and back gate coupling. Both nMOS and pMOS transistors are used to save power consumption and to enhance gain, common gate (CG) and Shunt feedback (SFB) topologies are combined. LNA achieves 10dB of Gain, 11.6dB Noise figure and -18dBm of IIP3. Simulations are done using H-SPICE in CMOS 180nm PTM Technology.

Low Power and High performance JK Flip - Flop using 45 nm Technology

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

G. Naveen Balaji | V. Narayanan, V.S. Nivash

Abstract

In current scenario, VLSI circuit’s greatest challenges is to reduce the power dissipation and surface area so that longer life and high performance achieved to greater extent. The key parameter is threshold voltage to reduce the leakage power. In our proposal, we design low power and high performance JK flip-flop. JK flip-flop is designed with the help of D flip-flop and with some logic gates. The proposed work is mainly of double gate MOSFET (DG MOSFET) concept and transistor stacking method is used to reduce power dissipation and delay. This circuit is examined some parameter like power dissipation, delay and power delay product (PDP).Some Simulation like Tanner EDA tool and a 45 nm technology shows that the proposed JK flip-flop has lower power dissipation and small delay comparable to those of published an explicit-pulsed double-edge triggered JK flip-flop (EPDET-JKFF). In this circuit we observe the power dissipation decreases 21.87%. An improvement of 46.24% in PDP in JK flip-flop as compared to explicit-pulsed double edge triggered JK flip-flop.

Low Power Area Efficient Flip Flop Design

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

S Prabaharan | A Manikandan

Abstract

Chip density and operating frequency are increasing steadily to perform complex computations at faster rate, leading to increase in the power dissipation of digital circuit design. Low power flip flop design featuring an explicit type pulse triggered structure and a modified true single phase clock latch based on a signal feed-through scheme is presented. The proposed design acts as a solution for the long discharging path problem found in most explicit pulse triggered flip flops also achieves better speed and power performance. Proposed design outperforms the conventional pulse-triggered flip flop design in data to Q delay. The charge keeper circuit for the internal node X can be saved and a pass transistor controlled by the pulse clock is included, so input data can drive node Q directly. Along with pull up transistor, it facilitates signal driving from input source to node Q. Node can be quickly pulled up to shorten data transition delay.

Low Power CMOS Based Dual Mode Logic Gates

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

S SUJEETHA | Dr. V RANGANATHAN

Abstract

the advancement in technology and the expansion of mobile applications, power consumption has become a primary focus of attention in Very Large Scale Integration (VLSI) digital design. Recently digital sub-threshold circuit design has become a very promising method for ultra-low power applications. Circuits operating in the sub-threshold region utilize a supply voltage that comes close to or even less than the threshold voltages of the transistors, so it allows significant reduction of both dynamic and static power. A Dual Mode Logic (DML) gate, for selectable operation in either of static and dynamic modes. By scaling down the area there should be a need arise to scale down the supply voltage as well as threshold voltages of the device. It can cause static power dissipation to dominate dynamic power dissipation. To reduce the power consumption and dissipation of the circuit and increase the life time of the battery normally used in mobile phones and personal digital assistants Power Gated Sleep method can be applied. During sleep to active mode transition the stacked sleep transistors connected below the pull-down network are ON after a small duration. During the instant circuit should be experiences the Ground Bounce Noise (GBN). Inserting proper amount of delay which is less than the discharge time of the sleep transistor GBN will be reduced. The output of the circuit should be high enough to drive the another circuit. The simulations were done in TannerEDA 13.0 tool and power consumption of the proposed DML gates compared with Sleep and Dual Sleep methods in the 250-nm process.

Low Power CMOS Based Dual Mode Logic Gates

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

S Sujeetha | Dr. V Renganathan

Abstract

the advancement in technology and the expansion of mobile applications, power consumption has become a primary focus of attention in Very Large Scale Integration (VLSI) digital design. Recently digital sub-threshold circuit design has become a very promising method for ultra-low power applications. Circuits operating in the sub-threshold region utilize a supply voltage that comes close to or even less than the threshold voltages of the transistors, so it allows significant reduction of both dynamic and static power. A Dual Mode Logic (DML) gate, for selectable operation in either of static and dynamic modes. By scaling down the area there should be a need arise to scale down the supply voltage as well as threshold voltages of the device. It can cause static power dissipation to dominate dynamic power dissipation. To reduce the power consumption and dissipation of the circuit and increase the life time of the battery normally used in mobile phones and personal digital assistants Power Gated Sleep method can be applied. During sleep to active mode transition the stacked sleep transistors connected below the pull-down network are ON after a small duration. During the instant circuit should be experiences the Ground Bounce Noise (GBN). Inserting proper amount of delay which is less than the discharge time of the sleep transistor GBN will be reduced. The output of the circuit should be high enough to drive the another circuit. The simulations were done in TannerEDA 13.0 tool and power consumption of the proposed DML gates compared with Sleep and Dual Sleep methods in the 250-nm process.

Low Power Flip Flop Implemented Using Transmission Gates and Feed through Logic

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

Arshi Kahkaishan | Rekha S

Abstract

in this paper, a low-power flip-flop (FF) design featuring an explicit type pulse-triggered structure and a modified true single phase clock (TSPC) latch based on a signal feed-through scheme is presented. This paper solves the long discharging path problem in conventional explicit type pulse-triggered FF (MHLFF) design. An advanced simulation which targets to achieves better speed and power performance. Reducing redundant switching activity has a good impact on reducing power dissipation. CMOS 90nm technology have been used to implement simulation results. The maximum power saving is achieved as compared to the previous design. H-SPICE tool is used for simulation purpose.

Low resolution satellite Images contrast Enhancement Using Regularized-Histogram Equalization and DCT

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

M. HemaLatha | S.Varadarajan

Abstract

In this research paper, an efficient enhancement technique is used for remote sensing images, to improve the global contrast and the local details. The proposed method constitutes an empirical approach by using the regularized-histogram equalization (HE) and the discrete cosine transform (DCT) to improve the image resolution. First regularized - histogram equalization is applied to Low resolution satellite image. This technique uses sigmoid function and histogram equalization to generate distribution function for low resolution image. This gives global contrast enhancement of image details. Second, the DCT coefficients of the previous contrast improved image are automatically adjusted to further enhance the local details of the image. Compared with conventional methods, the proposed method can generate enhanced remote sensing images with higher contrast and richer details without introducing saturation artifacts. This technique has better performance compared to conventional DWT technique.DWT generates artifacts, which is major drawback. Proposed technique is applied on NOAA-19-HRPT satellite images. The quantitative PSNR, RMSE, and CC are calculated for satellite portraits which has superior performance compared to conventional DWT technique.

Magnetic Levitation Train Controlled Using IOT

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 31st May 2017

V. Meenakshi | K. Padma Priyanka, B. Lalith Kumar, M. Pavan Kumar,P. Reddy Rohith

Abstract

Magnetic Levitation is a technology that has been experimented with intensely over the past couple decades. It wasn’t until the last ten years when scientists began to develop systems that would use magnetic levitation as a means of transport. This paper outlines the methods behind magnetic levitation, as well as the technologies implemented using the levitation. The implementation of a large-scale transportation system using magnetic levitation has huge social as well as economical effects. Magnetic levitation, maglev or magnetic suspension is a method by which an object is suspended with no support other than magnetic fields. The electromagnetic force is used to counteract the effects of gravitational and any other acceleration. The physics behind it is to simply provide a magnetic force which must be equal and opposite of the gravitational force on the object. The two forces cancel and the object remains suspended. The two primary issues involved in magnetic levitation are lifting forces and stability. In this model, polarities are varied using arduino, which is interfaced with IOT. Magnetic levitation is used for maglev trains, contactless melting, and magnetic bearings and for product display purposes

Mathematical Modeling of Choroidal Neo Vascularization

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 20th June 2017

Feras Fyzal.K | Sabura Banu.U,Anitha.G

Abstract

In this research paper, an attempt has been made to mathematically model the choroidal neo vascularization and to classify them as normal, occult or classic. The choroidal neo vascularization is disease which is the advanced stage for age related macular degradation. Images diseased eyes are captured by Fluorescein Angiography (FA). Dye is injected and images of the eyes are captured in intervals for a period of ten to fifteen minutes. Mean of intensity of the images at different stages are obtained. Mathematical model is obtained by fitting a sixth order polynomial curve fitting from the mean intensity data. The co-efficients of the polynomial expression is used for the classification of the choroidal neovascularization. The results show the authenticity of this technique for the categorization of the abnormality

Mechanical Robotic Automation with Raspberry PI utilizing Image Processing

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

Greeshma K | Yoga Ramya B , V.Laxmi Meghana , Abdul Lateef Haroon P.S

Abstract

The point of this paper is to display a framework fueled by a Raspberry PI and a modern automated arm, which can execute various errand in a production line. The utilized mechanical arm and imaging gadgets are modern sort, however the control framework it's a straightforward improvement microchip board. The mechanical arm it's the SCORBOT-ER III and the envisioning gadgets are IP cameras. The objective it's to exhibit that even intricate modern frameworks can be keep running with unassuming and little card-measure stash figuring gadgets. Last extension is to demonstrate, that with one and only microchip, brilliant self-sufficient automated frameworks, can be made. Watchwords actuator; mechanization; camera; end effectors; picture preparing; mechanical control; Raspberry PI; automated arm.

Mems Based Wheel Chair For Physically Handicap People

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 31st May 2017

Shubham Singh | Rahul Vibhute,Sourabh Power

Abstract

This paper is to develop a wheel chair control which is useful to the physically disabled person with his hand movement or his hand gesture recognition using Acceleration technology. Tremendous leaps have been made in the field of wheelchair technology. However, even these significant advances haven’t been able to help quadriplegics navigate wheelchair unassisted. It is wheelchair which can be controlled by simple hand gestures. It employs a sensor which controls the wheelchair hand gestures made by the user and interprets the motion intended by user and moves accordingly. In Acceleration we have Acceleration sensor. When we change the direction, the sensor registers values are changed and that values are given to microcontroller. Depending on the direction of the Acceleration, microcontroller controls the wheel chair directions like LEFT, RIGHT, FRONT, and BACK. The aim of this paper is to implement wheel chair direction control with hand gesture reorganization.

MEMS Bio-sensor with capacitive read out for Tuberculosis Detection

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

Sudha R karbari | Nagaveni S N, NehalDhanrajNipanikar, SathyaNarayanaRaju E B, Swathi H M

Abstract

The Micro-electronics mechanical system is a popular ever growing domain in microscopic devices. The size of the micro devices varies in the range of 0.001 to 0.1mm i.e., 1 to 100 micrometers. This paper focus on the detection of tuberculosis using micro devices. Here the simulation of unique and novel designs of micro-cantilever, polysilicon as a material. The simulated results are Eigen frequency, deflection, stress, strain, C-V characteristics, and capacitance of the cantilever.In this a microcantilever based sensing system is designed using COMSOL Multiphysics. The surface of the cantilever is coated with antbody layer. As the antigens of TB disease come in contact with the antibody layer of the microcantilever , deflection takes place. The amount of deflection is measured and read out capacitive.

Mental State Evaluation by using Signal Processing

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

Mallikarjun H M | Dr. P Manimegalai , Dr. H N Suresh

Abstract

Emotion detection of the person by collecting the EGG data, signal from the brain by using “Mind wave Mobile”, which gives the raw EGG waves by the non invasive method only using single electrode. Person by watching the different emotional videos his emotion differs and also the electrical different EGG wave Alpha, Beta, Delta, Gama and theta varies, different waves having its nativity according to the emotional changes. Lucid scribe application support to collection of data from the Mobile mind wave, the data exported to the excel and by finding the minimum and maximum value of every EGG wave, this is in the numerical values, trained to the Neural Network by using the (ANFIS) Adaptive Neuro Fuzzy Inference System. Data with a extension of .mat file is trained to the ANFIS, testing of the data with the already trained data, output will exist in which emotion the person is, evaluated output may be 0 neutral,1 Happy, 2 Disgust, 3 Sad, 4 Angry. In this work Fuzzy based Mental state evaluation using signal processing is carried by preparing 280Samples are prepared by showing them different videos related to respective emotions. By using neuro sky’s mindwave kit brain waves are recorded at the forehead values are tabulated accordingly. 260 data samples trained and 20 are tested. The 3.2x10-3 error is observed after plotting test FIS against training data. As mindwave kit is wearable with Bluetooth support this work may be used in various applications.

Metamaterial Based Electrically Small Dual Band Antenna

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

Neethu P S | Sumi M, Harikrishnan A I

Abstract

This paper proposes an electrically small metamaterial antenna that resonates at two frequency bands 2.9GHz and 9.3GHz.The dimension of this low profile antenna is 10mm×10mm×0.92mm which is printed on a low cost FR4 substrate. By Chu limit the antenna comes under the category of electrically small antennas as ka=0.8(

Mitigation of Power Quality Issues Using Single Stage and Multi Stage Converters

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

K.Suresh | A.Kishore Kumar, M.Vijay Kumar

Abstract

this paper presents a novel topology of power electronic transformer. In the design process, the AC/DC, DC/AC, AC/AC converters and high frequency transformer have been used. One matrix converter operates as AC/AC converter in power electronic transformer. The proposed power electronic transformer performs typical functions and has advantages such as power factor correction, voltage sag and swell elimination, voltage flicker reduction and protection capability in fault situations. Power quality improvement with proposed power electronic transformer has been verified by the simulation results.

Modeling and Simulation of Micro-Electromagnetic Actuator

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

Veena V. Naik | B. G. Sheeparamatti

Abstract

MEMS (Micro Electro Mechanical System) is technology of combining electronics and mechanical components integrated on chip to produce micron scale devices. MEMS can sense, process, actuate, compute and also communicate. The miniaturized system have better response time, faster analysis and diagnosis, good statistical results, improved automation possibilities with decreased risk and cost. The objective of this work is to model and simulate micro electromagnetic actuator driven by the electric current in the coil. The process of generating a magnetic flux (and hence force) by means of an electric current flowing through the coil can be called as electromagnetic excitation. Because of this force cantilever beam gets deflected. The work focuses on electromagnetic actuator modeling and simulation. Electromagnetic actuator has been modeled and simulated using COMSOL Metaphysics software.

Modified Approximate DCT for Image Compression

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

Reshma G | Avani Nath N.J

Abstract

DCT has a fundamental role in signal processing techniques and is a part of modern image and video compression standards. The major difficulties encountered in compressed DCT domain are computational complexity of image compression and decompression algorithms. Distributed algorithm is a fast algorithm that can perform these tasks directly in the transform domain. Low-complexity DCT approximations employs distributed algorithm and hence it is best preferred for image and video compression. Approximate DCT have some of the disadvantages likes having only adder circuits for operations, more number of gates during implementation and high delay. Modified approximate DCT is an approximate DCT which uses efficient binary adders. Advantages of efficient binary adders include reduction in number of gate counts and logic implementation which reduce clock cycles and power consumption. By using DCT coefficients, histogram based block optimization and arithmetic coding is designed for efficient image compression. This technique is designed within the MATLAB environment and routed to FPGA device.

Morphological Component Analysis for Textural Enhancement

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

G Malakondaiah | G.Vasantha, N.Pushpalatha

Abstract

In practice, image segmentation can be performed in many areas like medical and satellite communications to detect objects and regions in the image.The texture enhancement methods representing all texture information using a single image component. In previous texture enhancement methods reduce noise or artifacts in the image to highlight the textures with the help of filters which reduces the quality of the image. In this project propose a new texture enhancement method using Morphological Component Analysis which uses image decomposition that allows different visual characteristics of textures to be represented by separate components. This method is intended to be a preprocessing step to the use of texture based segmentation algorithms. It uses the modification of Morphological Component Analysis which allows textures to be separated into multiple components each representing different visual characteristics of texture. It select four such texture characteristics and propose a new dictionaries to extract these components using Morphological Component Analysis (MCA). This method produces superior results compared to comparator methods for all segmentation algorithms tested. It results the clusters of local texture features of each distinct image texture to mutually diverge within the multidimensional feature space to a vastly superior degree competes the comparator enhancement methods. The motivation for this project is to extract the greater performance from any texture based segmentation method by establishing a general purpose texture enhancement algorithm.

Moving Object Detection In Video Surveillance System

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

Chetan M. Turkane | Prof. Ms. V.D.Nagrale

Abstract

The analysis of human body motion is an important method in which computer vision combines with bio-mechanics. This method is widely used in motion detection, motion analysis, intelligent control and many other fields. In the analysis of human body motion; the moving human body detection is important part. The moving human body is detected from the background image in video sequences. Here the new method for the moving object detection based on background subtraction is defined by establishing a reliable background updating model which uses a dynamic optimization threshold method to obtain a more complete moving object. After getting moving object to remove the noise morphological filtering is done. The noise is in form of disturbances which present in the background.

Multi Spectral Image Classification and Quality Parameters using Random Forest Classifier

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

K. Radhika | S. Varadarajan

Abstract

Remote sensing is the art of obtaining information regarding an object or area using machine or device which is not physically contacted with the area. Geology, urban planning, Forest and land cover/land use are the several applications of remote sensing. Remote sensing is majorly utilized for generation of classification map. Latest methods used for classification of pixels in multispectral satellite images consists supervised classifiers such as the maximum-likelihood classifier, neural network classifiers, fuzzy neural networks, support vector machines ,k-NN and decision trees (Random Forest). SVM may be one-class or multi-class SVM. KNN is simple technique. In case of Random Forest, many decision trees are grown by it for classification. The input vector needs to run through every decision tree in the forest to classify a new object. The forest chooses the classification having the most votes. Random Forest provides a robust algorithm for classifying large datasets. The potential of Random Forest is not been explored in analyzing multispectral satellite images. KNN is simple technique in high-dimensional feature space. In case of Random Forest, many decision trees are grown by it for classification. The input vector needs to run through every decision tree in the forest to classify a new object. The forest chooses the classification having the most votes. Random Forest provides a robust algorithm for classifying large datasets. The potential of Random Forest is not been explored in analyzing multispectral satellite images.

Multi-Hop Data Dissemination in Vehicular AD-HOC Networks

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

Pavan R Rangapur | Dr. B Sivakumar

Abstract

Vehicular Ad Hoc Network (VANET) is a type of Mobile Ad Hoc Networks (MANET). The field of VANETs began picking up consideration in 1980s and has now been a dynamic field of innovative work. VANETs give us with the base to growing new frameworks to improve drivers' and travelers' security and comfort. Multi hop data dissemination is the significant undertaking go over in VANET that will be proposed here. There are numerous routing protocols that have been proposed and surveyed to enhance the effectiveness of VANET. The simulator has been favored over outside investigation since it is straightforward, simple and cheap. In this paper, simulation of one of the routing protocols i.e. AOMDV is done on simulators which permit users to produce true versatility models for VANET simulations.

Multilevel Inverters: Literature Survey–Topologies and Comparison between different topologies.

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

Aditya C. Zarekar | Dr. Anjali Deshpande , Geetha Narayanan

Abstract

Multilevel inverters are in favor of academia as well as industry in the recent decade for high-power and high-voltage applications, due to their ability to synthesize higher voltages with a limited maximum device rating, producing of smaller common-mode voltage (CM), less electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) problems and attain higher voltage with a l imited maximum device rating with the added advantages of low switching stress and lower total harmonic distortion (THD), hence reducing the size and bulk of the passive filters. This paper presents a review on most important topologies like diode-clamped inverter (neutral-point clamped), capacitor-clamped inverter (flying capacitor), and cascaded inverter with separate DC sources and All existing methods are compared in detail with proposal for the best methods available. Authors strongly believe that this survey article will be very much useful to the researchers for finding out the relevant references in the fie ld of topologies and modulation strategies of multilevel inverter.

Multiple Human Tracking Using Blob Extraction and Action Recognition Using HOG

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

Shyma Zaidi | Jagadeesh B

Abstract

Human tracking is an important research area in computer vision with potential applications in many other fields like augment reality, human–machine interaction, and advanced driver assistance systems. Despite a lot of progress in the field, visual tracking remains a difficult problem due to many challenges. The proposed work provides a solution for multiple human tracking methods, which uses a combination of Blob extraction and Kalman filtering. The main objectives of the proposed work are to precisely track moving or static human beings and to identify and estimate their future location in an unknown scene. A pre recorded input video is split into individual frames which are actually processed to track the human beings and recognize their actions. The background modeling is done using Blob extraction followed by Kalman filtering & Optical flow to detect the positions of humans & track them. HOG features are used to classify and recognize various human actions. The results are the frames of the video file, which consists of marking the borders of the human beings appearing in the video, tracking them and displaying their actions such as walking, sitting and throwing on the command window of Matlab.

Multiple Secret Sharing in Visual Cryptography with Perfect Reconstruction

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

R. Sathishkumar | Gnanou Florence Sudha

Abstract

Visual Cryptography Scheme (VCS) is an image based secret sharing technique which encrypts the secret image into binary shares. These binary shares are then overlapped to decrypt the secret image, but with a reduction in the image quality. In Extended Visual Cryptography Scheme (EVCS), shares are embedded with different cover images to generate meaningful shares. Two in One Image Secret Sharing Scheme (TiOISSS) was implemented to improve the decoded image quality, which perfectly retrieve of the secret image. In this proposed scheme, the TiOISSS implemented to share multiple secret images with perfect reconstruction made possible. Adaptive Halftoning was implemented to improve the image quality. Additionally, a textual message is also embedded in GVCS shares to protect the secret images from the intruders. The quality and the security of the reconstructed secret images are enhanced, in the proposed scheme.

Nanotechnology

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

Shubham Swaraj | 

Abstract

Nanotechnology literally means any technology on a nanoscale that has applications in the real world. It is a relatively a new word, but it is not an entirely new field. It is widely felt that nanotechnology is the next Industrial Revolution since it has a profound impact on our economy and society in the early 21st century, comparable to that of semiconductor technology, information technology, or cellular and molecular biology. The purpose of this paper is to look into the present aspects of “Nanotechnology”. This paper gives a brief description of what nanotechnology is and its application in various fields viz. computing, medicine, food technology, robotics, solar cells etc. It also deals with the future perspectives of nanotechnology, risks in advanced nanotechnology.

Nanotechnology: An Emerging Technology

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

Vinita Borole | Shweta Mahindrakar,Anju Gawas

Abstract

Nanotechnology is a science and technology of small things. This technology has been thrown around a lot in recent years.It’s an emerging technology which provides higher level of control over matter at the dimension of roughly 1-100 nm. Nature follows top to bottom approach i.e. sculpting a big chunk of material into small. But in Nanotechnology scientist prefers bottom up approach instead of top bottom.

Nanotechnology: Nanosensors

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

Shloka Agarwal | Palash Jain

Abstract

Nanosensors have widely emerged as a growing industry for development and innovations over the last decades. It has influenced all the strata’s involving chemical, biological, electronics, and robotics, military, astronomical and environmental fields of interest. First synthetic Nanosensors were built by researchers at Georgia Institute of Technology in 1999. It basically have three method of construction: top-down lithography, bottom-up assembly, molecular self assembly including innovations: using semiconducting wires, material found in blue crabs, CNT’s, photonic devices. They are built on nanoscale whose purpose is mainly to obtain data on atomic scale and transfer it into data easy to analyze. This has outreached great achievements by providing the world with great newer facilities as they are widely used in biological world for detecting cancers, asthma attacks, tumors, specific DNA in order to recognize explicit genetic defects, military applications, to detect minute quantities of explosives, bioagents, chemicals, toxins, and other dangerous materials in air and water, for assisting astronauts on space missions as their size and weight of the systems are constrained. Nanotechnology is the building field which has great potentials of innovations. Some of them under work and those which can be brought under vision in future are Graphene based gas sensors, cigarette smoke sensor, bomb detection, nanorobotics, aiding drug manufacturing by detecting minute flaws in drugs and improving its production, researchers has also developed new method to control nanoscale diamond sensors which allows to monitor small changes via magnetic field and neurons transmitted electrical signals. Key growth controllers of nanosensors are opportunity for improved sensitivity and ability to detect multiple chemical compounds concurrently. This field has a great vision for future development and enhancing technologies to a new level.

Network Interface Design with Advance Network Functionalities for NoC

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

Rekha | Ajeesh A V

Abstract

Network-on-chip (NoC) is an evolving design technology used for growing a packet switched communication infrastructure which contain hundreds of intellectual property (IP) cell in single mutli-processor system on chip (MPSoC). Network interface (NI) is one of the building block which make intellectual property macrocell to be associated to on-chip communication backbone. This work propose the design of network interface macrocell which take care of data packetization/ depacketization to and from NoC and promises successful end to end data delivery. It also include the advanced network functionalities like store and forward (S & F) transmission, error management, ordering handling, security with hardware support. The basic characteristics like flit size, IP bus data size, payload & header FIFO size and frequency & size conversion support can be configured. The features can be added on the top of a basic network interface (NI) core. The work is coded by using verilog and is simulated by Xilinx ISE 13.2.

Noise Dereveberation in Speech Signal

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

Neharaj K J | Pramila B

Abstract

There are many artifact and different distortions present in the recording. The reflections of sound depend on the geometry of the room and it causes the smearing of the recording called asreverberation. The background noise depends on the unwanted audio source activities present in the evidential recording. The acoustic reverberation depends on the shape and the composition of the room, and itfor digital media to be considered as proof in a court its authenticitymust be verified. A technique proposed is based on spectral subtraction to estimate the amount of reverberation. Also nonlinear filtering based on particle filtering is used to estimate the background noise. Feature extraction is by using MFCC approach. The feature vector is the addition of features from acoustic reverberation and background noise. SVM classifier isused for classification of the environments. Acoustic environment identification(AEI), audio forensics, and ballistic settings. We describe a statistical technique based on spectral subtraction to estimate the amount of reverberation and nonlinear filtering based on particle filtering toestimate the background noise. The effectiveness of the proposed method is tested using a data set consisting of speech recordings of two human speakers (one male and one female) made in eight acoustic environments using four commercial grade microphonesis robust to MP3 compression attack.

Noise Reduction in CMOS Image Sensor for High Quality Imaging Using ACF

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

Manjunath.T.N | Praveen Kumar,Ashish Parate , Narendra Kumar

Abstract

The new method for image noise detection and reduction in complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) image sensors inspired from audio noise cancelling techniques. Our algorithm is based on computing efficiently the time-dependent pixel autocorrelation function (ACF) from constant time interval acquired sequences of images. This demonstrate the effectiveness of approach for successfully detecting and reducing white noise. Further, consider an adaptive filter that exhibits significant computational improvements making it highly practical. Finally, the report on experiments displaying the high-quality imaging systems obtained in practice.

Non Invasive Measurement of Parameters for Pregnant Women

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

Rasika R. Kale | Pradeepkumar Dhage , Krishna K. Warhade

Abstract

A hemoglobin test is performed to determine the amount of hemoglobin in an individual’s red blood cells (RBCs). This is important because the amount of oxygen available to tissues depends upon how much oxygen is in the RBCs, and local perfusion of the tissues. Without sufficient hemoglobin, the tissues lack oxygen and the heart and lungs must work harder to compensate. In this proposed method, a non-invasive method for measurement of hemoglobin, oxygen saturation and pulse rate is described. The method proposed uses photoplethysmographic (PPG) signals obtained by illuminating a finger with monochromatic light at two different wavelengths. An empirical equation for calculation of Hb, SpO2 and pulse rate in blood is derived.

Non Invasive Measurement of Parameters for Pregnant Women

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

Kshiti Bapat | Anish Dhamale , Obed Shaikh , Prof. Mrs. M.S. Joshi

Abstract

Wireless communication is, by any measure, the fastest growing segment of the communication industry. As such, it has captured the attention of the media and the imagination of the public. Many new applications, including wireless sensor networks, automated highways and factories, smart homes and appliances and remote telemedicine are emerging from research ideas to concrete systems.

Non-Subsampled Contourlet Transform (NSCT) Based Pan-Sharpening Method for Remote Sensing Images

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

Anshul Inani | Shailaja A. Patil

Abstract

In this paper we present nsct for remote sensing images. The nsct (non-subsampled contourlet transform) is a fully shift -invariant, multiscale, and multidirectional expansion that has a fast implementation. On nsct two methods are based for pansharpening. In this paper different decomposition levels are used for both multispectral (ms) image and pan image which in order helps us to inherit spectral and spatial qualities of image and also reduces computation time. Only after nsct upsampling can be performed for ms images. Upsampling is essential since it enables us to preserve initial features, structure and information of ms images so they remain differentiable. Thus, at the same fine level this property is used for integration of pan image with ms image for pan-sharpening. Spectral and spatial image resolution have achieved better results.

Nonlinear Passivity Based Controller

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

Dhanya G S | Punith Kumar , Jayanth S , Abarna R J , Sangeetha B V

Abstract

The problem of controlling small-scale wind turbines providing energy to the grid is addressed in this paper. The overall system consists of a wind turbine plus a permanent magnet synchronous generator connected to a single-phase ac grid through a passive rectifier, a boost converter, and an inverter. The control problem is challenging for two reasons. First, the dynamics of the plant are described by a highly coupled set of nonlinear differential equations. Second, due to the use of a simple generator and power electronic interface, the control authority is quite restricted. In this paper we present a high performance, nonlinear, passivity-based controller that ensures asymptotic convergence to the maximum power extraction point together with regulation of the dc link voltage and grid power factor to their desired values.

NUMERICAL SIMULATION OF SLANTED PERFORATED TABS USING AXISYMMETRIC JET CONTROL

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

Jamesha Ibrahim | Kalaiselvan.E , Livingston.K , Muthupandi.S , Dhakshnamoorthy.M

Abstract

This paper deals with the optimization of slanted perforated tabs to enhance the mixing characteristics of subsonic and sonic axi-symmetric jets issuing from a convergent nozzle. Measurements of centerline axial velocity decay and radial velocity distribution were carried out. The effect of various perforation geometries such as circular, ellipse, square and triangular cross sections of 2mm equivalent diameter in the tab is analyzed and the corresponding area blockage are found to be 2.88%. In this paper the 3-D numerical simulations have been carried out using the commercial meshing tools and analysis software. The centerline velocity of the jet is found to decay at a faster rate for the tab with elliptical perforation geometry as compared to other geometries. Also the reduction in potential core length with elliptical perforation tab for the jet operated at Mach number of 0.4, 0.8 and 1 are found to be 43.8%, 49.5% and 50%.

Object Detection Using Optical Correlator

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

Harish R | Pushpa G , Abdul Lateef Haroon P.S.

Abstract

This article portrays the vertical activity signs acknowledgment (VTSR) framework. In this framework the Cambridge optical correlator is utilized as a picture comparator as a part of the acknowledgment organizes. For our situation, the Cambridge optical correlator contrasts identified activity signs and reference movement signs. One stage of the VTSR framework is the movement signs location prepares. Movement signs identification is utilized to find the zone of the activity sign from the entangled caught picture foundation. The procedure of area of the movement sign may be founded on various techniques.

Obstacle Avoiding Intelligent Robot

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

Prof.S. B. Mandlik | Miss.Kshirsagar Snehal D , Miss. Gaikwad Jyoti B , Miss.Wagh Varsha S , Miss. Ingale komal M

Abstract

Avoidance of Obstacle is one of the most significant aspects of autonomous mobile robots. This task is composed by two phases. First, the robot must detect obstacles in the environment with its sensors. After that , it must select an appropriate movement to go through the environment without colliding. In this work, ultrasonic sensors are adopted to implement a real-time obstacle avoidance system for robots with wheels, so that the robot can constantly detect surroundings, avoid obstacles, and move toward the target area. Secondly, three ultrasonic sensors installed on the wheeled robot were used to detect large sized obstacles and to obtain distance information between the robot and the obstacle.

Obstacle Detection and Emergency Alert (ODEA) Walking Stick for the Visually Impaired

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

Jayalekshmi V P | Hemanth Mithun Praveen, G.Sakthivel

Abstract

This paper proposes the development of a walking aid for the visually impaired which can sense the surroundings sideways, front, top and bottom and can provide a guidance for navigation by giving audio messages. The device is capable alerting the caretaker of the user in case of emergency by sending an SMS .The system is designed to be power efficient and low cost to be made affordable to common man. The audio messages delivered can be in any language and user-fed which is independent of the system and it overcomes the problem of language constraint in existing systems. Vibration alerts which are provided in case of closer proximity along with the audio messages help the visually challenged to navigate comfortably and safely.

OFDM Modeling and Analysis

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

Meera rose Benny | Shalet V Joy, Sharika Harikrishnan, Sherin Sebastian, Merene Joseph

Abstract

Orthogonal frequency division multiplexing is a powerful modulation technique. It has been adopted by most wired and wireless communication standard. The objective of this paper is to carry-out an efficient implementation of OFDM system using Simulink.[1] It also evaluates the performance of system under various conditions such as different modulation scheme, different channels, and different delay models. Performance evaluation is done by calculating BER for each case and comparing them.

On the Output Voltage Harmonics of a Cuk Converter

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 31st May 2017

Aditya Anilkumar | Jayanth Bhargav, Harishesh J K

Abstract

This paper focuses on the analysis of the harmonic content in the output voltage of a non-isolated, non-synchronous, open loop Cuk converter. Further, it describes the design of a LC low pass filter which is to be used in cascade with the Cuk converter so as to achieve a reduction in the ripple content of the output voltage of the Cuk converter. In the end, this paper gives a comparison of the overall conversion efficiency of the Cuk converter and the ripple content in the output voltage at the load terminals with and without the LC low pass filter which would enable one to make a decision whether to use such a filter in cascade with a DC to DC converter or not

On-Chip Bus Architecture for Achieving Deadlock Free Communication

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

Neethu Susan Alex | Karthika Manilal

Abstract

In modern electronic systems, as the computing requirement increase, more and more intellectual property (IP) cores are embedded in System-On-Chip (SOC). On-chip communication architectures play an important role in determining the over-all performance of SOC designs. Communication architectures should be flexible so as to offer high performance over a wide range of traffic characteristics. The modern communication protocol, AXI (Advanced eXtensible Interface) supports advanced transactions like out-of-order transactions that improve communication efficiency. However a deadlock situation may occur if these transactions are not handled properly. The deadlock may get occurred if each master in a set of masters is holding a slave and waiting for another slave held by another master in the set. Hence a bus architecture avoiding deadlock condition, based on AXI protocol has to be developed. The masters and the slaves communicate each other through the AXI interconnect having different channels. The address bits should be transmitted initially through the address channel and data will be transmitted after that through the data channel. The encoding and decoding of the data bits are done using DMC (Decimal Matrix Codes). For avoiding deadlock, a waiting relation detector can be used to find whether any waiting relation exists. Thus multiple transactions can be handled without any deadlock occurrence. The designing language is VHDL and synthesis in Xilinx ISE Design Suite 13.2 and can be simulated in ModelSim SE 6.3f.

Optical and Structural Analysis of TiO2 Nan Wires Deposited on Gallium Nitride Substrate and its Photo Detector Applications

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

Rosy Kimneithem Haokip | Longjam Abungcha Meitei, Pheiroijam Pooja, Chitralekha Ngangbam, Biraj Shougaijam

Abstract

Titanium Dioxide (TiO2) Nanowires (NWs) were synthesized on p-GaN substrate using pressed and sintered TiO2 material by Glancing Angle Deposition Technique (GLAD) inside the e-beam evaporation chamber. The XRD measurements indicates the presence of both rutile and anatase phase of TiO2 crystals. The absorption measurement of p-GaN/TiO2 NWs sample shows the absorption enhancement in Ultraviolet and visible region as compared to GaN (p)/TiO2 Thin Film (TF) sample. The calculated band gap energy from the absorption measurement was found to be ~3.23eV. The photoluminescence (PL) measurement excitation at 340 nm shows the multiple peaks at ~3.3, ~3.1 and ~2.8 eV. The highest emission peak at ~3.3 eV from PL analysis may be the main band transition of TiO2 NWs which also supports the band gap energy observed from absorption measurement. The fabricated Al/TiO2 NW/TiO2 TF/p-GaN based photodetector device gives a sharp rise time ~1.05 sec and fall time ~0.38 sec promising for optoelectronic applications.

Optical and structural properties analysis of In2O3 thin film deposited on GaN substrate and its optoelectronic applications

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

Longjam Abungcha Meitei | Rosy Kimneithem Haokip, Pheiroijam Pooja, Chitralekha Ngangbam, Biraj Shougaijam

Abstract

Indium oxide (In2O3) thin films have been prepared by Physical Vapor Deposition technique using e-beam evaporator on the GaN substrate. The structural and morphological properties of In2O3 thin film were studied using X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and Field Emission Gun Scanning Electron Microscope (FEG-SEM). The FESEM image shows the successful deposition of In2O3 thin film on GaN substrate. The optical properties of In2O3 thin films were investigated by using UV-vis and Photoluminescence (PL) measurements. The In2O3 thin film based photodetector device shows the rectifying behavior which may be due to the Schottky junction formation between Au and In2O3. The dark current ~15 ?A was increased to ~ 36.3 ?A under light illumination at -2V bias voltage. The In2O3 thin film device shows a fast response upon ON/OFF switching of white light.

Optimal Enhancement of Network Lifetime by Using Energy Efficient Communication in Wireless Sensor Network

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

Dr.KVSSSS Sairam | Dr. Shivaprakasha, Chandra Singh

Abstract

Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) comprises of large number of sensor nodes by random process. It has become one of the most interesting areas of the modern communication systems. It distributes its function in terms of three categories such as recongnization of nodes, perfroming the task and transmission and reception. As WSNs are mostly deployed in hostile areas, energy conservation and security aspect are vital design parameters for a routing protocol in WSNs. Cluster based protocols are proved to perform better compared to flat routing. Existing routing algorithms can be modified appropriately so that energy metric has to be considered for the route computation. Also some applications of WSNs like military and medical applications need the highest degree of authenticity assured. Thus many research problems can be developed in these areas. This paper focusses on to explore the research gaps in the fields of secure and energy aware data communication in wireless networks with respect to devise algroithm for routing computation, public key cryptography and network efficiency.

Optimal Windowing for Space-Frequency Block Code OFDM in Frequency Selective Channel

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

Marri Prasanth | D.Lalitha Kumari

Abstract

ICI-intercarrier interference in frequency as well as time caused in SFBC-OFDM suffers a lot here dual mode of channel are time is inverse of frequency. Frequency selectivity is arised because of more number of signals transmited with multiple amplitudes as well as phase arriving at distinct delay. At the receiver side A windowing scheme is applied to decrease the ICI effect by limiting the neighbour subcarries more in number. the components in SFBC holds the subcarriers , the SFBC code word components assures to preserve the the SFBC structure, the channel coherence bandwidth should be greater than the SFBC seperation, the ICI range should be larger than that of the subcarriers to aviod interference from one another. They can be decoded independently by the selected carrier locations should be clear and proper, by dividing each symbols of OFDM to more individual of subsymbol. We use a technique so called windowing technique (MMSE DFE) that allows calculate the transmission data in every subsymbols with less complex. Results from the simulated data that shows the how to improve the SFBC-OFDM performance as well as also the performance improvement in the scheme proposed for both frequency as well as time ( doubly selective) channels for veryhigh Doppler.

Optimized Face Detection on FPGA

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

Sanmati Kuthale | Sadashiva V Chakrasali , A.R.Priyarenjini

Abstract

This paper gives the hardware implementation of face detection on FPGA using HAAR features. The design consisting of integral image generation which is used to compute the HAAR features at a faster rate, has been illustrated. The classifiers are built using the Ada Boost algorithm which selects a minimum number of critical HAAR features from a very large set. Also, parallel processing classifiers increase the speed of the face detection system. The described detection architecture has been designed using Verilog HDL and implemented on Xilinx vertex-5 FPGA which shows optimization in terms of area and speed.

Outline of Graphics Processing Unit for Image Processing

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

Divya D | Hari Keerthana A , Abdul Lateef Haroon

Abstract

This work depicts the planning of a Graphics Processing unit that arrangements with picture preparing. Illustrations Processing Unit (GPU) is an essential element with regards to expansive figuring. Pictures and recordings that are having vast information can be handled productively in GPU by abusing its element of parallel execution. Computerized picture handling actualized on equipment gives higher preparing pace and execution. The utilization of Verilog HDL for the outline of GPU gives a quick usage probability. The paper concentrates on picture preparing operations like Brightness control, Contrast control, picture editing, picture zooming, picture turn and morphological administrators, for example, Dilation and Erosion

PAPR Reduction in SFBC MIMO OFDM System Using AMS Schemes

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

Vinod Kumar | K. Aparna

Abstract

Accelerated information prices and reliability are the 2 key factors required to aid emerging multimedia applications and new communications technology. The two techniques utilized in excessive facts charge transmission are orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) and multiple-input a couple of-output (MIMO) scheme. The OFDM is used to mitigate the hassle of inter image interference (ISI) and presents properly protection towards co-channel interference and noise. MIMO system helps to reduce fading and can be used for reducing bit blunders charge that is spatial range or to increase the data rate that is spatial multiplexing. The combination of MIMO and OFDM is MIMO-OFDM gadget. MIMO-OFDM machine is used to converts frequency selective MIMO channel into multiple parallel flat fading channels. One of the greater important drawbacks of MIMOOFDM system is that transmitted signal suffers from highest peak to average power ratio (PAPR). On this paper, AMS techniques have been used to lessen height to average power ratio (PAPR) in a couple of enter more than one output orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (MIMO OFDM) gadget with area frequency block coding (SFBC). The AMS technique reduces the computational complexity and whilst AMS technique is used with quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM). Simulation and outcomes show that the AMS technique reduces PAPR more effectively than the SFBC scheme.

Parallel Mechanism: Advanced Technique for Low Power Double Tail Comparator

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

Raju D H | Aravind R

Abstract

The Comparator is the most analyzing unit in the analog to digital converters. In such situation a high speed and the low power consumption based comparators are very important to use in the present fast growing technology. Hence we are designing the comparators which is more challenging keeping the supply voltage is smaller. To acquire high speed, larger transistors are required to compensate the reduction of supply voltage, which also means that more die area and power is needed. In this paper we are presenting the low power and high speed comparators even in small supply voltages. This comparator design having the small count of transistors which is used to reduce the delay time. Apart from technological modifications, developing new circuit structures which avoid stacking too many transistors if they do not increase the circuit complexity.

Parameters Estimation of Microwave Signal In Various Environments

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

Sandeep Kaushal | Sabiapreet bedi,Dharmendra singh

Abstract

Microwave radar signal in various ranges have found a wide application in this era in the various field like defence, surveillance, emergency and scientific .The multidisciplinary application of this technology has attracted the attention of many researches, scientists and academicians to contribute their effort. However, the ultra wide band (UWB) with its feature like range and resolution has found applicable in through the wall imaging system where the other sensors like infrared etc, could not solve the purpose because of their non penetration capability through the wall. Similarly in the ground penetrating system, to detect the buried objects the microwave radar signal with UWB are significant as compared to the other sensors. The major challenge for a researcher is to calculate and measure the parameters of microwave signal .The present paper is an endeavour to estimate the major parameters like reflection coefficient, speed of propagation though the wall of various materials with different dielectric constant in the simulation environment.

Performance Analysis of Hybrid WDM-FSO System Under Various Weather Conditions

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

A.Muthumanicckam | R.Sornalatha , S P.Senthil Kumar , M.Palaniappan , M.Lorate Shiny

Abstract

Free Space Optical (FSO)communication is being realized as an effective solution for future accessing networks, offering light passed through air. The performance of FSOsystemcan be primarily degraded byvarious atmospheric attenuations such as rain, fog, haze and snow. At present, hybridization of Dense Wavelength Division Multiplexing (DWDM) with Coarse Wavelength Division Multiplexing (CWDM) becomes necessary to scale the speed and high bandwidthof the services.In this paper, hybrid WDM system is proposed, designed and the network parameters such as BER,Q Factor and receiver sensitivity are analyzedwith respect tolinkdistanceforvariousweatherconditions.In order to enhance the link distance, the Erbium Doped Fiber Amplifier (EDFA) is inserted at the receiver end. For investigation, 4 CWDM and 8 DWDM channels are considered whose corresponding channel spacing is 20nm and 0.8nm, respectively. From the simulation, it is investigated that the average link distance of proposed hybrid WDM-FSO system with EDFA for DWDM and CWDM system at very clear condition are around973km and936.25km, respectively. The proposed hybrid WDM based FSO systemisdesigned to handle the quality of transmission for 12 users, each at a data rate of 2.5Gbps along an FSO link distance of about 960km.

Performance Analysis of Least Mean Square and Recursive Least Square Channel Estimation Techniques under Multipath Fading Environmental Conditions

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

Shashidhar S Neelakanthmath | Ramakrishna.S , Priyatamkumar

Abstract

In practical scenario the transmission of signal or data from source to destination is very challenging. As there is alot of surrounding environmental changes which influence the transmitted signal. The ISI, multipath will corrupt the data and this data appears at the receiver or destination. Due to this time varying multipath fading we use different channel estimation filter at the receiver to improve the performance. Here we are estimating the different channel estimation techniques under different channel conditions. The two algorithms we used here are LMS and RLS for AWGN and Rayleigh channels under MATLAB platform.

Performance Analysis of Wavelet Families for Lossless Image Compression

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

Varun M. Patel | 

Abstract

This paper presents performance analysis of various wavelet filters namely Dmey, Daubichies, Symlets, Coiflets, Haar, Biorthogonal, with various decomposition level of Discrete Wavelet Transform for cameraman test images . The recent development in the digital electronics and computer engineering has resulted in generation of higher amount of data in the form of digital. Generally high resolution images are needed in many areas such as remote sensing, criminal investigation, medical imaging etc. This motivates the requirement of compression in large amount. The main aim of this research work is to obtain best quality of decompressed images even at very low bit rates. Now a days, Discrete Wavelet Transforms has emerged as a popular technique for image compression. The Discrete Wavelet Transform can be composed of any function that satisfies requirements of multi-resolution analysis. It means that there exists a large choice of wavelets depending on the choice of wavelet function. The Discrete Wavelet Transform has high de-correlation and energy compaction efficiency. Traditionally, In Wavelet Transform, we uses Root Mean square error (RMSE) to evaluate similarity of image blocks, but the similarity evaluated by MSE usually differs from human visual system (HVS). This paper presents a comparative study of various wavelet families for Lossless image compression and evaluate the results in terms of compressed image quality, PSNR, RMSE as considering as subjective quality measures and Compression Ratio.

Performance Comparison of Two-Step Dynamic RSAApproachesin Elastic Optical Networks

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 31st May 2017

Sridhar Iyer | Shree Prakash Singh

Abstract

In recent years, with introduction of elasticity (flexibility) in optical networks, bandwidth utilization can be adjusted as per the requests and also, longer transmission reach and higher spectral-efficiency can be provisioned. In view of optical transmission, elastic optical networks (EONs) resort to the use of elastic frequency grids and advanced modulation formats which necessitate solutions to the novel routing and spectrum allocation (RSA) approaches. In the current work, we compare various dynamic dual step RSA approaches applicable to the EONs. Specifically, we analyze and compare various (i) k-shortest path based approaches for the routing step, and (ii) approaches for the spectrum allocation step. Our simulation results demonstrate (i) effectiveness of the RSA approaches in regard to the considered network topologies which utilize the connections’ demanded bandwidth, and (ii) improvement in the shortest path first approach’s performance with an increase in candidate route’s numbers for a network with higher numbers of nodes and links.

Performance Estimation of Bilinear Color Interpolation in Matlab & VLSI

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

Rohan C. Patil | Assoc. Prof. Avinash M. Ghorpade

Abstract

in our day to day life Digital Image Processing (DIP) applications have become common. For the real time applications the exploitation of digital image processing systems require efficient computing techniques, the algorithm which is proposed to this system indeed works on very large scale integration focuses mainly on chip based design and its implementation for DIP applications where its real time image processing works better. In the agricultural fields the farmers uses fertilizers for the growth of crops & farmers purchase these crops without any knowledge, all the fertilizers are made by usage of chemicals which are harmful to human health to avoid these problems and to identify the pest affected crops or not affected crops we are using VLSI method of Implementation. Designed system with high computational speed with research work proposed in this method will help to customers as well as farmers. With portable equipment to measure the results quickly and display in very short time. Using High Quality Interpolation Algorithm, Edge Detection, Filtering Methods, Matching Edge Algorithm in Mathematical Laboratory (Matlab) and VLSI implementation in Xilinx software. For hardware implementation cyclone III kit using Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA).

Performance Evaluation of Video Conferencing Techniques

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

Dr. Godbole Bhalchandra Balkrishna | Mr. Lokhande Shashank Shivaji

Abstract

Video Conferencing requires high bandwidth, low delay, and video transmission between geographically distributed nodes (users). It is challenging as well as interesting to study high quality video conference and to deliver data through the best internetwork. Presently Google+, iChat and Skype as well as SDN based unicast & multicast video conferencing techniques are in use. In present paper, we propose performance evaluation for present and developing video conferencing techniques. Here Google+, iChat, Skype and SDN based systems are compared amongst metrics like bandwidth, latency, throughput and speed. Comparison between different video conferencing techniques is analyzed technically. It is observed that google+, iChat & Skype are used for intra and internet. We also review the new techniques such as SDN based systems.

Performance Improved Router Architecture for Bidirectional NoC Using Flit Level Speed up Scheme

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

Reshma P Vengaloor | Karthika Manilal

Abstract

In this paper, a Bidirectional Network on Chip (BiNoC) using flit level speed up scheme ( FSNoC) is proposed for enhancing the performance of on chip communication, by optimizing the available bandwidth. To achieve this goal, a flit level speed up scheme using self reconfigurable bidirectional channel is developed. For interrouter bandwidth utilization, a distributed channel configuration scheme is developed, which dynamically changes the link direction. Intrarouter bandwidth utilization is possible by allowing multiple flits from same packet to use the idle channel bandwidth. In this way the effective channel bandwidth between two routers can change adaptively depending on the network traffic. An input buffer architecture, which supports reading /writing two flits from/to same virtual channel at the same time and a switch allocator for supporting the flit level parallel arbitration, is also designed. A virtual cut through routing is used for router design, which helps to reduce the packet delay and the memory requirement. So the data to be transferred is divided into flits of equal size. Routing decisions for flits are made by using XY routing algorithm. FSNoC provide better bandwidth utilization, low latency and reduction in area occupancy. FSNoC is designed using VHDL language and synthesized in Xilinx ISE Design Suit 13.2 and it is simulated in Model Sim SE 6.3f.

PHY/MAC Design to Enable Internet Infrastructure Connectivity on VLC

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

Vinayagam Mariappan | Minwoo Lee, Jaesang Cha

Abstract

Recent rapid growth on smart portable computing devices pushed the radio frequency (RF) based wireless technologies to their band capacity limits. The emerging optical wireless communication has been considered as a most viable solutions to respond to the ever-increasing wireless capacity demand. Particularly, Visible Light Communication (VLC) which uses light emitting diode (LED) as a media of transmission and this enables an opportunity and infrastructure for the high/ low rate low-cost wireless communication. This paper proposes the VLC PHY/MAC design to enable the internet connectivity using VLC based network infrastructure. The proposed PHY/MAC design considered to integrate with existing network IP stack in the context of mobile communications given the recent pressing needs in mobile wireless networking. This research deliberate on key challenges involved in Smart Lighting and Wireless Networking to design the next generation wireless technologies using visible light.

Plant Leaf Disease Detector and Pesticide Identifier

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

M.Thiruselvi | M.Shanmugapriya, N.Saranya, Y.Shanmugapriya, S.Aiswarya

Abstract

Agriculture has been the prime occupation of India. Our country stands one among the major producers of many food crops in the world. But there are few declining factors like plant infection that reduce yield. Most plant diseases are caused by micro organisms. In the current scenario, the infected plants are identified through naked eye and treated manually which is inefficient. The proposed project uses image processing to detect and diagnose the diseases. Each disease has different symptoms, which is identified here with the help of GLCM and Clustering algorithm. The disease is identified and the pesticide to be used is displayed with the help of a LCD display thus reducing the effort of farmers in identifying the disease and finding the correct pesticide to be used. This ultimately increases the yield and quality of crops in a long term as soil damage is also reduced.

PLC based Dam Automation System

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

Rajat R.Sorte | Rahul R. Sonwane,Nikhil L. Thakur,Swapnil A. Akhade,Shashwat N. Kawale,Nikhil R. Dusawar,Kapil K. Lalwani

Abstract

This paper based on controlling the process variable parameters such as level and limit with real time implementation of gate controlling of DC motor using Programmable Logic Controller. In our proposed system, a programmable logic controller is used as an industrial computer playing the major role of a control devices and micro switch provide incoming signals to the control unit. The system model is provided with two levels in the one level in upper and one level in the lower outputs the ladder logic is actuated. This work uses PLC of ALLEN BRADLEY MICROLOGIX 1400 inbuilt with 20 digital inputs and provides 12 potential free outputs to control the miniaturized process depicted in the work.

PLC based Dam Automation System

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

Rajat R.Sorte | Rahul R. Sonwane,Nikhil L. Thakur,Swapnil A. Akhade,Shashwat N. Kawale,Nikhil R. Dusawar,Kapil K. Lalwani .

Abstract

This paper based on controlling the process variable parameters such as level and limit with real time implementation of gate controlling of DC motor using Programmable Logic Controller. In our proposed system, a programmable logic controller is used as an industrial computer playing the major role of a control devices and micro switch provide incoming signals to the control unit. The system model is provided with two levels in the one level in upper and one level in the lower outputs the ladder logic is actuated. This work uses PLC of ALLEN BRADLEY MICROLOGIX 1400 inbuilt with 20 digital inputs and provides 12 potential free outputs to control the miniaturized process depicted in the work.

Pneumatic Conveying Of A1C13 and Blow Pot Automation Using PLC

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

Athira Krishna | Akhil Anand T , Elizabath Raj , Roshan Anto.V , Athira Krishna , Dinu A.G

Abstract

Automation or automatic control, is the use of various control systems for operating equipment such as machinery, processes in factories, boilers and heat treating ovens, switching on telephone networks, steering and stabilization of ships, aircraft and other applications with minimal or reduced human intervention. In order to control various plant process and industrial operations, scientists have introduced computer based controllers like PLC, DCS etc. Pneumatic conveying of AlCl3 and blow pot automation is carried out using Programmable Logic Controllers (PLC).The predecessor for the PLC system is Relay System which has many disadvantages And to overcome that disadvantages, we have introduced Computer based automation it in our paper.

Polar Code Encoder Based On DCT Architecture

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

K. Jaya Lakshmi | P.Ravi Kumar

Abstract

A family of low-complexity methods that polarize all discrete memoryless processes is introduced. In both data transmission and data compression, codes based on such methods achieve optimal rates, i.e., channel capacity and source entropy, respectively. The error probability behavior of such codes is as in the binary case.Polarizing capabilities of recursive methods are shown to extend beyond memoryless processes: Any construction that polarizes memoryless processes will also polarize a large class of processes with memory. For this DCT operation

Police Station Network Implementation

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

Mr. M.E.Ingale | Mayur B. Thakare , Kamini D. Sagar , Supria M. Ghuge

Abstract

In this network implementation we are supposed to access multiple PC’s without using internet with LAN and the protocols that we are using are TFTP and FTP for sharing data and this whole network system is designed for security purpose and for handling system with command.

Power and Channel Allocation in Multi User and Multi Channel Using Joint Beam Forming in MIMO System Cognitive Radio Networks

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

Chinnam Sandeep | G.Vishnu Vardhan

Abstract

We take into account multiple-input– multiple-output (MIMO) two-way relaying channels wherever a try of multi antenna users needs to exchange data with the assistance of a non-generative multi antenna relay. A low-complexity joint beam forming and power management theme is projected. The projected beam formers 1st align the channel matrices of the user try then decompose the aligned channel into parallel sub channels. 2 power management problems, i.e., power allocation and power management, addressed sum-rate optimizing power allocation is projected to assign power between all sub channels and nodes. Second, quality of service (QoS) satisfying power management is projected to reduce the whole transmission power within the network. Simulation results justify that the projected joint beam forming and power management theme delivers higher sum-rate performance or consumes lower transmission power next with existing schemes.

Power Consumption Analysis of Homogeneous and Reconfigurable Router

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

Jamuna R K | Rakesh M B

Abstract

Router is an essential component of Network-on-Chip(NoC). Conventionally used homogeneous router provide good throughput but buffer slots are fixed and cannot be reconfigured to the requirement. Here it consumes more power as not all the buffer slots are used. To overcome this drawback, reconfigurable router is designed where in the buffer slot size can be varied. That is buffer slots in each channel can be used by other channels. This utilizes the router resources efficiently there by reducing the power consumption when compared to homogeneous. The homogeneous router is designed with 16 buffer slots and reconfigurable router with 4 buffer slots which are simulated using Xilinx 14.7. Power is calculated using Xpower Analyzer where reconfigurable router is consuming 2.13mW less power compared to homogeneous router.

Power Efficient and Minimum Delay Parallel Self Timed Adder

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

B.Raju | A. Maheswara Reddy

Abstract

This paper is about a parallel single-rail self-timed adder. It is based on a recursive formula method for performing 4- bit binary addition. we can have the parallel operation for the bits that do not need any carry chain propagation. Hence the design having logarithmic performance over random operand conditions without any special speedup circuitry or carry look-ahead schema. We can have a practical implementation is provided along with a completion detection unit. The implementation is regular and does not have any practical limitations of high fan-out. A high fan-in gate is required and we can avoid for asynchronous logic by connecting the transistors in parallel. Simulations have been performed using an industry standard toolkit h-spice that verifies the practicality and superiority of the proposed approach over existing asynchronous adders.

Power Generation Using Windflow due to Locomotive

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

Shweta Datir | Monali Zade , Prachi Satpute, Shrutika Manwar

Abstract

This paper aims at production of electricity by using wind energy which is created due to the motion of train. A turbine has a rotor with blades attached to it. When the wind strikes theblades they start moving, mechanical energy is produced, this mechanical energy is then converted into electrical energy this is achieved by using dynamo (22V, 100mA) .The electricity produced will run the various loads connected to the train cabin. The excess power is stored in battery for further use. The entire process is non- polluting.

Power Generation Using Windflow Due To Locomotive

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

Shweta Datir | Monali Zade , Prachi Satpute, Shrutika Manwar

Abstract

This paper aims at production of electricity by using wind energy which is created due to the motion of train. A turbine has a rotor with blades attached to it. When the wind strikes theblades they start moving, mechanical energy is produced, this mechanical energy is then converted into electrical energy this is achieved by using dynamo (22V, 100mA) .The electricity produced will run the various loads connected to the train cabin. The excess power is stored in battery for further use. The entire process is non- polluting.

Power Reduction in the transmitting amplifier of OFDM system by reducing its Peak to Average Power Ratio (PAPR) and Adaptive Modulations Techniques

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

Dileep M D | Dr. H V Kumaraswamy

Abstract

Efficiency of Orthogonal Frequency-Division Multiplexing (OFDM) system is improved by reducing the power consumed by its transmitter and also by improving the spectral efficiency. Power usage is reduced by reducing the PAPR of OFDM system and spectral efficiency is improved by Adaptive modulation and coding schemes (AMC). In OFDM system, transmission signals can have high peak values in the time domain since many subcarrier components are added via an inverse fast Fourier transformation (IFFT) operation. As a result, OFDM systems are known to have a high peak-to-average power ratio (PAPR) or Crest factor when compared to single-carrier systems. The high PAPR is one of the most detrimental aspects in an OFDM [2,3] system. High PAPR decreases the signal-to quantization noise ratio (SQNR) of the analog-digital convertor (ADC) and digitalanalog convertor (DAC) while degrading the efficiency of the power amplifier in the transmitter. PAPR problem is more of a concern in the uplink since the efficiency of the power amplifier is critical due to the limited battery power in a mobile terminal. The core idea of AMC is to dynamically change the modulation and coding plans dependent upon the channel conditions in order to enhance overall spectral efficiency. Here through Matlab simulations overall battery power usage reductions and improvement in data throughout are shown.

Power Saving In Street Lighting System Based On Motion Detection

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

A.N.Bharath | M.MariMuthu

Abstract

In this paper the power saving in street lighting system has been implemented based on motion detection. It helps to reduce the redundant power utilization appropriate to more illumination in natural light. By using RTC (Real-Time-Clock) it generates the timer automatically as given as based on timing conditions. With the help of PIR sensor the presence of a human being or any obstacle detected by using the presence detector, then the street lights will be switch “ON” mode. When a person on any obstacle comes in the detection range else it will be automatically “dimmer mode”. The designed system keeps away from the person intrusion in power board. At last, it displays the exact demand for payment information on LCD and data can be received by authorized person with the help of GSM module. The entire procedure can be controlled and maintained by ARM 7 (LPC2148) microcontroller.

Power Saving System based on Temperature Control Sensor

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

Bikram Singh Chetri | Temperature Control Sensor,LM35 sensor,PIR sensor .

Abstract

This paper gives an idea about the measurements of room temperature with the help of LM35 sensor. Also it is detect the presence of human beings inside the room with the help of PIR sensor while LDR is used to sense the intensity of environmental lights. These entire sensors are connected with the microcontroller AT mega 32. If the intensity of environmental lights falls below the set points, artificial lights inside the room will be turn on. Otherwise remain it will be turn off. Similarly is the temperature of the room fall below a particular set point, the heater will be turn on, if the temperature raise above a particular set point the heater will be turn on and fan will be automatically turn on, so as to maintain a desired temperature inside the room. it is work only in the presence of human being only. So, in the absence of human being the system will be turned off. Thus, there will be no wastage of electricity and hence the power. Resulting a saving in electricity bills .

Power Theft Detection on Distribution Line and Meter Tampering

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 12th June 2017

Atik Patel | Himja Pathak , Saima Patel, Shweta Dour, Rohit Negi

Abstract

Now-a-days the energy consumption and energy distribution has become a major concern for discussion because of huge energy pilferage. Hence the need has come to think in this line and a solution has to be emerged out. The system prevents the illegal usage of electricity and also system is used to detect an unauthorized tapping on distribution lines and on meter tampering. Existing system is not able to identify the exact location of tapping. The major purpose of the system is to provides simple way to detect an electrical power theft without any human interface. This design incorporates effective solutions for problems faced by India’s electricity distribution system such as power theft, and transmission line fault.

Prediction and Analysis ofDisease through Data Mining Techniques

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

ArunaPavate | Nazneen Ansari

Abstract

This Latest improvements in medical field and wide usage of electronic medical health records help in wide production of clinical data in hospitals. Most of the clinical data contains valuable information about patients. Proper usage of this information can be used for predicting different diseases. Diabetes is one of the serious disease for which the patient's personal participation is required to treat the disease. As diabetes is known to be a silent killer, an efficient controlling of the disease is essential. The aim of this research is to propose new approach using data mining techniques to identify the diabetic disease, its categories and further complications arises like heart disease, kidney disease, neuropathy, stroke, vision loss from the clinical database using KNN Algorithm and its versions, fuzzy logic ,genetic algorithm and its versions in an efficiently and an economically faster manner.

Prediction of Congenital Heart Disease in Neonates using Ultrasound Images and Physiological Parameters

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

Deepak Reddy P.A | Dr. M.S. Nagananda

Abstract

The prenatal detection of fetal cardiac structure is difficult because of its small size and rapid movements but is important for the early and effective diagnosis of congenital cardiac defects.. Congenital heart disease (CHD) is related to defects in the blood vessels which are located inside the heart or the one which are connecting to heart, that are present by birth or sometimes before birth also when the fetus is developing in the uterus. It brings about a narrowing or stenosis of the valves, or a complete closure that obstructs or impedes forward blood stream. Hence the objectives of this project are to extract prenatal features from the ultrasound images and from clinical diagnosis of the neonates(physiological parameters like diabetes hypertension etc). An initial pre-processing is done to remove noise and enhance the images. An effective K means clustering algorithm is applied to the images to segment the region of interest and eliminating empty clusters is performed . Finally an active appearance model is proposed to detect the fetal heart .and a suitable classifier (Naive Bayes ) designed for the features according to the statistical characteristics, quantitative or qualitative dataset. Feeding a set of features in the training dataset, use these features to develop the classification algorithm to find CHD .

Predictive Direct Power Control and Fuzzy Logic Control of the Three Phase Grid-connected Converter

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

R.P.Anitha | M.Inba Arasi

Abstract

In this paper, a predictive direct power control (DPC) method without sector information and voltage vector selection is proposed for three-phase grid-connected converters. Different from conventional predictive direct power controllers, the proposed strategy always adopts fixed voltage vectors, instead of selecting voltage vectors according to the angular information of the grid-voltage vector or the virtual-flux vector. The converter switching time is obtained by minimizing the squared errors of the instantaneous active and reactive power. Switch duty cycles are then calculated and equivalently reconstructed. The proposed strategy not only presents rapid dynamic response due to the use of the predictive controller, but also possesses excellent steady state performance as a result of duty cycle reconstruction. The main advantage of the proposed control scheme, compared with the classical DPC strategies, is that it is unnecessary to use sector information of the grid-voltage vector, and selection of active voltage vectors is also not required here. Therefore, incorrect selection of voltage vectors and the resulting performance deterioration are surely avoided, without the need of any additional compensation measures. An in-depth comparison and experimental assessment are given to validate the effectiveness of the proposed strategy.

Programmable Hybrid Embedded Controller Architecture using Clock Gating Technique

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

T.Subhashini | M.Kamaraju

Abstract

Power consumption has become a major concern for modern microprocessor designs; it affects the battery life in the mobile segment, and limits the chip frequency in desktops and servers. Minimizing power consumption is a primary consideration in hardware design of portable devices where high performance and functionality is required with limited battery power. With the scaling of technology and the need for high performance and more functionality, power dissipation becomes a major bottleneck for microprocessor systems design. Clock power can be significant in high performance systems. To reduce the wastage of clock power, a gating circuit is implemented to stop the clock where clock is not used by the blocks.Dynamic power can contribute up to 50% of the total power dissipation. The main goal of this work is to implement a prototype programmable Hybrid Embedded Controller Architecture targeted on to the FPGA chip and analyze the power consumption of the registers and memory etc. The whole design is captured using VHDL make use of Xilinx tool.

Proper Use of Multimedia Technology in Higher Education

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

P.Murali | D Sai Kiran , K Sharma , B.Sujatha

Abstract

For the higher studies, the students have been receiving the data information in the different kinds of terms on every day. This makes a challenge for the teachers towards the students. The challenge is to make busy with some learning to the students in the classroom. This paper presents the utilization of the multimedia techniques on students as well as teachers.

Proposed FAM Unit with S-MB Techniques and Kogge Stone Adder using VHDL

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

Dhumal Ashwini Kashinath | Asst. Prof. Shirgan Siddharudha Shivputra

Abstract

This paper represent the high efficient design of Add-Multiply operator. The DSP applications requires the more number of add and multiplier operator .In this paper only concentration on how to reduce the Add-Multiply operator and increase the speed of the process .In the recent paper ,first addition of the two number and after convert into its Modified Booth (MB)form. It required more gates then performance decreases. But in this paper we take direct two number and given to the efficient recoding technique it generate MB form .The Booth algorithm required the adder but adder have number of types. If we use the Kogge stone adder bits size increase then the performance of adder also increase means whole system performance increase. Then compare the proposed system with existing system ,we get less gates and less combinational delays of the proposed system .

Pulse Compression Techniques for Atmospheric Radar Applications

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 31st May 2017

Shaik Benarjee | K.Prasanthi, M.Durga Rao

Abstract

Pulse compression techniques are used to avail the benefits of improving detection capability with long pulse widths and at high range resolutions in Radar systems. The Pulse compression technique plays a very important role while designing a radar system. Short pulses are essential to get the advantage of high range resolution but to achieve the better SNR, the radar systems requires high pulse widths. In order to have trade-off between SNR and range resolution pulse compression is inevitable. Pulse compression techniques were implemented to reduce the range side lobes using various coding techniques like Binary phase coding (Barker codes) and Complementary codes etc. The “Matlab” is used as a software

Quantitative Analysis of C - Reactive Protein (CRP) Using Quantum DOTs

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

Shahnila Raza | Dr. R. Kalpana

Abstract

In this study, a method of analyzing blood serum and quantification of C-reactive protein (CRP) using quantum dots is proposed. Blood serum is the one that contains many protein including CRP, and hence analyzing this could be helpful in diagnosing any disorder at the earliest. In this study, two experiments are done; one test on blood serum and the other on CRP. Initially, blood serum is separated from the blood and is taken in test tube is successively diluted using NaCl solution. These samples are illuminated using standard white light and the transmitted light is picked up from the color sensor (TCS2300). Similar kind of test is also performed on CRP samples at different concentration level. RGB values obtained from these two tests changes as the concentration of blood serum and CRP changes. Quantification of these colors would represent CRP concentration or concentration of protein content in the blood. Hence, by precisely calibrating these color changes against protein concentration would result in a device that could quantify blood chemical parameters.

Radar Control Pulse Generation Using FPGA

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

J.Rukmini | K. Jansi lakshmi , N. Pushpalatha

Abstract

The current work is aimed to fabricate a pulse generator to meet the requirements of control and process signals to be applied on to several basic constituting functional units of a radar system. The functional units of Radar system includes Exciter, Receiver, Radar Controller, TCSG and Duplexer Antenna.The synchronized pulses generated are operate on functional units is accomplished by generating a reference pulse known as “Inter pulse period”. The controlled pulses in the radar systems are categories as Exciter pulse, Transmit pulse, Gating pulse, Blanking pulse and are generated with respect to “Inter pulse period”. All these functions of the different control signals generated for the functioning of radar is conveniently done by FPGA system using Spartan 6.Pulsed radar transmits high power, high-frequency pulses toward the target. Then it waits for the echo of the transmitted signal for some time before it transmits a new pulse and it can be used to measure target velocities. Target Range and bearings can be determined from the measured antenna position and time-of-arrival of the reflected signal.Pulse generator is the equipment that are used to generate pulses - normally rectangular pulses, these pulses can be used to generate pulses that can stimulate logic circuit.These different pulses can be generated by using FPGA, it can be programmed to the desired application or functionality requirements.

Real Time Attendance System by Using Matlab

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

G.Ramesh | Dr .M.Janardhana Raju

Abstract

Being one of the most successful applications of the image processing, face recognition has a vital role in technical field especially in the field of security purpose. Human face recognition is an important field for verification purpose especially in the case of student’s attendance. This paper is aimed at implementing a digitized system for attendance recording. Current attendance marking methods are monotonous & time consuming. Manually recorded attendance can be easily manipulated in XL sheet. Hence the paper is proposed to tackle all these issues.

Real Time Distribution Transformer Monitoring System with Data Logging

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 31st May 2017

Sonali Patil | Priyanka Patil,Pallavi Khot,Suraj Patil

Abstract

This project is about design and implementation of a mobile embedded system to monitor and record parameters of a distribution transformer like load currents, oil level and winding temperature, different gases and humidity present in the atmosphere. The idea of on-line monitoring system integrates a GSM Modem, with an Arduino UNO board and different sensors. It is installed at the distribution transformer site and the above parameters are recorded of the embedded system. The obtained parameters are processed and recorded in the system memory. If any abnormality or an emergency situation occurs the system sends SMS messages to the mobile phones containing information about the abnormality according to some predefined levels programmed in the microcontroller. This mobile system will help the transformers to identify problems before any serious failure.

Real Time NoC Based Pipelined Architectonics With Efficient TDM Schema

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

Laila A | Ajeesh R V

Abstract

As a result of increased demand for on chip communication bandwidth due to multi core chips, packet switched network on chip (NoC) has been emerged as a replacement of bus based on chip interconnects. This work represents a globally asynchronous locally synchronous (GALS) NoC architecture with hard real time multiprocessor platform.It is a special NoC architecture, which uses statically scheduled time division multiplexing (TDM) to control the communication over a structure of routers, links and network interfaces to offer real time guarantees. It also manages the pipelined data maintenance, storage mechanism as well as transfer of data bits from one local memory to another. The router in the architecture uses source routing along with an efficient TDM scheme which does not need any flow control, arbitration and buffering. Also it uses a two phase bundled data handshake latches based on the mousetrap latch controller with a gating mechanism to reduce the energy consumption. The network interface(NI) in the architecture consist of a direct memory access (DMA ) controller which avoid the need of synchronization. NI plays an important role in the end to end data transfer between two communicating processor cores. The work is coded by using verilog and is simulated by Xilinx ISE 13.2.

Real Time Sensor Based Assistive System for Blind People

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

Savita Uppar | Trupti Ingale , Swati Bagewadi , Archana Gudaganatti

Abstract

Reading text from scene, images and text boards is an exigent task for visually challenged persons. This task has been proposed to be carried out with the help of image processing. Since a long period of time, image processing has helped a lot in the field of object recognition and still an emerging area of research. The proposed system reads the text encountered in images and text boards with the aim to provide support to the visually challenged persons. Text detection and recognition in natural scene can give valuable information for many applications. In this work, an approach has been attempted to extract and recognize text from scene images and convert that recognized text into speech. This task can definitely be an empowering force in a visually challenged person's life and can be supportive in relieving them of their frustration of not being able to read whatever they want, thus enhancing the quality of their lives.

Real-Time Nonintrusive Monitoring and Prediction of Driver Fatigue

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

Aarthi K.J. Veronica | Nandhini. S.K , Hema Pavithra.S , Hemalatha. D , Keerthana.R

Abstract

Passively monitoring a driver’s activities constitutes the basis of an automobile safety system that can potentially reduce the number of accidents by estimating the driver’s focus of attention. In this project a complete accident avoidance system is proposed by determining the driver’s behavior. As the main causes of vehicle accident were related to human factors, they could be labeled in one of the main driver’s distraction categories such as drowsiness, yawning and distracted vision. The main causes of the traffic accidents, discovered in the analysis of the driver behavior with the help of our system, will be used for the development of assistant devices and alarm systems that could help the driver to avoid risky situations. In this project we are implementing two image processing tool to get the facial geometry based on Viola Jones algorithm and skin color face detection method combined tracking. Frequencies of eye blinking and eye closure are used as the indication of sleepy and warning sign is then generated for recommendation, secondly outside an ego vehicle, road traffic is also analyzed. BP sensor is introduce to check the heart beat of the driver, if any variation occurs in heart beating stop the car. Ultrasonic sensor is used to measure distance in front of cars. Break failure also detected.

Real-Time Vehicle Tracking Using GSM & GPS with Location Display on Google Maps Using Raspberry Pi

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

J.Krishna Chaithanya | Dr. T. Ramashri

Abstract

The use of automobiles is necessary to ship goods and products from one place to another. The users face several problems due to delay in the delivery of goods. This delay may be due to choosing wrong or longer routes by the driver. The Global Positioning System (GPS) is being used for fleet management, stolen vehicle recovery, surveillance and mapping applications. In this paper, implementation details of a vehicle tracking system (VTS) on Google Maps are presented along with experimental results. The Transmitter unit has GSM Module, GPS Module. The GPS Module continuously reads the data from the Satellite and sends it to Arduino using Serial Communication. The received Latitude and Longitude values are transmitted to the Receiver through GPRS Technology available in SIM900 Module. The Data is transmitted to the Apache Server in Raspberry Pi. Once the Data is received by the Raspberry Pi it posts that data on to the Webpage in which a Google Maps Code is implemented. The Location is displayed on the Maps as a small Red Dot which shows the Current Location of the Vehicle.

Recent Developments in Electronics-Nanotechnology

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

Subha. M | Prashanth Kumar , Ranjitha. K. D , Vivek Hegde , Geetha. R

Abstract

This paper presents an insight into some of the recent breakthroughs in nanotechnology which includes various traditional devices like transistors, light emitting diode, capacitors, integrated circuits to achieve efficiency resulting in lesser time and low power consumption. Nanotechnology can be applied to the field of electronics using carbon nanotubes, which when used on a polyamide substrate of a semiconductor wafer provides high mobility, flexibility, shock resistance, on off ratios and switching speeds, impossible to be achieved with glass plates as substrates. Its usage in Active Matrix Organic Light Emitting Diode displays results in high current driving capability unlike polycrystalline silicon in traditional Liquid Crystal Displays. Lately semiconductor nanowires have been developed, exhibiting transparency and highly uniform electrical performance. CNT FETs have come of age where single walled CNTs replace the silicon channel resulting in strong coupling thus shrinking the FET size. The latest area of development of CNTs have been in Super capacitors where CNT heterogeneous films are used to store high amount of energy catering to the needs of high power, energy density and long operation cycles. Thus this farsighted technology has helped in achieving unprecedented densities and speeds which is the need of the hour.

Recognition of Objects in Scenes Containing Multiple Objects Using Matching Technique

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

Dakshayani N | Dr. D.J. Ravi

Abstract

Recognition of objects in a scene containing multiple objects is a primary challenge that has only in recent times been broadly undertaken by computer vision systems. This paper proposes a new technique how to identify a particular object in jumbled scenes, given a reference image of the object. This paper represents an algorithm for recognizing a particular object based on finding feature points correspondences between the reference and the target image. It can detect objects in spite of a scale change or orientation. It is also robust to small amount of occlusion.

Reconfigurable Hardware Design of Hybrid System with Compact Memory for Secured Communication

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

Reshmi Krishna Prasad | Asha A S

Abstract

Cryptosystem is one of the most discussed areas in today’s digital scenario. The increasing use of pervasive devices in the field of electronics has raised the concerns about security. In embedded applications, implementing a full-fledged cryptographic environment would not be practical because of the constraints like security, power dissipation, area and cost. Due to these constraints, the focus is on using lightweight cryptography that needs as less memory space as possible. The main criteria for the lightweight cipher are to have high security and less memory space. The lightweight cryptography is a biometric key generation algorithm with the combination of PRESENT algorithm with group instruction permutation. The developed lightweight algorithm is implemented with biometric system i.e. finger print scanning. This is used to ensure the high security to avoid fake, repeated voting etc. It also enhances the accuracy and speed of the process. The system utilizes the RFID card as an identification card for each voter. Each voter ID card contains a unique ID number with corresponding fingerprints stored in the database .The system uses thumb impression for voter identification since it is unique for each individual. Thus it would have an edge over the present day voting systems. The system confirm that the voting rights are accessed only by a legitimate user. In this, creation of a database consisting of unique ID number and thumb impressions of all the eligible voters in a constituency is done as a pre-poll procedure. During election, RFID card is used for initial authentication. Once the authentication succeeds, the thumb impression of the voter is entered as input to the system. This is then compared with the available records in the database. Access to cast a vote is granted if the particular pattern matches with anyone in the available record. In case the pattern does not match with the records of the database or in case of repetition, access to cast a vote is denied or the vote gets rejected and total vote count is done. The designing language is MATLAB, VHDL and embedded C. The code is synthesized and simulated using Xilinx ISE 13.2 and is implemented using FPGA and Microcontroller.

Reduction of Current Leakage in VLSI Systems

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

Tayab Mustaq Ahmed | Deepak H.A

Abstract

This paper consisting of the general information about the VLSI followed by the history and development of the VLSI. MOORE's LAW is explained shortly and the designing of the VLSI circuits is explained by the design of VLSI by HIERARCHYSTRUCTURE. In this paper some of the general discussion on the current leakage reduction in the processors are discussed in which the reduction of current leakage by using switches are included and also we can reduce the current leakage in the circuit by using "sleep transistor". Sleep transistors are the transistor which turns off completely when the circuit is not in use. And we have also discussed some of the aspects related to reduction of current leakage in VLSI using simple NAND gate we have shown both types using MOSFET transistor and also by using simple Transistors. We have designed a NAND gate using transistor BC547 so that it will be easy to understand and to convey information or technique in much more easier way. In the end we concluded that using of sleep circuit(sleep transistor) is very effective technique. After this we have also discussed some the major issue or the problem faced while designing our circuit which is also important because we need to know the limitations before designing any circuit.

Reduction of Current Leakage in VLSI Systems

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

Tayab Mustaq Ahmed | Deepak H.A [3] Madhusudhan G

Abstract

This paper consisting of the general information about the VLSI followed by the history and development of the VLSI. MOORE's LAW is explained shortly and the designing of the VLSI circuits is explained by the design of VLSI by HIERARCHYSTRUCTURE. In this paper some of the general discussion on the current leakage reduction in the processors are discussed in which the reduction of current leakage by using switches are included and also we can reduce the current leakage in the circuit by using "sleep transistor". Sleep transistors are the transistor which turns off completely when the circuit is not in use. This is a very effective technique. After that some of the discussions about the problems in implementing the sleep transistors is also discussed which is very important while designing any circuit.

Reduction Techniques of PAPR in VLC OFDM System

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

Mr. Amol J. Bhakte | Asst.Prof. Kiran D. Bondre

Abstract

Wireless communication system is one of the important aspects in communication technology by using LED lights. Visible Light Communication OFDM system is a new way of data communications medium using visible light. Visible light frequency spectrum bandwidth ranges from 400 THz to 800 THz. Visible light communication technology enabling data transmission by using light emitting diode (LED). This device has attracted much attention in recent communication system. Orthogonal frequency division multiplexing modulation technique plays an important role in long distance communication system. The OFDM is a multi-carrier modulation scheme which enables transmission of multiple signals; simultaneously over a single transmission path. Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) has been widely used in wireless communications technology due to its high data rate, frequency selective fading and immunity to delay spread and other advantages, but besides these benefits the main disadvantages is the high peak to average power ratio (PAPR). This peak to average power ratio is an important feature to analyze the system performances. PAPR will increase the system complexity and reduce the communication system performance. High PAPR limit the application of OFDM system. To reduce the OFDM signal peak to average power ratio (PAPR) in VLC system, the Selected Mapping (SLM), Partial Transmit Sequence (PTS) and Discrete Fourier transform spread (DFT-S) techniques are used. In this paper for PAPR reduction all above three techniques are used to further reduced PAPR at lower value. For statistical analysis of PAPR the Complementary Cumulative Distribution Function (CCDF) is used. Performance analysis in terms of CCDF plots will be shown.

Remote Environmental Monitoring System

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

Niharika J | Kshitij Shrivastava, Tejasva Nema, Puneet Sharma, Dr. Vijay Mishra

Abstract

This paper gives custom designed implementation details of unmanned environment sensing and monitoring embedded system. This embedded system will be helpful to monitor the air pollution levels in the remote areas where it is difficult for the human beings to travel. In this design, we intend to monitor pollution levels and gauge the suitability of environment for living conditions as per the standards set by the environmentalists. The uniqueness of this Envi-Quadcopter is that, the electronic system designed is mounted on the DJI Phantom 3 drone which has visual positioning system that allows quad copter to maintain its position at lower altitudes and even when GPS is weak or unavailable. A box is custom designed and light weight 3D printed to be integrated with DJI Phantom 3 drone using CAD software to hold the circuitry. This system consists of four pollution gas sensors NO2 , CO, CO2 , O3 and two meteorological condition sensing components for sensing pressure, temperature and humidity. The meteorological parameters help to determine accurate concentration of pollutants and seeing the trend of change in concentration of gases with changes in temperature and pressure. The sensed parameters are logged into SD card and also transmitted to the server for real time monitoring. The transmission is done by ATSIM900 module. These values can be then analyzed and helpful in formulating laws for environmental protection.

Remote Override of Traffic Signal in an Emergency

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

Asha M | M R Apoorva , B Amrutha shenoy , Chaitra P , N Jyothi

Abstract

Traffic congestion is a severe problem in many major cities across the world, it is very imperative to provide priority to important vehicles. The project is designed to develop a density based dynamic traffic signal system having remote override facilities. During normal time the signal timing changes automatically on sensing the traffic density at the junction but in the event of any emergency vehicle like ambulance, fire brigade etc requiring priority are built in with RF remote control to override the set timing by providing instantaneous green signal in the desired direction while blocking the other lanes by red signal for some time. The proposed system using a microcontroller of 8051 family duly interfaced with sensors, changes the junction timing automatically to accommodate movement of vehicles smoothly avoiding unnecessary waiting time at the junction. The density of the vehicles is measured in three zones i.e., low, medium, high based on which timings are allotted accordingly

Retinal Vessel Extraction with Segmentation

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

Amari Sippora | Ravala Lavanya

Abstract

vessel extraction for retinal image play crucial role in medical images for proper diagnosis and treatment of various diseases like diabetic retinopathy, hypertensive retinopathy and various cardio vascular diseases. In this paper we propose a novel technique for automatic analysis of fundus retinal image using improved vessel of infinite perimeter active contour model. This approach uses of intensity information and local phase based enhancement filter technique and Cauchy based matched filter provide better accuracy. The performance evolution is carried on DRIVE data set and real images too. The results show good performance and previous IPACHI method.

Reversible Data Hiding using SST Algorithm

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

Jagadish M C | C Prabhavathi

Abstract

This paper presents the method for reversible data hiding with lossless recovery of the original image. A modified difference expansion algorithm is used in this scheme for reversible data hiding, the algorithm thus increases the amount of data that can be hidden in the image and also guarantees the lossless recovery of the original image. For more security the image is encrypted using the Sieving, Shuffling and Transformation (SST) algorithm.

Reversible Data Hinding and Recovery Based on Compression Technique

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 31st May 2017

B.Kamala | K.Suseela

Abstract

This method based on extraction of a data transmitted from administrator to the end user through an intermediate called remote server. The main contest of this method is to reduce the memory size of the data by progressive recovery compression technique, as we are sending the data into the server from the administrator to the client ,the raw data is converted to cipher text and unlike plain text the information is watermarked into three channel sets of embedding technique with an embedding key and addition message at data hider channel. Spiht algorithm helps in compression of rough data to improve the image quality . Thus on the receiver side the data is recovered without distortion. The Rate-distortion of the proposed method outperforms state-of-the-art-RDH-RC method.

Review on Energy Harvesting for Wireless Communications

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

K. Roopa Priyadarshini | A.Rajani

Abstract

In energy harvesting communications, user transmits messages using energy harvested from nature during the course of communication. In energy harvesting introduced the energy cooperation, where the user wirelessly transmits a portion of its energy to another energy harvesting user. where the transmitter sends one signal and receiver receives the received signal into two parts by either power splitting or time switching by using SWIPT (simultaneous wireless information power transmit). The energy cooperation save-then transmit (EC-ST) scheme is employed consider additive white Gaussian noise one-way channels with twoway energy transfer under a deterministic energy arrival rate. In this case, the optimal active ratio and the energy cooperation power are obtained in closed form to achieve the maximum throughput. Next, for Rayleigh block fading channels with a stochastic energy arrival rate, the optimal energy cooperation power for minimizing the outage probability. This paper concentrates on the optimal performance of the P2P wireless communications within T seconds. To begin with, the (EC-ST) scheme to additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN) one-way channels with two way energy transfer under a deterministic energy arrival rate.

Review on Implementation of ALU using reversible logic gates and Vedic Mathematics

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 7th June 2017

Deepthi R Shetty | Ashwath Rao

Abstract

Arithmetic and logic unit (ALU) is a part of central processing unit that carries out arithmetic and logical operations and consists of many computational units like adders, multipliers, logic unit etc. In this review paper, ALU based on reversible logic gates and Vedic Mathematics concepts are discussed. Here reversible logic gates are used instead of the basic logic gates such as AND, OR etc which will function in the same way as that of the basic logic gates. An important requirement of digital system is to reduce power dissipation. By using reversible ALU instead of using basic logic gates power consumption is lowered. Also a high speed 8x8 bit multiplier based on Vedic multiplier mechanism is explained.

Review on Realization of AES Encryption and Decryption with Power and Area optimization

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

Mohini Mohurle | Prof. Vishal V.Panchbhai

Abstract

In this project, a hardware implementation of the AES-256 encryption and decryption algorithm is proposed. The AES cryptography algorithm can be used to encryption and decryption blocks of 128 bits and is capable of using cipher keys of 256 bits. Feature of the proposed pipeline design is depending on the round keys, which are consumed different round of encryption, are generated in parallel way with the encryption process. This lowers delay of the each round of encryption and reduces the encryption delay of a plaintext block. Xilinx ISE.14.7 (64-bit) is used for simulation by using VHDL and hardware implementation on FPGA(Xilinx Spartan 6 or Altera Cyclone 2 FPGA device).

Review on Selective Harmonic Palliation in Multilevel Inverter by Using Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO)

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

Kajal Saraf | Aishwarya Mhaisekar, Shubham Bokilwar, Anuj Borkute, Anup Pachghare

Abstract

Recent advances in power electronics have made the multilevel concept practical. It is evident that the multilevel concept will be prominent choice for power electronic in upcoming years especially for medium voltage operation. Using multilevel inverter applications in solar cells, fuel cell and wind turbines is increasing now a day’s rapidly. Therefore, harmonic palliation techniques in multilevel inverter are considered very important task, which is solved by applying Particle Swarm Optimization technique. This paper presents a review of Particle Swarm Optimization technique used for multilevel inverter. The objective of this optimization technique is used to find an optimum solution of multilevel inverter, which results in minimum harmonics. In comparison with other methods, the technique has many advantages such as; it can produce all possible solutions for any number of multilevel inverter without much computational burden.

RFID -GSM Based Vehicle Authentication System

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

Pranay S. Bhaskar | Pushpak R. Sakhare , Ruchita A. Gaikwad,Alisha salwatkar,Mayuri shatrakar,Pranoti bhoyer

Abstract

Now a days, especially in India, we face the problem of traffic, & a huge rush, because the use of increase in automobiles and in which many of the automobiles or vehicles are not registered with their insurance, license etc . And because of this , traffic police officers have to stop and check public’s legal documents regarding their vehicles and because of this the time of public or the traffic controller gets waste. To avoid this irresponsible behavior of the public, we are trying to implement a device called RFID-GSM based vehicle authentication system.

RFID Based Automatic Vehicle Identification for Access Control

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

Shubham Swaraj | Richa R Khandelwal

Abstract

There has been rising interest for secure framework that should be tried and true and fast react for the commercial enterprises and organization. RFID (Radio Frequency Identification) is one of the reliable and quick method for recognize the material article. In the long-prior the standardized tags are best when contrasted with RFID due to their expense however now a day's RFID are effortlessly accessible and are more helpful to utilize. Research has rolled out some extraordinary improvements which make its programming a great deal shorter and less demanding is a result of supplanting microcontroller with Arduino. Arduino makes the circuit and programming a considerable measure simpler to get it. Paper is based upon security get to and Control framework utilizing RFID and Arduino with GSM module. A percentage of the sensors are utilized like PIR, LPG for Leakage recognition. Security access framework is exceptionally helpful to use at home, office and business structures.

RFID Based Smart Shopping Cart and Its Automatic Navigation

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

Mr. Ajjaiah H B M | Seemarao B.R , Arun M Alexander

Abstract

Today, shopping at malls and supermarkets have become a tedious and hectic activity especially when one of the major problems faced by consumers while shopping at a supermarket is the inability to locate items and also to carry goods to the billing counter. In this paper, we are proposing a very cost-effective method to overcome these issues by creating a smart trolley that moves automatically through the aisles of the supermarket, locating different departments by tracking RFID cards embedded on the aisle floors.

RFID Based Student Bus Fee Status Checking At Real Time Using Zigbee

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

U. Lavanya | Dr. M. Janardhana Raju

Abstract

An advanced ARM based student bus fee status checking at real time using ZIGBEE and RFID technology is designed and implemented for monitoring the student‘s bus fee status details for school/college management requirement. The advanced system makes good use of new technology that is based on ARM7, RFID and ZIGBEE technologies. The proposed system consists of two main units; administration unit and bus unit. The administration unit acts as a transmitter and used to send the student fee status to the bus unit. The bus unit acts as a receiver and used to display the student bus fee status on the LCD at real time. The proposed system is placed inside the vehicle. And communication between the proposed system and administration server can be done using ZIGBEE technology. When student enters the bus RFID reader reads the card details and displays student bus fee status on LCD.

RFID Based System for School Children Attendance Bus Transportation Safety Enhancement Using ZIGBEE

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

K Saipriya | D Madhu

Abstract

A system to monitor pick-up/drop-down of school children to enhance the safety of children during the daily transportation from and to school. The aim of this project is to implement the RFID based for school children attendance transportation safety enhancement. The purpose of this project is to provide safety of children’s during the daily transportation from and to school. The advanced system makes good use of new technology that is based on arm7, RFID and ZIGBEE technology. The system consisting of two units, a bus unit and school unit. The bus unit acts as a transmitter and school unit acts as a receiver. These two units communicate by using ZIGBEE. The bus unit is used to detect when a children enter or leave the bus and display on the LCD. The information is send to the school unit. That unit identifies whether the children enter or leave from the bus and send an alert message accordingly. The school unit which receive the information about children to authorised persons by using GSM technology. In this project we proposed the system is promising for daily transportation safety.

Rice Crack Detection without De-Husking Using Image Processing Techniques

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

Lakshmi GR | A.N Mukunda Rao, Sachin KJ

Abstract

In this paper, an algorithm is proposed to analyze quality of paddy without de-husking using image processing techniques. This system eliminates manual process of quality asses of rice granules which is laborious, inefficient and time consuming. To analyze quality of paddy, X ray image of few paddy samples are considered for processing. Quality of paddy is analyzed by detecting possible cracks in paddy samples by automation. On the acquired X ray image of paddy, image processing operations such as de-noising, edge detection, dilation, segmentation and Hough line detection are performed to analyze its quality. Condition of paddy determines its quality and price.

Robotic Detection of Squats in Rails

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

Anila Sunny | Bini Bright

Abstract

This paper presents the design of crack finding robot for finding cracks in railway tracks. Here PIC16F877A microcontroller is interfaced with Robot, Zigbee, GPS, LCD and IR sensors. The IR sensors are used to find crack in the railway track, and then GPS is used to find the location. If the microcontroller detects the crack, it immediately gets the location information using GPS and sends that location and crack information to the control section. The control section displays the location in map. The LCD is used to display the current status of this system.

Robotic Detection of Squats in Rails

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

Anila Sunny | Bini Bright

Abstract

This paper presents the design of crack finding robot for finding cracks in railway tracks. Here PIC16F877A microcontroller is interfaced with Robot, Zigbee, GPS, LCD and IR sensors. The IR sensors are used to find crack in the railway track, and then GPS is used to find the location. If the microcontroller detects the crack, it immediately gets the location information using GPS and sends that location and crack information to the control section. The control section displays the location in map. The LCD is used to display the current status of this system.

Robotic Illumination System: A Simplified Approach

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

Madhurya K | Vikas C.M , Prof. Ananda M

Abstract

Border intrusions and trespassing has been a major security issue from a long time. The intruders entering may be a menace to the country. The soldiers or the militants may not be able to keep a keen eye on the trespassers at the borders due to various reasons. In order to detect intrusions at the borders and prevent any possible detrimental activity due to trespassing, we have presented a unique idea. The proposed Robotic Illumination System consists of a light source, an ultrasonic sensor, servo motors and an arduino development kit. The arduino controls the motion of the light source by controlling the servomotors by utilizing the data provided by ultrasonic sensor in order to detect and track the obstacles in the scanning area. Our system which is simple and cost effective, efficiently detects and tracks the obstacle present in the scanning region consistently by illuminating.

Robust Contrast Enhancement Using Gamma Correction and Contrast Stretching Using Laplacian Pyramid for Detection of Microcalcification in Mammography

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

Hakeem Aejaz Aslam | Prof.T.Ramashri

Abstract

In this paper, the use of different enhancement techniques to increase the contrast of the mammogram is presented. By far, the best method to come up with is the Laplacian pyramid method. In this method, the original image is convolved with a Gaussian kernel which is a low pass filtering operation with the band limit reduced correspondingly by one octave with each level. The Laplacian Pyramid differentiates smoothed brightness values and produces a set of band pass filtered copies of the original image. The Laplacian pyramid with level 5 is presented in this paper. Then the reconstructed images are finally brought back the original image with increased contrast by subtracting the images of each level of the pyramid with the reconstructed images. It is shown that the visibility of micro calcification clusters and anatomic details is considerably improved in the processed images. The code of this algorithm is generated using MATLAB 7.5 software.

Robust Contrast Enhancement Using Gamma Correction and Contrast Stretching Using Laplacian Pyramid for Detection of Microcalcification in Mammography

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 12th June 2017

Hakeem Aejaz Aslam | Prof.T.Ramashri

Abstract

In this paper, the use of different enhancement techniques to increase the contrast of the mammogram is presented. By far, the best method to come up with is the Laplacian pyramid method. In this method, the original image is convolved with a Gaussian kernel which is a low pass filtering operation with the band limit reduced correspondingly by one octave with each level. The Laplacian Pyramid differentiates smoothed brightness values and produces a set of band pass filtered copies of the original image. The Laplacian pyramid with level 5 is presented in this paper. Then the reconstructed images are finally brought back the original image with increased contrast by subtracting the images of each level of the pyramid with the reconstructed images. It is shown that the visibility of micro calcification clusters and anatomic details is considerably improved in the processed images. The code of this algorithm is generated using MATLAB 7.5 software.

Robust Digital Invisible Watermarking for Copyright Protection of Image using DCT (Discrete Cosine Transform)

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

Rabinarayan Panigrahi | Prof. Devasis Pradhan

Abstract

Digital watermarking is an important issue for the copyright protection and ownership authentication in multimedia applications. We implement the watermarking algorithm using frequency domain technique by using DCT (Discrete Cosine Transform) on images. Here, the invisible watermarking is used to protect copyrights of multimedia contents. The invisible watermarks are new technologies which could solve the problem of enforcing the copyright protection is required for ownership identification as well as hidden information can also be identified. Where, the watermark is invisible to the human eye. Also, the authenticity of the information in the image can be obtained by comparing the watermarked image with the original image.

Robust Railway Crack Detection System Using LED-LDR Assembly

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

Shubham Swaraj | 

Abstract

Rail transport is commonly used mode of long-distance transport in India .Indian railways is the fourth largest railway network in the world .Due to cracks in railway tracks it creates major problem .Many accidents are caused due to cracks in railway tracks which is difficult to identify and it takes lot of time to rectify it .This paper proposes robust solution for railway track crack detection using LED-LDR assembly which will be very helpful in averting many accidents.

Routing Protocol in Cognitive Radio Network

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

Joshna Sharon H | Lovely Augustine, Merline Desilva B,Priscilla S, G.Shine Let

Abstract

Cognitive radio network is a reconciling intelligent radio network that mechanically detects available channels in a wireless spectrum and makes changes in the transmission parameters sanctioning more communication to happen at the same time. Secondary users can use primary users channel when it’s idle. In this paper, we propose AODV routing protocol suitable for cognitive radio network for secondary user’s communication. The various parameters are analyzed by implementing protocol in NS3 software.

Saliency Detection and Tracking Of Stereoscopic Images and Videos

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

Jeena John | 

Abstract

Saliency detection is believed to be an important precursor for a vast number of multimedia processing applications. Besides 2D saliency detection methods, depth feature is also considered to detect saliency in stereoscopic images as well as for videos. This paper presents an enhanced saliency detection framework, depending on the feature contrast of luminance, color, texture and depth, which in turn are extracted from discrete cosine transform coefficients for the purpose of feature contrast calculation. Here, in order to consider the calculation of local and global contrast, a Gaussian model of spatial distance between image patches is adopted. Human vision system actively seeks salient regions and movements in video sequences to reduce the search effort. The motion saliency model detects the moving objects whose motion is salient to its background. In this paper, we propose a novel stereoscopic images and video saliency detection model for detecting the attended regions that correspond to both interesting objects and dominant motions in video sequences. And the salient region on the video is tracked.

Secure and Reliable Routing Protocols for Heterogeneous Multi Hop Wireless Networks

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

Mr. Sathish Kumar.P | Mr. Rinald Vincent.A , Mr. Balamuralikrishna.N , Mr.Venkatesan.R

Abstract

In this paper, we propose E-STAR for establishing stable and reliable routes in heterogeneous multihop wireless networks which combines payment and trust systems with a trust-based and energy-aware routing protocol. The payment system rewards the nodes that relay others’ packets and charges those that send packets. The trust system evaluates the nodes’ competence and reliability in relaying packets in terms of multi-dimensional trust values. The trust values are attached to the nodes’ public-key certificates to be used in making routing decisions. E-STAR can stimulate the nodes not only to relay packets. This is because any loss of trust will result in loss of future earnings. Moreover, for the efficient implementation of the trust system, the trust values are computed by processing the payment receipts. Analytical results demonstrate that E-STAR can secure the payment and trust calculation without false accusations. Simulation results demonstrate that our routing protocols can improve the packet delivery ratio and route stability.

Secure Image Compression Using Auxiliary Information

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

Mr. S.Vaira Prakash | M.Priyanka,S, S. Rukmani , C.Vijayalakshmi

Abstract

Secure transmission of data in these days is the need of the hour. Here we have used some techniques to effectively encrypt and compress the multimedia data for transmission. Effective transmission of information is required in many fields like defence,medical field etc. In our proposed scheme the sender uses auxiliary information for compression and image reconstruction. Auxiliary information has two parts one part is useful for image compression and the second part is useful for image reconstruction. At receiver side, the original image content can be reconstructed using the compressed encrypted data and the secret key. Result shows the ratio-distortion performance of the proposed scheme is better than that of previous techniques.

Secured Electronic Voting Machine

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

Nithyak | Nithya R, Immaculate Joy S

Abstract

Voting is important tool to collect peoples thinking and voting has the power to change the fate of Nation. So it is important to provide security for voting. Normally voting is conducted in public places called polling booths. Voters entering into polling booth, vote under the supervision of authorized person. Each time voters will be checked for voter ID and their name in the register book before they cast their vote. The votes are counted manually after the completion of election. This is a time consuming and very complex procedure and it has no security. We use finger vein image for authentication. Finger vein pattern is unique and almost impossible to duplicate because vein pattern lies below the skin. It provides best solution to avoid false voting and provide privacy to the voters. The electronic voting machine is connected with computer. The finger vein image of eligible person is captured and the data is processed by using haar transform in MATLAB. The computer have full data base of the eligible voters. Our project provides alert through voice signal and SMS through GSM to the authorized person.

Secured Health Information Transmission

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

Kusuma Prabhu | Sowmya Bhat , Aruna M S

Abstract

Telemedicine application is becoming popular, in this large amount of data needs to be transferred over the network. Medical Image embedding is used increase the security and authentication of medical image, which is important and is used for further diagnosis and reference. The proposed scheme distortion in the ROI is avoided by inserting the information in the region which is not important for diagnosis. Integer wavelet transform has been used to achieve reversible watermarking as every minute detail is important for the medical images. Watermarks which convey patient’s personal and health data, key terms for information recovery and the doctor’s digital signature for authentication are embedded in the image.

Securing Data in Images using QR Codes

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

Nitheesh | K.M. Bhuvan Prasad , Nithin Kumar H.R , Sagar K.M , Mr. Subramanya M.B

Abstract

Relaying medical data from one location to other can provide better healthcare services in remote locations. Image steganography is an approach, where patient reports are embedded in lower bit planes of an image and are then transmitted. Former techniques employ encoding of raw text and placing them on lower bit planes providing single layer of security. Standard encoding and decoding methods are incorporated to cipher the information .In proposed method encrypted data is inserted into quick response codes as it increases data holding capacity and also provides an extra layer of security. The Stego (image in which QR code is hidden) image and original image are similar in appearance ensuring secrecy. There will be no loss of any information in QR code as original pixel values are retained during the reception. Data retrieval is smooth and can be performed without having any distortion. Implying this mechanism provides multilayer security, improved readability and makes transmission of information easy.

Security System for Internal Attackers Using Data Mining and Forensic Techniques

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

Ashwini | Dr. D Geetha

Abstract

In the current time most boomed technology is network based technology. Based on the current study in network based technology and improved determination on this technology require guarantee dependable process of network based systems. as huge amount of information are saved and transfer from one point to another point while transferring the information it is prone to the attacks so security of the client is an important issue. This paper analysis advanced explanation for the issue of insiders assault can find appear in the PC security research literature. In the stage of network based technology, Security is an main problem. As there is the unbelievable raise in the resource and information sharing, the need for security is also raises Intrusion detection system is designed, which monitors the doubtful activity, misuse, unauthorized access etc. Based on the survey on intrusion detection system provides two techniques they are data mining and forensic techniques for finding internal attackers present in system and we also propose two algorithms to overcome inside attack.

Security System Using Iris as Biometrics

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

Ms. Bhakti B. Bhaganagare | Prof.A.D.Harale

Abstract

Security systems have realized the value of biometrics for two basic purposes: to verify or identify users. There are many places where only authorized people can enter and in that situation in order to identify the person who is entering into the restricted areas like R& D, Bank Lockers etc. is needed to identify and permit the person. If this is performed manually by security guards, it will be hectic to identify each person which would be time consuming and errors may occur. To avoid these problems we are proposing a security system based on iris recognition which will recognize the person. Iris recognition is a biometric system for access control that uses the most unique characteristic of the human body the iris and is employed in automated border crossings, national ID systems, etc.The proposed system will provide information of recognized person on LCD & thus controlling the access of the people into the restricted area.

Segmentation of Rectum from CT Images for the Radiation Treatment Planning of Prostate Cancer

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

Kalyani C. S. | MallikarjunaSwamy M. S.

Abstract

Cancer has been one of the haunted conditions in the society though there have been treatment methods developed to cure. External Beam Radiation Therapy (EBRT) is one such methods of cancer treatment. During the treatment plan phase, the organs at risk in the respective cancer context need to be segmented from acquired medical image. In this work, rectum is segmented from CT images and segmented rectum images are useful in the treatment plan. The work deals with the segmentation of rectum during EBRT plan for treatment of prostate cancer and image processing algorithm developed based on k-means clustering.

Self - Repairing SRAM using Closed-loop Adaptive Compensation Algorithm

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

Spoorthi Y | Nalina H D , Thilgavathy R

Abstract

In nanometer scale static-RAM (SRAM) arrays, systematic inter-die and random within-die variations in process parameters can cause significant parametric failures, severely degrading parametric yield. In this paper, we investigate the interaction between the inter-die and intra-die variations on SRAM read and write failures. To improve the robustness of the SRAM cell, we propose closed-loop adaptive compensation algorithms that directly sense the global read stability and writ ability of the cell. The main aim of the of the proposed scheme is to design a sensor that directly sense the global read stability and writ ability of an SRAM die and apply proper cell correction/compensation mechanism using cell and peripheral supply voltages to mitigate the dominant type of failure. Since the direct sensing of the global read stability and write-ability helps to successfully distinguish global corners of nMOS and pMOS devices, the proposed scheme becomes more effective in reducing the parametric failures.

Self-Balancing Electronic Skate-Board

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

Akhil Sunil Kumar | Ashwin S , Abhiram B , Hemanth Kumar M , Narendra Kumar

Abstract

Powerful microcontrollers are used as parts most intelligent automated system. Integration of field of transportation with these intelligent devices will aid in development of new generation of transportation. With the use of efficient microcontrollers and sensitive sensors has helped a lot in achieving this milestone. These devices play a vital role in today’s world, where the conventional means of transport keep depleting the nonrenewable resources and increases the population, taking steps towards the seize of existence of life. This paper implements the self-balancing mechanism onto a skate-board, that can be used as alternate mode of transport for short distance in day-to-day life. This implementation is based on the inverted pendulum concept to counter the disturbance in balance and involves PID controller algorithm for the smooth self-balancing of the system.

Sensing vulnerabilities and multiple spoofing adversaries in wireless LAN

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

S.karthika | A.kanagalakshmi

Abstract

Wireless spoofing attacks easy to launch and can significantly impact the performance of networks. The identity of a node verified through cryptographic authentication, conventional security approaches are not always desirable because of their overhead requirements. The spatial information of physical property associated with each node, hard to falsify and not reliant on cryptography, as the basis for detecting spoofing attacks, determining the number of attackers when multiple adversaries masquerading as the same node identity and localizing multiple adversaries. The formulation of determining the number of attackers as a multiclass detection problem. This project requires Request Storms (RS) algorithm to determine the number of attackers. This RS algorithm used for sending and receiving continuous packet transmission storms and detect malicious intruder using intensity based localization. The RS algorthim detect the unauthorized Internet Protocol / Medium Access Control (IP / MAC) and copy to the Access Control List (ACL), easy to detect and localize the intruder in the network. The integrated detection and localization system that can localize the positions of multiple attackers.

Sensing vulnerabilities and multiple spoofing adversaries in wireless LAN

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

S.Karthika | A. Kanagalakshmi

Abstract

Wireless spoofing attacks easy to launch and can significantly impact the performance of networks. The identity of a node verified through cryptographic authentication, conventional security approaches are not always desirable because of their overhead requirements. The spatial information of physical property associated with each node, hard to falsify and not reliant on cryptography, as the basis for detecting spoofing attacks, determining the number of attackers when multiple adversaries masquerading as the same node identity and localizing multiple adversaries. The formulation of determining the number of attackers as a multiclass detection problem. This project requires Request Storms (RS) algorithm to determine the number of attackers. This RS algorithm used for sending and receiving continuous packet transmission storms and detect malicious intruder using intensity based localization. The RS algorthim detect the unauthorized Internet Protocol / Medium Access Control (IP / MAC) and copy to the Access Control List (ACL), easy to detect and localize the intruder in the network. The integrated detection and localization system that can localize the positions of multiple attackers.

Sensor less Virtual Talking system for Differently ABLED

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

Talla Bhuvana Vaibhav Reddy | Vijaykumar Gooli , Stephen R , Yogeeswar Reddy P , Shivprakash.C

Abstract

How would pink color look like? It would look like how we hear Hamsalekha’s music. The word differently abled in the title is to respect the ability of the blind who could imagine that color could be felt from the music. This project is an attempt to a sensor less virtual talking machine for Deaf and Mute people. The image processing technique called skeletonizing is using for converting the sign language in to voice output. This project use camera with the PC with Matlab installed in it. Will these people take this everywhere? No, but they could surely take smart phones. This is a prototype to develop the concept of converting the sign language to speech. The Matlab program which would get the sign’s shown by bare hands from the camera and process to understand the sign with the help of the database that would be collected. The Matlab program after guessing the sign would send the wireless data transfer through the Zigbee transceiver. The ZIgbee transceiver in the receiving end would get instruction as what the Matlab program had understood. The received byte would be serially communicated to the microcontroller and the microcontroller would trigger a particular voice from the prerecorded database on the voice replaying board. This Project also extends itself by adding the nether part by having the speech recognition kit, which would be useful in giving the reply to the conversation. The speech recognition kit would get the input from the counterpart and the Serial communicated to get the sign as a reply.

Sequencing and Shuffling Technique for Graphical Passwords

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

Swetha. D | Swathi. H, Narendra Kumar

Abstract

Graphical authentication technology is to make the method usable and secure for the user. Pictures are easier to remembered or recognized than text, especially photos, which are even easier to be remembered than random pictures. The main security reason for graphical password is harder to guess or broken by brute force, and also if the numbers of images are more then, complexity and security provided for system is very efficient. Image based password authentication for industrial security system with touch screen interfacing provides an image based security system, which can be used in industrial applications. Major goal of this paper work is to reduce the guessing attacks as well as encouraging users to select more random password with multiple images.

Short Distance Communication through 2-D barcodes for Low Data Rate Applications

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

Jerin M James | Jacob Thomas, Valiaveettil Merin Abraham,

Abstract

The practical areas of short distance optical wireless barcode technology can be improved manifold by the introduction of a temporally varying barcode method which can transfer large data files of any format. This method uses camera in smartphones as an alternative data channel. The data is encoded as a sequence of 2-D barcode images, displayed on a flat panel display, acquired by the camera, and decoded in real time by the software embedded in device. The decoded data is written to a file. The main advantage of such a scheme is that it does not require specifically developed hardware unlike other short range wireless technologies such as Bluetooth and Wi-Fi. Technical challenges to its implementation include correction of perspective distortion, compensation for contrast variation, and efficient implementation of small footprint software on handheld mobile devices. In this paper, we have developed a new data format for more efficient file transfer.

Side Surface and Bottom Surface Inspection of Bottles Using Image Processing

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

Yamuna D S | K V Suresh, Sachin K J

Abstract

inspecting the empty glass bottles in food manufacturing or in beverage industries is very essential. The cracks in bottles may spoil the contents due to the creation of moisturizing effect inside the bottle. It is necessary to detect such cracks in the bottle. Manual inspection system detects these cracks, which will be inaccurate and time consuming. To overcome this problem many automatic crack detection algorithms are developed. This paper aims at developing empty bottle inspection system using image processing. The empty bottles are tested for defects automatically. The methods developed will detect the cracks on the side surface and bottom surface of the bottle. The image of the defected bottle acquired undergoes pre-processing such as gray scale conversion, noise removal and edge detection. This pre-processed image is analysed for the presence of cracks on the bottles. Adaptive thresholding followed by Raster scan method is used for the analysis of presence of cracks. Algorithms are developed using python which runs on Raspberry pi processor.

Sign Language Translator Using Electronic Glove Hand Talk

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 23rd June 2017

Shaunak Savio D’Silva | Pratik Premanand Raikar, Prof. Laxmikant Bordekar, Prof. Chaitali Haldankar, Chetan Sawal Desai, Tushar Purushottam Shetye

Abstract

In general, it has been observed that people with vocal disability who completely rely on sign language have difficulty in communicating with others who do not understand sign language. This project aims to lower this barrier in communication. The sign language translator makes use of a hand glove fastened with flex sensors along the length of each finger and on the wrist. Mute people can use this glove to perform hand gestures and it will be converted into text and speech so that normal people can understand. The glove will record all the gestures made by the user and then it will translate these gestures into visual form as well as audio form through a smartphone application via Bluetooth.

Signal Processing Techniques For Big Data

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

Preeti V. Joshi | C.D.Rawat

Abstract

Big data refers to collection of large and complex data sets which may be in structural, semi-structural, or unstructured format. The processing of such huge amount of data becomes difficult using traditional processing applications. The fundamental challenge is to deal with large volumes of data and extract useful information for future action. As a result, big data requires effective data analysis and processing techniques in order to achieve fast response. This paper explains signal processing techniques for big data.

Simulation and Analysis Of Advanced Transform Based Image Segmentation

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

Amrutha.R.S | Dr.K.M.Sadyojatha

Abstract

An important task in image processing is to segment the given image into more meaningful regions and to label the individual regions. Texture segmentation is used to mark out the boundary between different textures according to texture cues. Human is sensitive to three texture properties: repetition, directionality and complexity.Image segmentation can be classified into three categories: A) Supervised. – These methods require the interactivity in which the pixels belonging to the same intensity range pointed out manually and segmented. B) Automatic. – This is also known as unsupervised methods, where the algorithms need some priori information, so these methods are more complex, and C) Semi-automatic that is the combination of manual and automatic segmentation.

Smart Automation in Textile for Fault Detection & Salary Calculation

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th May 2017

Ms.Anuradha.A.Nirmal | Ms.Vijayalaxmi B.Patil , Ms.Amruta S.Digraje , Ms.Supriya S.Gondkar

Abstract

The explosion in the wireless technology has seen the emergence of many standards, especially in the industrial, scientific and medical (ISM) radio band. GSM is an IEEE 802.15.4 standard for data communications with business and consumer devices. GSM is targeted at applications that requires low data rate, long battery life, and secure networking. GSM has a defined rate of 250 kbits/s, best suited for periodic or intermittent data or a single signal transmission from a sensor or input device. The wireless home Automation systems is supposed to be implemented in existing home environments, without any changes in the infrastructure. The automation centers on recognition of voice commands and uses low-power GSM wireless communication modules along with microcontroller. This system is most suitable for the elderly and the disabled persons especially those who live alone and since recognize voice so it is secure. The home automation system is intended to control all lights and electrical appliances in a home or office using voice commands. So in this paperwork our aim is to designed Smart automation in textile for detection & salary calculation system, GSM based. This GSM Modem can accept any GSM network operator SIM card and act just like a mobile phone with its own unique phon