International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering:



ISSN:

2394-6849

Number of Papers:

1045

Journal Site:



Design Aspects of MAP Turbo Decoder for Wireless Communication Systems

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 2nd June 2017

E. Sujatha | Dr. C. Subhas,Dr. M. N. Giri Prasad

Abstract

Long Term Evolution-Advanced (LTE-A) targets the peak data rates in surplus of 3Gbps for present and next generation wireless communication systems. Turbo coding, the stated channel coding scheme in 3rd Generation Partnership Project (3GPP) LTE standard, is an advanced forward error correction (FEC) coding to achieve higher throughput of advanced Wireless Communication Systems. To support the peak throughputs, parallel turbo decoding procedure has become a necessity and the corresponding VLSI implementation is extremely challenging task to the design engineers. The higher throughput applications require higher parallelism of turbo decoder design; which results in increased hardware complexity, major source of power consumption and silicon area. This paper addresses the design and implementation aspects of different parallel turbo decoders, which meet peak data rates of 3GPP LTE and LTE-Advanced standards, where throughput, power consumption, silicon area and latency are the most decisive cost factors

"Cycle Time Reduction of Transmitting Output Power Measurement of URRF Radio"

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 22nd August 2017

Prof.Suhas A R | Pratiksha R Matlawar , Rashmi R

Abstract

Radio Station RRF(UG) is extensively used by the Indian Military for communication related purposes. In this radio, measurement of output power at different frequencies is one of the most important factors to be considered for the purpose of secured communications. In this paper, we develop a method based on automation to measure output power at different frequencies using LABVIEW software. This reduces the time required for output power measurement

2-8GHz, 1.6dB Integrated CMOS LNA Using Image network technique for 4G LTE application

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 30th August 2017

Sandeep Kumar | Chamindra Jayawickrama, Alaaddin Al-shidaifat, Ashish Kumar, Wonju Song, Hanjung Song

Abstract

The paper proposed 2-8GHz wide bandwidth CMOS low noise amplifier using image network technique for 4G LTE application. The proposed circuit are made by cascade stage of CMOS common gate-common source (CG-CS), input and output matching network. The novel image network technique in the proposed circuit investigates inverse impedance at the output and provides higher wideband and low noise figure. These two most important observed parameters overcome the problem of high speed data rate in the 4G LTE application. The proposed circuit is implemented and analyzed using RF simulator ADS. Chip fabrication and measurement is done by using TSMC 45nm commercial design Kit. The results achieved minimum noise figure of 1.6dB with highest gain of 18dB. Experimental and simulated results are made good agreement with each other.

A 12nm FinFET Level Shifter for near threshold circuits

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 26th July 2018

Radhika | Jayadeva T S

Abstract

Power has turned into the essential plan imperative for chip designers today. While Moore's law perpetuates to provide additional transistors, power related constraints have started to preclude those devices from being utilized. These days, low power designs, particularly multi-voltage designs turn into a well-known and proficient approach to reduce both dynamic power and static power consumption. A key parameter in designing of effective multiple supply circuits is limiting the cost of the level transformation between diverse voltage domains while keeping up the overall robustness of the design. To such a reason, level shifter (LS) circuits can be used. In order to achieve reduction in power consumption, a proposed level shifter topology has been used in this paper which uses a low contention between PMOS and NMOS transistor due to which dynamic energy consumption is reduces, speed is also increased due to the use of a feedback loop and also due to the near-threshold computing its energy efficiency is more. As 12nm technology node delivers better density and a performance boost over Global Foundries' current-generation 14nm FinFET, which satisfies the processing needs of the most demanding compute-intensive applications from artificial intelligence and virtual reality to high-end smart-phones and networking infrastructure, the proposed level shifter has been scaled down to 12nm technology node which is capable of converting near-threshold voltage signal to above threshold voltage signal(i.e. from 250mV to 500mV) with 284.1229nW of power dissipation

A 90NM Low Power Ota Using Adaptive Bias

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 22nd January 2018

Suman | Rekha S

Abstract

Low power class AB operational trans-conductance amplifier (OTA) which is fully differential operating at low voltage 0.4 V supply designed in low cost 90nm technology is proposed in this paper. Differential pairs such as P channel and N channel with complementary input configuration are used in input stage to achieve input common mode range (ICMR) which is full rail to rail. For increasing slew rate without sacrificing power consumption adaptive bias circuits are used hence amplifier works in class AB. The common mode feed forward circuit (CMFF) is employed for maximizing common mode rejection ratio (CMRR). To make system power efficient whole amplifier operates in weak inversion region. After designing layout of an op amp, Simulation with parasitic is carried out and shows that DC gain of 51.15 dB, 876.5 kHz unity gain bandwidth (UGB)with 77.7ļ phase margin for 10 pF capacitive load and slew rate of 0.1 V/?s; CMRR and PSRR are 116.9 and 97.30 dB respectively. The proposed OTA dissipates very less power of 4.78 ?W and shows ability to use in applications where less energy is mandatory.

A Compact Metamaterial Inspired Quad band Antenna for C-Band Applications

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 16th February 2018

Nandupriya P N | Sumi M

Abstract

This paper presents a compact microstrip patch antenna for the frequency bands 3.2, 4.5, 6.2 and 7.1 GHz. The resonant modes for WiMAX and C-band applications are achieved by using metamaterial inspired split ring structure and complementary split ring structure. The proposed antenna with a compact size of 27 mm √ó 25 mm is designed. The extraction procedure of negative permeability for the proposed metamaterial structure is discussed.

A Comparative Analysis of Eigen Palm, Fisher Palm and Combined Eigen Palm with Fisher Palm Based Palm Print Authentication

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 22nd January 2018

Vinodkumar | R. Srikantaswamy

Abstract

Personal recognition utilizing palm print, has become a most promising approach recommended by several researchers. Palm print, recognition algorithms are very essentially worthwhile in a wide variety of applications like crime investigation, security control, passport verification etc. This paper describes comparative analysis of palm print, recognition algorithms such as PCA, LDA and combined PCA with LDA. In PCA, the unique images of palm print, are mapped to a minor set of the feature space, which is termed as Eigen palms; they are training setís eigenvectors and they signify the palm printísí principal components pretty best. Formerly, the Eigen palm features will be acquired thru projecting a novel image of palm print, to the subspace which is being spanned by the Eigen palms. In LDA, Every single palm print, image is treated like a coordinate point in higher dimension space of image, which is called palm print, space. Fisherís linear discriminate is utilized to map palm print, image linearly from this palm print, space into a considerably lesser dimensional space of feature (Fisher palm space), in this space the palm printís image from the different palm will be discriminated considerably much more proficiently. In combined PCA with LDA: initially we map the palm print, image from image space to Eigen palm space via PCA, furthermore we make use of LDA to attain a classifier which is of linear. The elementary objective of combined LDA and is PCA to advance LDAís generalization capability. The obtained recognition result from combined PCA with LDA outperforms similar work in the literature including Eigen palms and Fisher palms matching algorithms individually.

A comparative study of artificial brains

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 17th August 2017

Agrata shukla | 

Abstract

The development of truly intelligent system are challenging tasks. The artificial brain projects aims to simulate the real human brain.Human brain have neurons about 1011 neurons with 10 15 interconnections.However,it is difficult to create 1011 artificial neurons with 10 15 interconnections .There are many artificial brains developed during past decades trying to achieve the goal. This papers gives a comparative study of some artificial brain projects.As technology develops ,the artificial brain projects progressed to achieve the goal .The development of blue brain project is the very well known. Henry Markon started blue brain project. It uses IBM ‚ÄúBlue Gene‚ÄĚ supercomputer to simulate the neural signal of rat brain. IBM computer scientist Dharmendra Modha started cognitive computing project aiming the construction of a ‚Äúbrain atlas‚ÄĚfor highly local cortical regions. Kwabena boahen[5] an stanford researcher started ‚ÄúNeurogrid project‚ÄĚ.The research goal is to ‚Äúunderstand how cognition arises from neuronal properties‚ÄĚ Eligene M.Izhikuch[6] the chairman and CEO of ‚ÄúBrain corporation ‚Äú started the ‚Äúlarge scale model of mammalian thalamo-cortical systems.This model based on experimental data from many mammalians species. Horwitz strated ‚ÄúBrain Image and modeling project‚ÄĚ that differ from previous model because they lack neuron-level processing. Master prince and Suliman Alsuhaibani[4] created adaptive artificial brain for humoid robot.This uses pattern recognization and machine learning. There are discussion of some projects with some future recommendations.

A comparative study of Excess Loop Delay Compensation Techniques in Continuous Time Delta- Sigma Modulators

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 23rd August 2017

Aditi Singh | Kumaravel S

Abstract

Continuous time ‚ąĎ‚ąÜ Convertor is an highly power efficient modulator which has overcome the pipeline and Discrete time modulator as they require more number of high speed gain stages.Morever it is has an aliasing free Nquist band which is made available by oversampling and an on chip filter is also present.The input is resistive with no sampling so it is easier to drive the entire modulator with miniscule noise and an on- chip clock conditioner is used.There are several drawbacks associated with CTDSM like clock jitter and excess loop delay.In this paper different techniques to reduce Excess Loop Delay(ELD) in a continuous time delta sigma modulator is analysed and presented.

A Comparative Study of Region-Based Segmentation Algorithms on Brain MRI Images

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 22nd January 2018

Kavyashree G | Sudheesh K V

Abstract

Image Segmentation is the one of the principle component of image processing. In medical image processing the segmentation play an important role for classification, image analysis, and extraction of brain tumour, Different image segmentation methods are used for examination of medical images but efficient segmentation methods lead to accurate diagnosis. In this paper, we review the different segmentation algorithm on MRI Brain Images has been presented in order to obtain the accurate algorithm. The segmentation algorithms has been divided into four categories K-means, Fuzzy c means, Special constrained Fuzzy-c-means and Expectation Maximization. Efficient algorithm is obtained by computing the evaluation criteria such as Martin Criteria, Probability rand index and Variation of information.

A Comparative Study on Ann and Hmm Based Automatic Speech Recognition Systems for Controlling Micro Air Vehicles

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 22nd January 2018

Pragathi G | Veena S, Roopa S

Abstract

Speech is one of the effective modes of communication and when made to be recognized by a computer, it can be used in many different areas of application. This paper makes a comparison between Hidden Markov Model Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) used in controlling of Micro Air Vehicle (MAV) based on speech-activated commands from Ground Control Station (GCS). Therefore, Automatic Speech Recognition (ASR) Systems are developed based on ANN and HMM separately and the recognition accuracies obtained in both the cases are validated against each other.

A Critical Review of Carbon Nanotube based MEMS Piezoresistive Pressure Sensor for Medical Application

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 22nd January 2018

Siddarud Bannikoppa | Ajayakumar C. Katageri,B.G.Sheeparmatti

Abstract

This paper discuss about the critical review on design of carbon nanotube based MEMS piezoresistive pressure sensors, use of different types of carbon nanotubes such as multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs), single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) and vertically aligned carbon nanotubes (VANTs), sensing mechanism, applications, etc. The structural deformation of the piezoresistive nano structure will result in change of resistance. CNT is a sophisticated material with interesting electrical, mechanical, physical properties that can be used for fabrication of micro pressure sensors on different substrates, which may serve as alternative for silicon based pressure sensors when bio-compatibility and low cost applications are required.

A DC Actuator based elevation mechanism for Patient Positioner System

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 22nd July 2017

Tarakeshava M K | A.R.Priyarenjini

Abstract

Hydraulics based motion control has been used from many years in healthcare imaging and scanning applications like PET, CT, MRI etc. Achieving positional accuracy and repeatability is very crucial in medical imaging systems to get good scan reports. For scanner table elevation mechanism, a digital processor controlled hydraulic based methodology is used in existing systems. However hydraulic based design has its own disadvantages. So, this paper presents a new method of elevation mechanism for patient positioning system, which uses electrical DC actuator instead of hydraulics. Also, describes the use of optical encoders for table position tracking and PID controllers to control DC motor speed control

A Detailed Survey on Big Data Application in Global Banking Data Management & Decision Making

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 28th December 2017

Dhanya G S | Hemsai L, Sachin Kumar, Imthiyaz Ali, Yuvaraj Patil

Abstract

This presentation mainly focuses on Information security. Information security deals with the privacy and security concerns of the data. Are all our data safe and secure with us? How can our data be secured from data phishing and hacking? How is the data misused? Everyday at least 10 millions of the records are getting swiped. Here we see how to protect the data.

A Discriminative Robust Local Binary Patter for Object Recognition

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 22nd January 2018

Chithra M G | 

Abstract

Object recognition is very important process in computer vision. Texture and edge information is mainly used for object recognition. Local Binary Pattern (LBP) and Local Ternary Pattern (LTP) are mainly used for object recognition. But these two techniques suffer from noise and intra-class variations due to small pixel fluctuations. To solve this problem a new algorithm called Robust Local Binary Pattern (RLBP) and Discriminative Robust Local Binary Pattern (DRLBP) are used for object recognition. Comparative analysis is done between RLBP and DRLBP using Caltech 101 dataset.

A Fault-Tolerant Memory System for Nano-Memory Applications

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 9th March 2018

Pradeep Kalakoti | Kalakoti. Kalyan

Abstract

Due to the increase in the soft error rate in logic circuits, the encoder and decoder circuitry around the memory blocks have become susceptible to soft errors as well and must also be protected. We introduce a new approach to design fault-secure encoder and decoder circuitry for memory designs. Hamming codes are often used in today’s memory systems to correct a single error and detect double errors in any memory word. In these memory architectures, only errors in the memory words are tolerated and there is no preparation to tolerate errors in the supporting logic (i.e. encoder and corrector). However combinational logic has already started showing susceptibility to soft errors, and therefore the encoder and decoder (corrector) units will no longer be immune from the transient faults. Therefore, protecting the memory system support logic implementation is more important. Here we proposed a fault tolerant memory system that tolerates multiple errors in each memory word as well as multiple errors in the encoder and corrector units. We illustrate using Euclidean Geometry codes and Projective Geometry codes to design the fault-tolerant memory system, due to their well-suited characteristics for this application.

A Fully-Integrated Low -Power Fast-Transient Capacitor-Free Low Dropout Regulator

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 22nd January 2018

Mohsina Begum | Rekha S

Abstract

A completely subsidiary LDO with fast transient examination and psr of full range PSR is made to give free of tainting supply for building pieces which are touchy to clamor in extensive band prattle correspondence frameworks Ldo has high recurrence for proposed plan glitches are diminished constricted on the other hand the execution of the framework change happens A triangle circle LDO is produced and checked at 65nm zone when contrasted with other present completely associated incorporated outlines here overwhelming post is taken as yield shaft and higher recurrence is designated to inner posts with aggregate Iq calm current of 50 For Vin Vout of 1 23v and 1 V separately the 43 mV undershoot and 81 9 mV overshoot is acquired for 0 to 9 99 mA of burden transient at 200 ps edge times 1 16 ns of transient reaction is gotten and FOM is almost 5 73 ps The PSR is computed for entire range is superior to anything 20db stacked capacitors on chip of 40pf is incorporated for model estimation

A Helping Hand for Differentially Abled patients

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 22nd January 2018

Akshata Acharya | Laxmikant Bordekar, Vrushali Kelkar

Abstract

In this world there are many people who cannot speak and hear properly. These people have difficulty in communicating with people who do not understand sign language. In general, deaf people have difficulty in communicating with others who do not understand sign language. Even those who do speak aloud typically have a deaf voice of which they are selfconscious and that can make them reticent. In developing countries, children with hearing loss and deafness rarely receive any schooling. Adults with hearing loss also have a much higher unemployment rate. Among those who are employed, a higher percentage of people with hearing loss are in the lower grades of employment compared to the general workforce. This paper aims to lower the barrier in communication by enabling the mute communities to communicate with general public more efficiently by translating sign language into text using an electronic glove. The Electronic Glove is made up of normal cloth fitted with flex sensors along the length of each finger and on the wrist. Mute people can use the glove to perform hand gesture and it will be conver ted into text and displayed on the LCD display, for easy understanding by normal people.

A High Gain Low Power CMOS Operational Amplifier

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 22nd January 2018

K.Poshana | K.Lokesh Krishna , K. Veda Samhitha

Abstract

This paper presents the design and simulation of a high gain low power complementary metal oxide semiconductor operational amplifier in 90nm technology. The aspect ratios of all the transistors were designed. High gain allows the operational amplifier (op-amp) circuit to function efficiently in a closed loop feedback system, whereas wide bandwidth makes the circuit to operate for high speed applications. The proposed op-amp design consists of two stages and operates at 1.2V power supply. It is aimed to meet a set of standard specifications. The entire op-amp design is evaluated using Cadence software tools, while the layout has been developed using Virtuoso. The op-amp circuit is able to achieve 38 dB gain, a 4V output swing, a 12.7 V/Ķsecond slew rate and a CMRR of 61 dB with a power supply voltage of 1.2 V.

A High Speed Performance and Low Power Consumption Design For VLSI Logic Circuits Using Multi-Threshold Voltage CMOS Technology

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 22nd January 2018

Nisha S Police Patil | Swetha B

Abstract

Due to voltage scaling in CMOS logic circuits, there will be a reduction in threshold voltage which leads to increase in the sub threshold leakage current and hence static power dissipation. Although power consumption is important for modern VLSI design, the main requirements of the VLSI design are, operating speed and occupied area. Multithreshold voltage CMOS (MTCMOS) technology is a good solution providing high speed performance and low power design without area overhead. MTCMOS technology provides the transistors that have low, high and normal threshold voltage. The low threshold voltage transistors are used to reduce the propagation delay in critical (longest) path, the high-threshold voltage transistors are used to reduce the power consumption in shortest path. This paper describes a high-speed performance and low-power consumption design for full adder (using 2 half-adder), 4-bit ripple carry adder, 4x4 multiplier and 16-bit carry look-ahead adder circuits with MTCMOS technology using 45nm technology

A Hybrid Protocol for Vehicular Communication in VANET Using Location Aided Routing and Base Line Multicasting

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 22nd January 2018

AnujVerma | ShiviSharma

Abstract

The design a novel location aided routing protocol with the concept of baseline and distance minimization is presented in this paper. The protocol has been implemented successfully for a vehicular Adhoc network and Manhattan model is utilized. The vehicular movement used a new concept of communication using minimization of distance from base line. The base line was drawn from source to destination node. The discussed protocol seems to work quite well and seems to yield encouraging results. The packet delivery ratio was increased significantly and the average delay was reduced significantly.

A Hybrid Scheme of EDBTC Encoding and CHF BHF Extraction for Image Ret Rival Process

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 22nd January 2018

Vineetha Deepti | Pramila B

Abstract

This paper presents a new approach to derive the image feature descriptor from the Error-diffusion based block truncation coding (EDBTC) compressed data stream. In the encoding step, EDBTC compresses an image block into corresponding quantizers and bitmap image using vector quantizer(VQ). Two image features are proposed to index an image, namely, color co-occurrence feature (CCF) and bit pattern features (BPF), which are generated directly from the EDBTC encoded data streams without performing the decoding process. The CCF and BPF of an image are simply derived from the two EDBTC quantizers and bitmap, respectively, by involving the visual codebook. Experimental results show that the proposed method is superior to the block truncation coding image retrieval systems and the other earlier methods, and thus prove that the EDBTC scheme is not only suited for image compression, because of its simplicity, but also offers a simple and effective descriptor to index images in CBIR system. EDBTC method is extremely fast and the image quality achieved is comparable to the previous BTC method. This proposed system is implemented in MATLAB.

A Lab View Based Power Analysis of Solar Tracking System and Its Implementation in Real Time

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 25th July 2018

Poonam Soni | Aayuti Betude

Abstract

Sun is very important part of our life and hence Sun is become very abundant source of power. Even so, only a fraction of the entire energy is harnessed and that too not efficiently. The world population is increasing day by day and the demand for energy is increasing accordingly. Since oil and coal are getting depleted and it cannot be replenished, we opt for an alternative source of energy. Renewable energy is derived from natural processes that are replenished constantly. Renewable energies are inexhaustible and clean. The energy comes from natural resources such as sun, wind, tides, waves, and geothermal heat. Solar energy is quite simply the energy produced directly by the sun. This project aims at the development of a simple process to track the sun and attain maximum efficiency using Microcontroller and Lab VIEW for real time monitoring

A Low Power and Area Efficient Symmetric Stacking Counter

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 8th May 2018

Clince Babu | Manju Priya, E.Ramya

Abstract

A very high speed, power and area efficient counter is required in many applications viz. digital memories, ADCs, DACs, microcontroller circuits, frequency dividers, frequency synthesizer etc. Less area, high speed and low power consumption may be met by reducing the size of hardware. Hence, as the applications are increasing, demand for smaller size and longer life batteries increases. This project derives area, power and speed efficient structure counter based on a VLSI design. It uses multiplexer based full adder circuit, which group all of the ‚Äú1‚ÄĚ bits together. In the proposed structure, one XOR block in the conventional full adder is replaced by a multiplexer block so that the critical path delay is minimized. Proposed system is coded in Verilog and simulated using Xilinx 12.1.

A Method for Error Detection and Correction of Fault Secure OLS Decoder

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 22nd January 2018

Sahad B | Chithra M

Abstract

Reliability is one of the major issues of advanced electronic circuits. In recent years there are several error correction codes (ECC) developed to protect the memories and registers in electronic circuits. But the encoder and decoder circuit may also suffer errors, for these reasons concurrent error detection (CED) and correction technique for orthogonal Latin square (OLS) decoder is proposed. This technique is strongly fault secured for single stuck at faults. The most significant advantage is that it achieves 100 percentage fault coverage for the whole CED circuit. The CED and correction is applicable to both binary and non binary OLS codes also. The proposed method can be achieved by performing the checking in parallel with the majority voting, syndrome generator and error corrector and orthogonal generator in the case of the decoder. Synthesis can be done in Xilinx ISE design suite 13.2 and simulation can be done with ModelSim.

A MIMO Dual Band-Notched Monopole Antenna For UWB Applications

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 22nd January 2018

D.V.N.Koteswara Rao | M.Jahnavi, M.Ratna, K.Anjana Devi, N.L.Chaitanya

Abstract

A Compact monopole Multiple-Input-Multiple-Output(MIMO) dual band-notched Ultra Wide Band Antenna is proposed. This microstrip-fed antenna has a compact size of 22◊36◊1.6 mm3, consisting of two square radiating patches with a defected ground structure. The designed antenna operates over the frequency band between 2.6 to 11.6 GHz with dual band notched characteristics in between 2.6-3.8 GHz for WiMAX, 5.19-5.95 GHz for WLAN with mutual coupling obtained is less than - 15 dB through the entire UWB frequency range except at the notched frequency bands. The Envelope Correlation Coefficient(ECC) is almost less than 0.02 over the entire UWB frequency range except at notched frequency bands. The proposed antenna is simulated by using the CST Microwave studio. Details of the proposed antenna design and simulated results are presented.

A MIMO Dual Band-Notched Monopole Antenna For UWB Applications

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 22nd January 2018

D.V.N.Koteswara Rao | M.Jahnavi, M.Ratna, K.Anjana Devi, N.L.Chaitanya

Abstract

ACompact monopoleMultiple-Input-Multiple-Output(MIMO) dual band-notched Ultra Wide Band Antenna is proposed. This microstrip-fed antenna has a compact size of 22◊36◊1.6 mm3, consisting of two square radiating patcheswith a defected ground structure.The designed antenna operatesover the frequency band between 2.6 to 11.6 GHz with dual band notched characteristics in between 2.6-3.8 GHzfor WiMAX, 5.19-5.95 GHz for WLAN with mutual coupling obtained is less than -15 dB through the entire UWB frequency range except at the notched frequency bands. The proposed antenna is simulated by using the CST Microwave studio. Details of the proposed antenna design and simulated results are presented.

A MIMO Dual Band-Notched Monopole Antenna For UWB Applications

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 31st May 2017

D.V.N.Koteswara Rao | M.Jahnavi, M.Ratna, K.Anjana Devi, N.L.Chaitanya

Abstract

ACompact monopoleMultiple-Input-Multiple-Output(MIMO) dual band-notched Ultra Wide Band Antenna is proposed. This microstrip-fed antenna has a compact size of 22√ó36√ó1.6 mm3, consisting of two square radiating patcheswith a defected ground structure.The designed antenna operatesover the frequency band between 2.6 to 11.6 GHz with dual band notched characteristics in between 2.6-3.8 GHzfor WiMAX, 5.19-5.95 GHz for WLAN with mutual coupling obtained is less than -15 dB through the entire UWB frequency range except at the notched frequency bands. The proposed antenna is simulated by using the CST Microwave studio. Details of the proposed antenna design and simulated results are presented.

A New Approach for Mosaic Image Creation for Hiding Secret Image/video for Secure image Transmission

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 22nd January 2018

Shamna E.P | Sabna I

Abstract

Information security is becoming increasingly important in the modern networked age. Secure Image Transmission has the potential of being adopted for mass communication of sensitive data under the scrutiny of an adverse censoring authority. Images from various sources are often used and are transmitted through the internet for various purposes, such as confidential enterprise archives, document storage systems, medical imaging systems, and military image databases. These images may contain secret or confidential information since it should be protected from leakage during transmissions. A new type of computer art image called secret-fragment-visible mosaic image is proposed, which is created automatically by composing small fragments of a given image to become a target image in a mosaic form, achieving an effect of embedding the given image visibly but secretly in the resulting mosaic image. This effect of information hiding is useful for covert communication or secure keeping of secret images. receiver recover the secret image with a high precision. The root mean square error and peak signal to noise ratio are used as quality measures.

A new encryption methodology of aes algorithm using high speed s-box

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 5th August 2017

Sarala S Shirabadagi | Swetha Nadagoud

Abstract

Cryptography plays an important role in the security of data. Encryption ensures data integrity by protecting the data from being corrupted or modified.RSA and DSA are the most commonly used methods for the authentication. Encryption uses symmetric and asymmetric encryption algorithms such as Triple-DES and Blowfish for maintaining the confidential. The AES is widely used for encryption of audio/video data contents in real time. Due to the significance of the AES algorithm and the numerous real-time applications, the main concern of this paper is to present new efficient hardware implementations for this algorithm.AES uses four operations, namely SubBytes, ShiftRows , MixColumns and Key Additions transformations. SubBytes transformation is done through S-BOX. This paper describes full custom design of high speed S-BOX for AES encryption algorithm and its implementation in FPGA and ASIC. The proposed AES architecture has delayed improvement of approx. 1.6 ns along with area improvement of 287 FPGA slices when implemented in the Spartan-6 FPGA of Xilinx. The full custom design of the S-BOX has been done in 180 nm technology in Cadence using novel XOR gate which has high speed and low power consumption . The designed S-BOX chip consumes 22.6 őľW and has 8.2 ns delay after post layout simulation

A New Parallel VLSI Architecture for Real-time Electrical Capacitance Tomography

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 31st May 2017

G.Dillirani | A.Meghana

Abstract

This paper presents a fixed-point reconfigurable parallel VLSI hardware architecture for real-time Electrical Capacitance Tomography (ECT). It is modular and consists of a front-end module which performs precise capacitance measurements in a time multiplexed manner using Capacitance to Digital Converter (CDC) technique. Another FPGA module performs the inverse steps of the tomography algorithm. A dual port built-in memory banks store the sensitivity matrix, the actual value of the capacitances, and the actual image. A two dimensional (2D) core multi- processing elements (PE) engine intercommunicates with these memory banks via parallel buses. A Hardware-software codesign methodology was conducted using commercially available tools in order to concurrently tune the algorithms and hardware parameters. Hence, the hardware was designed down to the bit-level in order to reduce both the hardware cost and power consumption, while satisfying real-time constraint. Quantization errors were assessed against the image quality and bit-level simulations demonstrate the correctness of the design. Further simulations indicate that the proposed architecture achieves a speed-up of up to three orders of magnitude over the software version when the reconstruction algorithm runs on 2.53 GHZ-based Pentium processor or DSP Ti’s Delphino TMS320F32837 processor. More specifically, a throughput of 17.241 Kframes/sec for both the Linear-Back Projection (LBP) and modified Landweber algorithms and 8.475 Kframes/sec for the Landweber algorithm with 200 iterations could be achieved. This performance was achieved using an array of [2×2] × [2×2] processing units. This satisfies the real-time constraint of many industrial applications. To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this is the first embedded system which explores the intrinsic parallelism which is available in modern FPGA for ECT tomography

A Novel Ancient Document Image Binarization Technique

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 22nd January 2018

P.Gangadhara Reddy | Dr.T.Ramashri

Abstract

Due to many environmental factors, improper handling and the poor quality of the materials used in the creation of old document images cause them to suffer a high degree of degradation which includes faded ink, bleed-through, show-through, uneven illumination, variations in image contrast and deterioration of the cellulose structure. In proposed algorithm a robust phase-based binarization technique is used for the binarization and enhancement of historical documents and manuscripts. The main object of proposed method consists of preprocessing, main binarization, and post-processing. The preprocessing step mainly involves image denoising with phase preservation, followed by some morphological operations to denoise the image and detection of edge information by using canny edge detector. Then, the phase congruency features used for the main binarization step. The foreground of ancient documents can be modeled by phase congruency. After completing the three binarization steps on the input images using phase congruency features and a denoised image, the enhancement processes are applied. A median filter and a phase congruency feature are used to construct an object exclusion map image. This map is then used to remove unwanted lines and interfering patterns. while in the post processing step, specialized adaptive Gaussian and median filters are considered. One of the outputs of the binarization step, which shows high recall performance, is used in a proposed post processing method to improve the performance of other binarization methodologies.

A Novel Approach for Breast Cancer Detection

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 26th July 2018

Amrutesh R Gowda | Manohar B, Nischay G Gowda, P Naveen Kumar

Abstract

Cancer is one of the most dangerous life-threatening diseases. Out of all the different types of cancer, breast cancer is the most common which is mostly seen in women of age 30-60. According to breastcanceruk.org, every 1 in 8 women in the UK is affected by breast cancer. Even though a permanent antidote is yet to be found for breast cancer, it can be prevented with early detection. The certain clinical method is used for the identification of cancer. Our approach for detection of a cancer tumour is by using Image processing technique through MATLAB code for the detection of type of tumor and the situ of the tumour. In the code a mammogram image is taken as input, then we perform Otsu -thresholding method to separate the tumour part from the background. Then we apply the ANN to find the required parameters. Accuracy, Selectivity and Specificity can be obtained through the algorithm

A Novel Approach for Radar Image De-Noising Using Non Sub Sampled Contour Let Transform and Adaptive Threshold Algorithm

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 22nd January 2018

Kanike Vijay Kumar | M.V.Ramana Reddy , M. Jyothirmai

Abstract

Aiming at the problem of ground penetrating radar image de-noising, a new adaptive image de-noising algorithm based on non sub sampled Contour let transform is proposed. The algorithm firstly performs non sub sampled Contour let transform to the noise image, to obtain the coefficients of each directional sub band and each scale, then, according to the energy of the coefficient, the de-noising threshold value is adjusted adaptively. Simulation results show that, compared with the wavelet threshold de-noising algorithm, the proposed algorithm can effectively remove the Gauss white noise in the image, improve the peak signal to noise ratio (PNSR), while preserving the edge details of the image, it can improve the PSNR value and reduce the Gibbs phenomenon.

A Novel Approach for Speech File Detection

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 8th June 2018

Punnoose A K | 

Abstract

This paper discuss a novel approach to detect speech files using a frame classifier. The speech files tends to have the subphones, corresponding to a phone, recognized in sequence, while run through a frame classifier. Duration of subphone sequence corresponding to a phone also tends to differ in speech and noise. Distributions are used to capture the count statistics of recognized subphone sequence, along with the phone duration. A probabilistic framework is formulated to score a wave file for the presence of speech. Relevant speech and noise datasets are used to benchmark the approach.

A Novel Approach on MEMRISTOR and its Applications

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 22nd January 2018

Suganya J | Raja.G.V , Jeya Ramanan.S , Hariharan

Abstract

A MEMRISTOR is a passive device which has two terminals, operating based on the principle of MEMRIS TANCE. Memristance (M) which is derived from flux (?) variation with respect to charge (q). When an electric charge flow through a MEMRISTOR, it have capable of remembering past history of the device for a long time. This resultís gives MEMRISTOR acting like a non-volatile memory. MEMRISTOR basis concept was implemented in various areas like audio signal processing, image processing, logic imply, crossbar switch implementation, etc and HP MODEL MEMRISTOR, which is described briefly in this paper.

A Novel Approach to Wireless Power Transmission in Non-Radiative Field

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 22nd August 2017

Niranjan L | Charmila G, Bindhu V, Jyothi M, Meghana M

Abstract

This paper explores the possibility of providing wireless power transmission from the source to the load without using interconnection of wires. The most common form of wireless power transmission is carried out using induction, followed by electro dynamic induction. The next generation portable devices will receive power wirelessly. The first step in wireless power is providing power to a charging pad wirelessly. The market for this device would be businesses with large conference rooms. The device would allow users to plug their phones and computers into the conference room table without large power bricks and cords running everywhere. The pads can conveniently be placed under the table and inside the ceiling so there are no visible wires that could ruin the aesthetic feel of the room. The ease of installation and convenience of this device would make the marketability of this product quite large and if finished could be seen in thousands of conference rooms. If we increase the efficiency of coupling unit the it will increased the power slightly further, wireless power transmission could become a standard means for charging a mobile device.

A Novel Architecture for the Future Wireless Technology Ė Li-Fi

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 22nd January 2018

Ishwarya Rajeshwari | Kirthika.L, Prathiksha.K

Abstract

We are in the era of internet. We have brought the evolution of using air as a medium for data transfer which is called the Wi-Fi. Though it provides the better speed but with the large number of users the radio spectrum is congested. To address this problem we can go for alternate way of using light as a medium. Professor Harald Hass who teaches at the University of Edinburgh in UK brought the visible light communication into picture through the concept of ďdata through illuminationĒ and it was called ďLi-Fi Light FidelityĒ. Li-Fi is a new paradigm for short range wireless technology to provide unprecedented connectivity within a localized data-centric environment. In this the data transmission is achieved by varying the intensity of LED very faster than human eye can follow which is brought through Visible light communication (VLC). The development by the University of Edinburghís Li-Fi R&D Centre uses a solar panel to receive high speed Li-Fi transmitted data while also generating electrical power for the operation of the function. Using this technique, two functions namely energy harvesting as well as decoding of light signals into useful information can be performed.

A Novel DWT Based Techniques for Underwater Image Enhancement

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 23rd January 2018

Dr. S. Selva Nidhyananthan  | R.Sindhuja

Abstract

In Recent years, the underwater image processing area has received a great attention from researchers. In the oceanic environment, capturing a clear underwater image is having a crucial importance. Underwater images are usually degraded due to the effects of absorption and scattering. The quality of underwater images is affected by the color cast, poor visibility, foggy appearance and misty. In order to overcome those limitations, an underwater image enhancement technique built on a DWT method is proposed. The main aim of the proposed algorithm is to increase the quality of underwater images. In this paper, 100 different images are used to perform the comparison of the proposed technique with the previous techniques. Performance of the proposed method of DWT is evaluated using the Peak Signal-to-Noise Ratio (PSNR), Structural Similarity Index (SSIM) and Absolute Mean Brightness Error (AMBE). Performance measurement of the Wavelet techniques produces better enhancement results than previous techniques like Contrast Limited Adaptive Histogram Equalization (CLAHE).

A Novel Implementation of secure VLSI logic design

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 16th August 2017

Kusuma B T | A.R.Priyarenjini

Abstract

Crypto circuits can be attacked by third parties using differential power analysis (DPA), which uses power consumption dependence on data being processed to reveal critical information. To protect security devices against this issue, differential logic styles with (almost) constant power dissipation are widely used. However, to use such circuits effectively for secure applications it is necessary to eliminate any energy-secure flaw in security in the shape of memory effects that could leak information. This paper proposes a design methodology to improve pull-down logic configuration for secure differential gates by redistributing the charge stored in internal nodes and thus, removing memory effects that represent a significant threat to security. To evaluate the methodology, it was applied to the design of AND/NAND and XOR/XNOR gates in a 90 nm technology, adopting the Sense amplifier based logic (SABL) style for the pull-up network. Sbox 8 can be implemented using these circuits for the security purpose.

A Novel Low Cost RCD Snubber and Totem Pole Drive Circuit for PMDC Motor

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 22nd January 2018

Ajit Nivrutti Shinde | Uday Tanajirao Patil , Mr.Sandip Sarjerao Godhade

Abstract

Manufacturing plant in industries like chemical, pharmaceutical, plastic and textiles all need speed variation. And it could be flat belt application, flow management application or combining of liquids. There are different kinds of motors-AC, PMDC, Servo or steppers which are used according to the applications. Of these, PMDC motors have widely used .The PMDC motors are easy to control compare to other types of motors. The treadmill is a walker which is used for exercise. This is one application in which a PMDC motor plays an important role in its operation. The PMDC motors are used to operate these machines. In this paper, implementation of PIC 16F877A microcontroller to change the speed of PMDC motor fed by a MOSFET has been investigated .The MOSFET is driven by high frequency PWM signal .Controlling the PWM duty cycle is same as to control the motor terminal voltage, that changes directly the motor speed. Experimental results are obtained that shows the use of microcontroller for speed management and over current protection of a DC motor.

A Novel Method for Color Image Enhancement Applied to Bio-Medical images

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 22nd January 2018

K.Janaiah | R.S.K Vibhav, Prof.R.V.S. Satyanarayana

Abstract

Anovelapproach for biomedical colour image enhancement method is proposed in this paper by using mathematical analysis of dual tree complex wavelet transform. The doctor requires the enhanced medical images to give better diagnosis. Thecontrast of biomedical colour images can be improved by data directionality of dual tree complex wavelet transform. The reduction in noise can be done by using wavelet coefficient shrinkage. In this paper we reduced noise present in both enhancedand non-enhanced medical colour images. We have taken the tumour image and computed the PSNR and SSIM of both enhanced image and proposed method by applying Gaussian noise, Poisson noise and speckle noise.

A Novel Method of Digitization & Noise Elimination of Digital Signals Using Image Processing Concepts

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 22nd January 2018

M.R. Prasad | Pavithra G , Dr. T.C.Manjunath

Abstract

The primary purpose of this research work is to develop a speech recognition system, which will be capable of recognizing and interpreting an individualís voice. This will thus obviate the use of keyboards and other such input devices to output the data. The scope of this work is limited to the recognition of digits. Matlab, a versatile software tool is made use of for the processing of the signals. This processing involves filtering, shaping, correlating the speech signal which will enable the computer to interpret the commands given by the user. The signature of every spoken digit is unique from which we can derive the parameters which differ from digit to digit. These parameters serve as a concrete base for the implementation of a speaker independent voice recognition system. Using such parameters simultaneously and using probability concept the digits are sorted and arranged in the descending order of their probability. The digit with the highest probability is displayed.

A NOVEL QUANTUM DOT CELLULAR AUTOMATA BASED DESIGN FOR MULTIPLEXERS

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 22nd January 2018

Nandini Rao G | Dr.P.C Srikanth, Dr.Preeta Sharan

Abstract

Quantum-dot cellular automata (QCA) is a novel and potentially attractive technology in nanometer scale and a possible alternative for CMOS. QCA has large potential in terms of high space density and power dissipation with the development of the high speed computer with low power consumption. This paper provides efficient design and layouts of digital circuits based on QCA using QCADesigner tool. The novel design provides the superior performance factors with respect to area, latency, circuit stability and low power dissipation. In this paper we present a number of new results on 2:1 and 4:1 multiplexers and detailed simulation using QCAD designer tool is presented

A Novel Survey on Neural Network Based Cloud Computing Platform for Securing Data

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 22nd January 2018

Santosh | 

Abstract

Current technological advancement of internet or online platform made tremendous changes in the modern human society. Now a days situation has been created in such a way that whatever we want we would like to go for online, it may be shopping, marketing, banking, purchasing of goods, real estate, agricultural, collaborative learning through on line, pharmaceutical industries, medical field etc. When folks think of online activities there is always a feel of insecurity of their transaction, private data, mode of operation, etc. So there is indeed of vital solution which guarantees the security of operation, safety of private data, protectant environment for on line activities. Cloud computing gives the best online environment for various internet based activities. Here we discuss, analyze and understand the cloud computing environment for data security using Back propagation neural networks (BPN).

A Parallel Area Delay Efficient Interpolation Filter Architecture

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 22nd January 2018

Anusha Ajayan | Rafeekha M J

Abstract

Interpolators are widely used in digital signal processing to increase the sampling rate digitally. A multi-standard Software Defined Radio (SDR) system involves interpolation with different filter coefficients, filter length and up-sampling factors to meet the stringent frequency specification. An SDR receiver consumes huge amount of resource when these interpolators are implemented individually in a hardware circuit. A reconfigurable Finite Impulse Response (FIR) interpolation filter is suitable for a resource and power constrained multi-standard SDR receiver. Now-a-days interpolation filter architecture with a few multipliers or without any multipliers are available. Area complexity, irregular dataflow and low hardware utilization efficiency are the major disadvantages of these architectures. In this work, a new parallel multiplier based reconfigurable structure is derived for interpolation filter. Elimination of redundancy and producing multiple outputs without reconfiguration are the features of this architecture. To validate the design, code can be developed using VHDL in Xilinx ISE Design Suite 13.2 and to be simulated in ModelSim SE 6.3f. The Xilinx synthesized result shows that, this architecture has less area, delay and Area-Delay Product (ADP) compared to the other existing architectures.

A Proficient DLAU Design for FPGA Implementation

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 22nd June 2018

Vijayashree | 

Abstract

These days, the size of systems are increasingly large scale due to the practical applications, which poses significance importance in the field of neural networks. Deep neural networks(DNN)has been employed for image recognition since it can accomplish high exactness by copying conduct of optic nerve in living animal. In order to enhance the execution and additionally to keep up low power cost, in this paper, we design deep learning accelerator unit(DLAU), which is the scalable accelerator for largescale networks using field-programmable gate array(FPGA) as hardware prototype. In order to improve throughput, it utilizes the tile techniques and employs three pipelined processing units to explore the locality for deep learning applications

A Real Time Fruit Grading Technique Based on Machine Vision and Image Processing

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 22nd January 2018

Chandra Sekhar Nandi | Bipan Tudu, Chiranjib Koley

Abstract

In agricultural and food industry the proper grading of fruits is important to increase the profitability. In this paper, a scheme for real time mango (Mangifera Indica L.) grading technique according to their maturity level and quality attributes like size, shape, weight, surface defect has been proposed. The proposed scheme works on intelligent machine vision based techniques for grading of mangoes in four different categories, which are determined on the basis of market value. In this system video image is captured by a CCD camera placed on the top of a conveyer belt carrying mangoes, thereafter several image processing techniques are applied to collect features which are sensitive to the maturity level and quality level. For maturity prediction Support Vector Machine (SVM) based classifier has been employed and for estimation of quality from the quality attributes, Multi Attribute Decision Making (MADM) system have been adopted. Finally fuzzy incremental learning algorithm has been used for grading based on maturity and quality. The performance accuracy achieved using this proposed system for grading of mango fruit is nearly 90%. Moreover, the repeatability of the proposed system is found to be 100%.

A Realtime Telehealth System using Lpc2148

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 22nd August 2017

Nilay Tambat | Sowmya K B

Abstract

The world of automation is rapidly improving and growing. Along with it application of IoT is also increasing. Application of engineering and technology has proved its significance in the field of bio-engineering. Health monitoring systems have become the need and the hot areas of development in the society. Along with monitoring there is also a need to analyze the monitored data. In this paper a system to measure/monitor a two vital parameters of human body is developed. The monitored values are stored on cloud using a WiFi module and analysis on the data stored on the cloud is done using Tableau , An Android Application and an IoT platform ThingSpeak. If abnormal values are detected then immediately the values are sent to the doctor as well as the family members using GSM module. The data is continuously updated in the database. With the help of this system the doctor can monitor and analyze the parameters of the person remotely , the physical presence of the person is not required , which means wherever the person might be doctor will be able to advice and suggest the needed medication to the person.

A Reliable Congestion Control Framework for Wireless Sensor Networks

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 4th September 2017

P.Prittopaul | R.Vijayalakshmi

Abstract

Well designed congestion control techniques allow efficient transmission of significant volumes of data from a large number of nodes along one or more routes towards the data processing centers. Since the priority of generated traffic in network level is not uniform in WSNs, an architecture framework is proposed based on priority of generated traffics for service identification in network level in order to meet better service quality and efficiency. The proposed method is efficient in terms of end to end delay, throughput, power consumption and lifetime of network.

A Review Approach on Cardless ATM Access with Biometric Security Using IOT

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 31st May 2017

Mr.J.A Patel | Darade Bhavna, Ms.Baglane Ruchita ,Ms.Bodke Punam ,Ms.BodkeArchana

Abstract

This paper describes a method of implementing two way authentications. The first one is biometric thumb verification is done and in second is 4 digit pin verification. If it’s wrong then we find that the user is fake and LCD displays the THEFT message and also the buzzer is ON. If it is right then we find that the user is not fake and the LCD displays ENTER THE KEY message, in this case buzzer is OFF.

A Review Approach on Manual Fixture Automation Using PLC

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 31st May 2017

Mr. Patel Jagdish | Ms. Lawte Kanchan, Ms. Patil Isha, Ms. Raut Devyani

Abstract

a fixture is a mechanical setup that holds a job so that it will aid the industrial processes carried out on it with ease, in terms of accessibility and reach. The processes may include manipulation of a job like rotation, clamping, de-clamping and positioning. Fixtures can be handled manually to hold a job. But such manual process becomes tedious in complex processes which causes human fatigue as well as it is time consuming. Hence PLC (Programmable Logic controller) can be used to automate the industrial fixture, to reduce the complexity of the process. In our project we are trying to construct a PLC based control system to simulate the automation of an industrial fixture and analyzed it for safety and increase productivity which will be beneficial for manufacture industry.

A Review of Block based Image Compression Using Hybrid Techniques

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 31st May 2017

S.Narasimhulu | Dr.T.Ramashri

Abstract

This Paper gives review of different types of Images and the different techniques for Image Compression. Based on this Review we recommended general method for Image Compression. Image Compression is the technique of reducing the image size without degrading the quality of the image. Various types of images and different compression techniques are discussed here. Image Compression is the solution associated with transmission and storage of large amount of information for digital Image. SPIHT is computationally very fast and among the best image compression algorithms known today. According to statistic analysis of the output binary stream of SPIHT encoding, propose a simple and effective method combined with Huffman encode for further compression. In this paper the results from the SPHIT algorithm are compared with the existing methods for compression like discrete cosine transform (DCT) and discrete wavelet transform (DWT).

A Review of Fuel Adulteration Techniques

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 12th April 2018

Pranjali P. Dharurkar | 

Abstract

Air Pollution has become a global issue today for our country. Air Pollution causes mainly due to adulterated fuel due to which it causes tailpipe emission from the vehicles. Due to fuel contamination, the original properties are altered. Consumers are having the complaint that they don’t have the appropriate tool to verify the quality of fuel. All the existing systems are very raw and simple. The testing of petrol must be done with the appropriate tool. Fuel must be in pure form for the smooth working of vehicles and automobiles. The very Raw method is used for testing of petrol like filter paper test. In filter paper test, a drop of petrol is taken on filter paper and then if the color of paper remains same then it is pure otherwise it is impure. Some of the systems are introduced are tedious and time-consuming

A Review of Load Balancing in Network-Wide Intrusion Detection Systems

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 19th July 2017

Miss. Prachi N. Deshmukh | Dr. V. M. Thakare

Abstract

There are various stakeholders having similar goals as well as policies due to which modification to the present internet is restricted to incremental updates; implementation of every novel fundamentally extraordinary innovation is beside inconceivable. To deal with this issue, proposed the concept of network virtualization, here designed as a diversifying attribute without having restriction of any system. By permitting multiple heterogeneous system structures to live together on a shared physical substrate, network virtualization gives flexibility, promotes diversity, and promises security and increased manageability. It reduces the maximum computation load, provide better resilience under traffic variability, and offer improved detection coverage.

A Review of Modern Paradigms in Data Compression Techniques

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 22nd January 2018

Mr. Giridhar S. Sudi | Dr. Meghana Kulkarni , Mr. Vikrant K. Shende

Abstract

Data compression has been extensively applied to the motion-picture industry and consumer electronics especially in high-definition TVs, advanced multi-media systems, remote sensing systems via satellite, aircraft, radar, teleconferencing, email and social media, mobile phones, hand held PCs etc. Efficient compression of data would significantly decrease the overheads in both the communication and data storage. The efficiency of a data compression scheme is measured by the compression ratio, the resulting distortion after lossy compression, and the implementation complexity. This paper reviews the evolution of compression techniques over the years and the present day modern techniques being explored. Artificial Intelligence (AI) approaches appear to be very promising for intelligent information processing due to their massively paralleled computing structures. The main problems solved by Artificial Intelligence (AI) techniques such as Artificial Neural Networks, Fuzzy Logic systems and Genetic Algorithms include optimization, classification, prediction and pattern recognition. Due to the efficiency of AI paradigms in solving complex problems, researchers are applying these techniques to develop new intelligent data compression systems.

A Review of the Optical Character Recognition Methodology in Image Processing Techniques

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 22nd January 2018

Dr. T.C.Manjunath | Pavithra G , M.R. Prasad

Abstract

This review paper deals with a review of the optical character recognition using the Matlab software. OCR or optical character recognition is the process of converting scanned images of machine-printed or handwritten text (numerals, letters, and symbols) into a computer-processable format; also known as optical character recognition (OCR). A typical OCR system contains three logical components, viz., an image scanner, OCR software and hardware, and an output interface. OCR systems can largely be grouped into two categories: task-specific readers and general-purpose page readers. A task-specific reader handles only specific document types. Such as bank checks, letter mail, or credit-card slips. General-purpose page readers are designed to handle a broader range of documents such as business letters, technical writings, and newspapers. The relevant literature presented here will be of an extensive use to many of the readers who are pursuing a research in the design & development of optical character recognition systems

A Review of Ultrasound Image Segmentation

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 7th February 2018

Sreepriya P | 

Abstract

Image segmentation is one of the most critical tasks in automatic image analysis or facilitating the delineation of anatomical structures and other regions of interest. It can be defined as a process of partitioning an image into multiple segments, so as to change the representation of an image into something that is more meaningful and easier to analyze. Ultrasound images plays a crucial role because the acquisition of these images is non invasive, cheap and does not require ionizing radiations compared to other medical imaging techniques. Due to acoustic interferences and artifacts, the automatic segmentation of anatomical structures in ultrasound imagery becomes a real challenge. Thus, to enhance the capabilities of ultrasound as a qualitative tool in clinical medicine, here discusses the ultrasound image segmentation methods, focusing on techniques developed for clinical application. And also discuss the formation of ultrasound images and different methods of image segmentation. Last section explains the classification based on filters for reducing the speckle noises.

A Review of vehicle to vehicle communication using Li-Fi technology

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 20th January 2018

A.Karthikeyan | G.Abilesh Raja,B.Habibullah Khan,B.Jefferson

Abstract

Communication between vehicles, a small-scale mock-up using Light Fidelity (Li-Fi) technology, which still needs the more organized inquiry on its sustainability for communication between vehicles. Inter-vehicle communication is an effective method with productive results that we have used in order to communicate between two vehicles. Li-Fi technology is a wireless communication in which light is a source of transferring data by acting as a carrier signal. In Li-Fi technology, for communication between two vehicle data is transmitted using LED and at receiving end we use the photodetector to receive the data. In this technology there is no protocol used so it reduce the complexity. The aim of the paper is to design a module for communication between vehicles through voice transmission.

A Review on a Novel Approach for Image Segmentation Using Fast Gradient and Nontrivial Transformation

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 22nd January 2018

N.Lakshmi | K.R.Surendra, N.Pushpalatha

Abstract

A comparative analysis to fast multi label color image segmentation using Convex optimization techniques were studied. The presented model is in some ways related to the well-known MumfordĖShah model, but deviates in certain important aspects. The optimization problem has been designed with two goals in mind. It represent fundamental concepts of image segmentation, such as incorporation of weighted curve length and variation of intensity in the segmented regions, while allowing transformation into a convex concave saddle point problem that is computationally inexpensive. The nontrivial transformation of this model into a convexĖconcave saddle point problem, and the numerical treatment of the problem were studied. By applying an algorithm to various images it shows that the results are competitive in terms of quality at unprecedentedly low computation times. This algorithm allows high-quality segmentation of megapixel images in a few seconds and achieves interactive performance for low resolution images.

A Review on a Person Cross Domain Re Identification Based Adaptive Ranking Support Vector Machines (AdaRSVMs)

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 22nd January 2018

V .Hemanth Kumar | Y.Penchalaiah, Pushpalatha

Abstract

An adaptive ranking support vector machines (AdaRSVMs) method is used for re identification under target domain cameras without person labels. It addresses a new person re identification problem without label information of persons under non overlapping target cameras. Given the matched (positive) and unmatched (negative) image pairs from source domain cameras, as well as unmatched (negative) and unlabeled image pairs from target domain cameras, To overcome the problems introduced due to the absence of matched (positive) image pairs in the target domain, we relax the discriminative constraint to a necessary condition only relying on the positive mean in the target domain. To estimate the target positive mean, we make use of all the available data from source and target domains as well as constraints in person re identification. Inspired by adaptive learning methods, a new discriminative model with high confidence in target positive mean and low confidence in v target negative image pairs is developed by refining the distance model learnt from the source domain. Experimental results show that the proposed AdaRSVM outperforms existing supervised or unsupervised, learning or non-learning re identification methods without using label information in target cameras. Moreover, our method achieves better re identification performance than existing domain adaptation methods derived under equal conditional probability assumption.

A Review on Anti Spoofing For Face by Using Light Field Camera

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 22nd January 2018

T. Silpasree | N.DilipKumar, N.Pushpalatha

Abstract

The liability of face recognition systems in biometrics is a growing concern today, as still it remains vulnerable to various sophisticated attacks that undetermined the reliability of biometric systems. In this paper, we present a novel approach to accurately detect and mitigate the Spoofy attacks on the face by introducing light field camera (LFC), also known as plenoptic camera. Since the use of a LFC can record the direction of each incoming ray in addition to the intensity, it also exhibits an unique characteristic of rendering multiple depth (or focus) images in a single capture, also known as refocusing, which provides the high quality artefact face features. Introducing a novel idea of exploring the inherent characteristics of Light Field Camera to detect spoof attacks by estimating the variation of the focus between multiple depth images. To this extent, we first collect a new biometric face artefact database using LFC. We then generate the face artefacts samples by simulating three different kinds of spoof effects including photo print and electronic screen attacks. Extensive experiments carried out on the light field face artifact database have revealed the outstanding performance of the proposed anti spoofing scheme when benchmarked with various well established stateof-the-art schemes.

A Review on Atmospheric Effects on Free Space Optical Link

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 22nd January 2018

Shaik.Taj Mahaboob | A.Sree Madhuri

Abstract

Free space optics, an emerging technology which is going to revolutionize the high speed communication by providing data rates up to tens of Gbps is grabbing the attention of the researchers to employ it on an operational basis. Although the present day microwave frequency bands support a good quality communication, their speeds are low and they cannot accommodate more data in the available bandwidth as much as the free space optics can. Any communication system operating in free space is vulnerable to the atmospheric attenuation. So the atmospheric effects which degrade the performance of free space optical signal need to be studied in order to renew its standard potential even under bad climatic conditions. . In this paper we discuss some of the atmospheric effects which degrade the standard performances of a Free Space Optical Link at different geographical locations.

A Review on Dissemination Of Energy-Efficient Broadcast To Channel Randomness In Mobile Networks

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 22nd January 2018

V.Bindu Madhavi | N.Pushpalatha

Abstract

Efficient broadcast in mobile networks is a challenging task due to high dynamic topology and energy efficiency and channel randomness. Based on an in-depth analysis of the popular Susceptible Infectious Recovered (SIR) epidemic broadcast scheme. In this paper a a study on novel energy-efficient broadcast scheme was done through dissemination process. This is able to adapt to fast changing network topology and channel randomness. Dissemination in mobile ad-hoc networks (MANETs) has to propagate a way of sore carry forward. Analytical results are provided to characterize the proposed scheme, including the fraction of nodes that can receive the information and the delay of the information dissemination process.

A Review on Error Correction and Object Removal for Videos Based on Inpainting with Short-Term Windows

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 22nd January 2018

K. Ushasree | I. Suneetha , Jaganath Nayak , N. Pushpalatha

Abstract

Video inpainting is the process of repairing missing regions (holes) in videos. Most automatic techniques are computationally intensive and unable to repair large holes. To tackle these challenges, a computationally-efficient algorithm that separately inpaint foreground objects and background is proposed. Using Dynamic Programming, foreground objects are holistically inpainted with object templates that minimize a sliding-window dissimilarity cost function. Static background are inpainted by adaptive background replacement and image inpainting.In this propose a new video inpainting method which applies to both static or free-moving camera videos. The method can be used for object removal, error concealment, and background reconstruction applications. To limit the computational time, a frame is inpainted by considering a small number of neighboring pictures which are grouped into a group of pictures (GoP). This drastically reduces the algorithm complexity and makes the approach well suited for near real-time video editing applications as well as for loss concealment applications. Experiments with several challenging video sequences show that the proposed method provides visually pleasing results for object removal, error concealment, and background reconstruction context.

A Review on Error Correction and Object Removal for Videos Based on Inpainting with Short-Term Windows

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 22nd January 2018

K. Ushasree | I. Suneetha , N. Pushpalatha

Abstract

Video inpainting is the process of repairing missing regions (holes) in videos. Most automatic techniques are computationally intensive and unable to repair large holes. To tackle these challenges, a computationally-efficient algorithm that separately inpaint foreground objects and background is proposed. Using Dynamic Programming, foreground objects are holistically inpainted with object templates that minimize a sliding-window dissimilarity cost function. Static background are inpainted by adaptive background replacement and image inpainting.In this propose a new video inpainting method which applies to both static or free-moving camera videos. The method can be used for object removal, error concealment, and background reconstruction applications. To limit the computational time, a frame is inpainted by considering a small number of neighboring pictures which are grouped into a group of pictures (GoP). This drastically reduces the algorithm complexity and makes the approach well suited for near real-time video editing applications as well as for loss concealment applications. Experiments with several challenging video sequences show that the proposed method provides visually pleasing results for object removal, error concealment, and background reconstruction context.

A Review on IOT Based Smart Home

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 22nd January 2018

Prof.Kavita S. Patil  | Priyanka Tile , Prajakta Somvanshi

Abstract

A number of internet users is increasing day by day. Now days there are many ways to communicate but most of the communication is done through the internet. With increase in digital devices in home there is needed to access and control the appliances from remote locations. IOT is one of the fast rising internet technologies which provides communication between the things without human interface and allows the user to access devices from remote location.

A Review on Load Positioning Application of Shape Memory Alloy

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 9th June 2017

Namitha S N | Praveen Kumar Konda,Ashwin Kumar, Sachin C N Shetty

Abstract

Shape Memory Alloy (SMA) is a special material, which have the ability to return to its original shape when it is heated. SMA is different from other materials due to its two unique properties- Shape Memory Effect (SME) and Superelasticity. When there is a limitation of shape recovery, these alloys promote high restitution forces. Because of these properties, there is a great technological interest in the use of SMA for different applications[6]. This paper focuses on the brief review on applications of SMA in different fields. They have applications in aircraft and spacecraft, civil structures, robotics, automotive, telecommunication, piping, medicine, optometry etc.

A Review on Software-Defined Wireless Sensor Networks (SDWSN) and its Challenges

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th June 2018

Tanuja Zende | 

Abstract

Software Defined Networking brings about innovation, configuration in network computing and simplicity in network management. SDN technology is an enormous approach to cloud computing which facilitates network management and enables efficient network configuration programmatically that improves network performance and monitoring. WSN consist of nodes that interact with the environment to achieve the sensing task thereby sensing the physical parameters such as temperature, pressure, volume etc and also help control them. These nodes can perform computation, sensing, actuation and wireless communication functions, particularly with the advent of Internet of Things (IoT)that is essential for monitoring several objects in applications such as smart cities, smart water networks, smart health care, smart power grids, smart farming and intelligent transport systems etc WSNs are continuously becoming important .Traditional networks often lack flexibility that brings into effect instant changes because of the rigidity of the network. It also depicts over dependency on proprietary services. SDN separates the control plane and the data plane, therefore moving the control logic to a central controller from the node. WSN is a very good platform for Low-Rate Wireless Personal Area Networks (LR-WPAN) with minimum resources and short communication ranges. Although the scale of WSN expands it faces many challenges, namely heterogeneous-node networks and network management. The approach of SDN seeks to alleviate most of the challenges and hence foster sustainability and efficiency in WSNs. The combination of SDN and WSN gives rise to a new prototype named as Software Defined Wireless Sensor Networks (SDWSN). The SDWSN model is therefore envisioned to play a vital role in the IoT paradigm. This paper presents a review of the SDWSN literature. Also it takes care of the challenges facing this paradigm

A Review on Spatial Pattern Methods for BrainComputer Interface

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 22nd January 2018

B. Bijitha | Nandakumar P

Abstract

Brain-computer interface technology is the one in which the userís mental intentions are captured and used as control signals for external devices. BCI researches are becoming more popular as it can be used as a means of communication for people with severe disability. The efficiency of a BCI system depends on its signal processing stages. The signal processing stages include the signal acquisition, feature extraction and classification. In this paper, a brief review of one of the feature extraction methods called spatial pattern algorithms for BCI is provided.

A Review on Spectrum Efficient OFDM Based on Structured Compressed Sensing

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 22nd January 2018

Sreelakshmi V | Nandakumar P

Abstract

Spectrum efficiency is becoming increasingly important for wireless communication systems in order to avoid the congestion of users for the spectrum. OFDM has already been extensively adopted by numerous wireless communication systems like DVB-T, WiMAX, LTE, WiFi, etc, and it is also widely recognized as a prominent modulation technique for future wireless communication systems. Thus, developing spectrum efficient OFDM scheme is essential to achieve high transmission efficiency. Time domain synchronous OFDM (TDS-OFDM) has a higher spectrum efficiency than standard cyclic prefix OFDM (CP-OFDM) by replacing the unknown CP with a known pseudorandom noise (PN) sequence. Currently, TDS-OFDM can support constellations up to 64QAM, but cannot support higher-order constellations like 256QAM due to the residual mutual interferences between the pseudorandom noise (PN) guard interval and the OFDM data block. To solve this problem, break the iterative interference cancellation and propose a new idea of using multiple inter-block-interference (IBI)-free regions of very small size to realize simultaneous multi-channel reconstruction under the framework of structured compressive sensing.

A Review on Spectrum Sliced Elastic Optical Path Networks

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 22nd January 2018

Triveni C L | P C Srikanth , T Srinivas

Abstract

Recent developments in the area of technologies, data center networks, cloud computing and social networks have caused the growth of a wide range of network applications. The data rate of these applications also varies from a few megabits/second (Mbps) to several gigabits/second (Gbps) for that reason increasing the burden on the internet. Best solution for this is to utilize the advancement in optical networks. In WDM network bandwidth up to 100Gbps can be utilized from the optical fiber in an energy efficient manner but its not efficient when traffic demands vary frequently. Spectrum sliced elastic optical path networks (SLICE) has been proposed as a long term solution to handle the ever increasing data traffic and the diverse demand range. SLICEs provide abundant bandwidth by enabling sub-wavelength, super-wavelength and multiple-rate data traffic accommodation in highly spectrum efficient manner.

A Review Paper on Guidance Navigation and Obstacle Avoidance for Wheeled Mobile Robot Using Lab VIEW

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 16th April 2018

Priyanka Bhanudas Aghadate | Aarti Wadhekar

Abstract

This project represents the system to navigate the vehicle with an ultrasonic sensor and National Instrument myRIO real-time controller. The previously developed navigation system was developed using MATLAB based model running on a minicomputer that interface with encoders and motors through specialty control board. This embedded hardware device use for real-time implementation performing the task like detecting obstacle distance using the sensor. LabVIEW is graphical programming code was specially developed to control motor with PWM signal based on sensor feedback and to calculate algorithms perfectly. It has a wide range of applications areas which comprises Agricultural monitoring, Military applications. Based on this the LabVIEW and the myRIO solution is found to be user-friendly and very effective for the purpose of real-time implementation of GNC algorithm. This project also develops efficiency in navigation

A Review: IOT Smart Vehicle

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 22nd January 2018

Thoshif Khan | Aakash Luckshetty , Md.Tauseef

Abstract

The Internet of Things (IOT) is the system of physical objectsógadgets, vehicles, structures and different things inserted with hardware, programming, sensors, and system availability that empowers these items to gather and trade data. The IOT permits objects to be detected and controlled remotely crosswise over existing system infrastructure making open doors for more straightforward combination of the physical world into PC based frameworks, and bringing about enhanced proficiency, exactness and financial advantage. Smart vehicle is one of the applications of IOT which is generally used for the comfort, safety, security and privacy of the drivers. From the past decades, there has been reported several cases which are related to vehicle theft due to this vehicle security has been burning topic all over the world to overcome the challenges related to the vehicle security, We provide a complete survey in ďIOT smart vehicleĒ. This paper also describes vehicle detection tracking and monitoring using IOT application.

A Robust Fusion of DWT and PCA for Video Watermarking using Optimization Technique

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 31st May 2017

Anjaneyulu Sake | Ramashri Tirumala

Abstract

Watermarking is a component of inserting data into the multimedia, for example, image, audio or video. This paper propose for Fusion based video watermarking using hybrid technique to protect the copy right of images. In order to improve the efficiency of video watermarking two main processes are used namely watermark embedding process and watermark extraction process. Before embedding process the input video sequence convert into number of frames. Here Principal Component Analysisand Discrete Wavelet Transform is applied in watermark image. The swam optimization algorithm is proposed for generating random frame selection for the embedding process. The result obtain from the watermark embedding process is the watermark video sequence. Next watermark extraction process is carried out. It is the reverse process of watermark embedding. In watermark extraction process, it extracts the watermark image from the watermark video sequence. The experimental results show that this combine technique gives double security for the protection of video content and achieves good PSNR and NC.

A Simple Authentication Protocol for Secure Data Collection in Wireless Sensor Network

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 22nd January 2018

Triveni Mane | Raveendra.G

Abstract

For numerous applications large scale sensor network are used and data have been collected are used in process of making decision. Information that are from different origins over intervening nodes that collects information packets. A intervening malicious nodes may introduced by the attacker in the network and or disturbs present nodes. Therefore for making correct decision it is very difficult to providing high data trustworthiness. To find the trustworthiness of sensor data a key factor is represented by data provenance. In sensor network provenance management introduces various challenges like limited bandwidth and energy consumption, efficiency storage and secure transference. This paper prefers a light weight mechanism for securely sending of provenance for sensor input information. To encode provenance the suggested scheme depends on in-packet bloom filter. Here we used this efficient mechanism for verification of provenance and reconstruction of data at base station.

A Smart Robotic Vehicle To Survey The Ocean

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 21st August 2017

Nagarjun J | Dileep Kumar N, Bharath R, Mohan Kumar P, Mrs Sahana Salagare

Abstract

Ocean exploration plays a vital role in global climate control and understanding environmental change and helps in research areas for the purpose of oceanographic data collection, pollution monitoring, offshore exploration, disaster prevention like Tsunami and earthquakes. Today’s Existing systems are a data buoy which provides weather forecasting, Survey ships which are huge and heavier and satellites which are cost inefficient. To overcome existing system drawback and to provide multifunctioning, we are implementing smart robotic vehicle which provides live video acquisition, exact location co-ordinates ofthe device to the user, metal detection, automatic and manual control ofthe device. In this paper, we are developing a smart Robotic vehicle which is cost effective, small in size, consumes less power and has various applications towards oceanographic research.

A Smart Sensor Interface for WSN in IoT Environment using FPGA

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 22nd January 2018

Sreedrisya S | Abhilash R V

Abstract

Measurement is an important subsystem of embedded system. Its main function is to collect the information from systems and feed to the processor for controlling the whole system. For collecting data, different types of sensors are used. Each sensor has to write complex and clumsy program code. Most of the control panels available in industries are wired panels and the machines are controlled and monitored by an operator in a room. It leads to the invention of sensor interface device controlled by wireless modules like zigbee, MiWi etc. Microcontrollers, one of the sensor interface device have some restrictions like connect number, sampling rate and signal types of sensors. To overcome these problems Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) is adapted as core controller. By using this, data can read in parallel and in real time with high speed from different sensors. MiWi module developed by Microchip is used here as wireless transceiver. But every wireless communication modules have limitations in the range. The concept of Internet of Things (IoT) is applied on the wireless sensor interface device. IoT is a concept of connecting and controlling devices through internet. Wide range of applications is available in IoT like industry, agriculture, environment protection etc. To maintain security in communication, data can send in encrypted form using suitable algorithm. A wireless sensor interface device designed using VHDL and is implemented in IoT environment using Java and C#.

A Step Towards Integrating Smart City Services - A review

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 28th December 2017

Chetan Solanki | Ninad Bhatt

Abstract

Internet of Things (IoT) is an advanced automation and analytics system which make full use of networking, sensing, big data and artificial intelligence technology to deliver complete systems for a product or service. IoT visualizes to connect billions of sensors to the Internet and expects to use them for efficient and effective resource management in Smart Cities. This paper presents an in-depth literature survey for making a city ‚Äúsmart‚ÄĚ. The purpose of this article is to summarize the present state of understanding the smart city concept and to present a proposed communication platform for the development of city services with the use of IoT concepts. Paper initially introduces the origin and the main issues of smart city concept and then presents the fundamentals of a smart city by analyzing its definition and application domains. Further, a data-centric view of smart city architectures is depicted. Thereafter, Smart City concept includes many aspects of city management like smart energy, smart water management, smart transportation and smart health. Such applications touch upon in this article. Finally, a zone-wise architecture of recent smart city research is presented. The proposed framework is based on a hierarchical model of data storage and defines how different stakeholders will be communicating and offering services to citizens. The architecture facilitates step by step implementation of the aforesaid services of smart city and their integration with the usage of central cloud.

A Study of Hybrid ANN-HMM Model for ASR

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 22nd January 2018

Ashish Shendre | Dr. Sanjay Nalbalwar

Abstract

ASR (Automatic Speech Recognition) is most important for human computer interaction. In spite of tremendous advance in the ASR technique it is still far-away from human level performance. HMM (Hidden Markov model) based ASR system has made advancement but faced lots of limitation in practical problems. ANN (Artificial Neural Network) was used to replace HMM but the attempt was not that successful when trying to model high level dependency. Then attempt was made to combine this two to get the better performance. ANN-HMM hybrid model was introduced to combine the benefit of both and to increase the overall performance of ASR system. Large number of different hybrid architecture has proposed in the literature. Objective of this review paper is to focus on ANN-HMM. Most of the part of the paper is focused on describing the architecture of HMM, Neural Networkand how to use ANN for improvement of speech recognition.

A Study on 802.11 Wireless Routers Hacking Techniques and Security Encryption Levels

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 22nd January 2018

Amith Raj | Sneha H.R, Bindu Bhargavi S.M, Rekha Jayaram

Abstract

A device that performs both the functions of routing and the functions of a wireless access point is called as a wireless router. It can also be used to provide access to the private computer network or Internet. A set of Media Access Control(MAC) and Physical Layer specifications for implementing wireless local area network (WLAN) computer communication is defined in IEEE 802.11. It supports different connection types like PPPOE, Static IP address, Dynamic IP address and Bridge as provided by the ISP. These devices can also be used as modems and WiFi Router protected with a password. There are various WLAN encryption techniques like WEP, WPA, WPA-2(PSK). But all of these encryptions are vulnerable and can be hacked using certain softwares and techniques. In this paper, a number of hacking techniques using softwares like Aircrack, WiFite are explained for research purpose. This paper also discusses about setting up a secure WiFi router using different encryption techniques with combination of security features of routers like Mac Address filtering and Firewalls to protect from hackers and attackers. The primary purpose of this research is to demonstrate a brief idea on ethical hacking and provide sufficient security for home and enterprise network.

A Study on Comparison of Various Image Encryption schemes based on Chaotic Maps

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 22nd January 2018

Rachit Jain | J.B.Sharma

Abstract

This paper shows the study on image encryption scheme using different Chaotic Maps. The main purpose is security management in transmission and storage. There are various image encryption techniques which have been continuously studied to fulfill the demand of real-time secure image transmission through wireless networks and over the Internet. Conventional image encryption methods like data encryption standard (DES), has the weakness of low-level efficiency and high redundancy when the image is large. The chaos-based image encryption technique provides an efficient way to deal with the difficult problems of high security, pseudorandom property, topological transivity and fast image encryption. The objective of this paper is to compare Logistic map, Baker map and Arnold cat map image encryption techniques by visually, statistically and noise analysis to get an efficient approach of image encryption.

A Study on Pressure Sensor Based On Photonic Crystal

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 22nd January 2018

Indira Bahaddur | Dr. P C Srikanth, Dr. Preeta Sharan

Abstract

Photonic crystal technology is used in many areas of detection and measurement of parametrs like pressure, temperature, displacement etc.MOEMS based micro-sized pressure sensor can be developed to detect even sub-micron range dimension change using the photonic crystal. The applied pressure on the object will change the dimension of the waveguide carved in the photonic crystal. As a result, this change in spacing can alter the propagation feature of electromagnetic waves that pass through them that is changing the transmission spectrum. So, this change can directly be mapped to pressure on the observed object. In this paper, the pressure sensor using photonic crystal has been modeled and analyzed.

A Study on SOFTWARE RECEIVER FOR GPS SIGNAL

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 9th March 2018

Madhu Dilip Potadar | Dr. P C Srikanth

Abstract

Today Navigation depends on the Satellite Navigation Systems which covers the entire globe there are so many Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS), United States has GPS, Russia has GLONASS, European has Galileo, China uses Bei-Dou navigation System, and India uses IRNSS. In this paper, we would like to discuss Universal receiver which supports different satellite Navigation system here signal from the satellite is RF signal convert to digital and further processing will be done in digital domain which permits the true software receiver for a navigation satellite system.

A Study on Various Satellite Image Resolution Enhancement Techniques

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 22nd January 2018

Aditi Sharma | Ajay Khunteta

Abstract

Due to the low frequency nature and as the result of interpolation on satellite images, they may appear as blurred image. To enhance the frequency of those images, Resolution techniques are used. This is used in a several number of applications such as laser and inkjet printing, medical imaging, remote sensing, with some vital objections such as distortions, blurring aliasing, ringing artifacts etc. Enhancing the resolution of an image includes increasing the number of pixels presents to show the details of an image as well as sharpness of the image. This paper studied about the basics of interpolation with some conventional satellite image enhancement techniques and analyses the performance of various image resolution enhancement techniques for satellite images. These techniques are compared on the basis of Root mean square error (RMSE), Mean square error (MSE) and Peak signal to noise ratio (PSNR) factors.

A Survey on Correlation Filter and its Applications

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 22nd January 2018

Neenu Jose | Nandakumar P

Abstract

Correlation filters will find applications in pattern recognition such as biometric recognition, object alignment, action recognition, object detection and tracking. The advanced correlation filters were introduced to offer distortion-tolerant object recognition. The recent major advance in correlation filter design is zero-aliasing correlation filters (ZACFs) that eliminate the aliasing in correlation filter design due to the circular correlation caused by the use of discrete Fourier transforms (DFTs).

A Survey on Efficient Load balancing and mobile data collection for dual data uploading using Clustering for network prolong in WSN

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 22nd January 2018

Tejashree S | Dr. P I Basarkod

Abstract

the wireless sensor network (WSN) can be connected for various application for example, industrial, military application health monitoring, habitat monitoring and so on. The WSN can be utilized for sensor hubs to gather the information at the regular intervals and Energy capacity is a vital perspective in wireless sensor networks. To defeat this issue the proficient method of clustering is utilized to accomplish more data transmission, long system lifetime, less tedious procedure, minimize energy utilization. In this paper, we examine at the load balancing and dual data uploading using clustering technique in wireless sensor networks. To avoid the overloading of any single source and to optimize the utilization of boosting the throughput, minimize the response time in the load balancing method.

A Survey on Emergency Navigation using Wireless sensor Networks

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 12th October 2017

P.Prittopaul | R.Vijayalakshmi

Abstract

Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) provide emergency navigation services, given their easy deployment and the ability of intelligent sensing and communication. They help people in escaping from a hazardous region safely and quickly when an emergency occurs. However guiding more and more people to the same exit, causes congestion which does not help in timely evacuation. Many a times, trapped people move back and forth during navigation, known as oscillation. Frequent oscillations lead to the people remaining in danger for a longer period of time, and decreases their chances of survival. The evacuation systems must provide shortest and safest navigation path with reduced congestion. In this paper, we give a survey of various emergency navigation schemes. The existing systems are evaluated in terms of parameters such as scalability, congestion avoidance, evacuation time, survival rate, communication cost, reaction to emergency dynamics and navigation efficiency with guaranteed safety.

A Survey On IOT Based Smart Home

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 22nd January 2018

Prof. Kavita S. Patil | Apurva R. Kokate , Shruti R. Wagh

Abstract

The main goal of this paper is to describe the systems which automatically control the devices through mobile. The various implemented systems are use in the house to control appliances like fan, light, and water pump by just turn ON or OFF the switch from mobile phone .

A Survey on Sequence Creation in Cognitive Networks

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 22nd January 2018

Bhargavi G | Vidyasagar K N , Bharathi SH

Abstract

Intelligent (Cognitive) radio networks have a large communication spectrum. This is dynamic in nature. This leads to the necessity for main central channel where two nodes can talk to each other and conclude on the parameters for information exchange between each other, for this they need to meet on a pre-decided channel to communicate, this channel where the decisions are made should be decided by making use of the full available spectrum. In order to reduce collisions and also to make use of the entire available spectrum, a protocol must be devised. ETCH (An efficient channel hopping based MAC layer protocol) is proposed for communication establishment between cognitive radio networks. Two other protocols, Synchronous-ETCH and asynchronousETCH, assuming the presence of global clock synchronization and one without the assumption of existence of a global clock respectively.

A Survey on Traffic Aware Routing For Less Delay and More Integrity of Data Services in WSN

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 22nd January 2018

Deepashree K N | Dr. Bharathi S. H

Abstract

Applications performing on the same Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) foundation more often than not has distinctive Quality of Service (QoS) necessities. Two fundamental interest are low linger and high information accuracy. Be that as it may, by and large, these two requests cannot be satisfied at the same moment. In this paper, taking into account the idea of potential in material science, we propose IDDR, a multi-way dynamic directing calculation, to tackle this issue. By developing a virtual half and half potential field, IDDR isolates bundles of utilizations with unique QoS requests as indicated by the weight relegated to every parcel, and courses them towards the sink through partitioned ways to improve the information loyalty for trustworthiness touchy applications and additionally diminish the end-to-end delay for postponement delicate ones. Recreation results exhibit that IDDR gives information respectability and postponement separated administrations.

A Survey on Various Image Compression Techniques

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 22nd January 2018

Mohammed Salim M.K. | Nandakumar P

Abstract

Image compression technique is widely used in multimedia applications such as image, video, audio data and medical field. Image compression aims to reduce the redundancy of an image data and reduce the storage space of an image. Different image compression techniques were proposed to achieve high compression ratios and high image qualities in low computation time. This document presents the review of various lossless and lossy compression techniques.

A Survey: Detection Techniques on Selfish & Multi-Selfish Attacks in Cognitive Radio Networks

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 22nd January 2018

Vanitha K.C | Dr. Bharathi S.H , Vidyasagar K.N

Abstract

Cognitive radio network is a rare communication technology which suggests the Unlicensed persons to use more amount of bandwidth existing in the spectrum which is not used by licensed persons. CRN identifies large number of available communication channels in spectrum very efficiently. The free spectrum of CRN is used by the users who are Unlicensed without harming the licensed users (PU) which are involved in communication. The main goal of CRN is to solve the problem of Spectrum Scarcity by making the unlicensed user to use the spectrum when it is free that means when the licensed user (PU) will not use the spectrum that time the unlicensed user can use it dynamically. Advantage of CR is to provide efficient data transmission without the breakup in the comminucation.CRN faces problems on selfish attacks which are carried out by the SU which sends fake information to the person near to SU as that to occupy all free channels available in spectrum. Selfish SU Nodes and Multi-selfish SU Nodes are degrading the performance by sending fake message to closer nodes of CRN. Here we suggested how to identify Selfish and Multi-selfish SU nodes by the two different algorithms based on survey.

A System for Picture Co-Segmentation Maximum Normal Subgraph Co-Ordinating

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 27th November 2017

Kasarla Mounika | Huma Afreen

Abstract

Co-segmentation is the issue of all the while partitioning numerous images into areas (sections) relating to various object classes. In this paper, the principle focus is to discover what is "normal" in an arrangement of pictures. So we utilized District Nearness Chart (Cloth), Standard Most extreme Normal Subgraph (MCS) Calculation also as Region Co-developing (RCG) strategies for effective finish objects.

A Travelogue of VAR System

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 22nd January 2018

Dhanya G S | Yamini P , Nithya N , Radha R Anusha Suresh

Abstract

This paper describes the design, development and testing of an AR system that was developed for aerospace and ground vehicles to meet stringent accuracy and robustness requirements. The system uses an optical see-through HMD, and thus requires extremely low latency, high tracking accuracy and precision alignment and calibration of all subsystems in order to avoid misregistration and ďswimĒ. The paper focuses on the optical/inertial hybrid tracking system and describes novel solutions to the challenges with the optics, algorithms, synchronization, and alignment with the vehicle and HMD systems. Tracker accuracy is presented with simulation results to predict the registration accuracy. A car test is used to create a through-the-eyepiece video demonstrating well-registered augmentations of the road and nearby structures while driving. Finally, a detailed covariance analysis of AR registration error is derived.

A Unified Metric for Opportunistic Routing in Wireless Mesh Networks

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 22nd January 2018

Harikishore S | Dr.V.Sumalatha, P.Jayarami Reddy

Abstract

In wireless mesh networks, the routing of packets from source to destination is crucial and challenging task. The wireless mesh networks find applications in disaster management, video on demand, intelligent, health care systems, etc. Various routing protocols exist in literature to improve the efficiency of the wireless mesh networks calculated in terms of reliability, cost, throughput, error rate, etc. The opportunistic routing proves to be more efficient protocol best suited for wireless mesh networks as it avoids duplicate transmission and improves performance of the network. The routing metrics are essential to evaluate the best possible path for packet delivery. This paper conveys the essence of the existing metrics used for analyzing the routing protocol considered for evaluation. Further we introduce a new opportunistic routing metric called Unified Expected Distance Progress with Successful Transmission Rate (UEDPSTR) which is compared with the characteristics of the network.

A Vehicle for Physically Challenged

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 22nd January 2018

Karthikeyan.K | Shrenik.V , Manikandan.G Pillai , Madhushankar Subramonia , Ramachandran.S

Abstract

The aim of this project is to make a vehicle especially for people who have lost their hands due to some accidents in some point of time in their lives but this vehicle can be upgraded for people who have lost their legs as well with some modifications in the initial design. The specialty about this vehicle is that the steering, acceleration as well as the braking system is designed to be operated using the legs of the driver. This project has been an attempt to change the lives of the above mentioned section of the society. Changes have been done in the steering of a vehicle. A customized fork bolt has been designed for front wheel. The fork bolt is of larger length than usual and over this accelerator and brake pedals are placed on each side of the extended fork bolt. The pedals are attached to a foot rest for the comfort of the driver. The comfort of the driver has been taken care of by providing a comfortable seat and other safety precautions which shall protect the driver from any accident, etc. Through this vehicle a purpose is given to the physically challenged as using this vehicle, they would be able to help in transportation and give their contribution for the development of the society in the larger scale.

A Vicinity Overhaul Protocol for Estimating the Dropped Packets in Wireless Sensor Platforms

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 22nd January 2018

Rajesha N | H L Viswanath

Abstract

Environment checking is utilized to distinguish crustal developments, approaching tidal waves, contamination (global warming), an Earth-wide temperature boost, and numerous different truths that are committed to influence human lives. Sensor networks for environment observing can comprise of segment and/or floor sensors, conceivably associated with berthed floats giving integration back to the region. When all is said in done, these sensors are extravagant. Sensor network architecture is a going fordependent point of comparision. Models/Algorithms that were proposed for remote sensor systems are appropriate for this inventive atmosphere, along with can't be connected it with no varies otherwise still a totally innovative invent. The main principle implementations of sensor networks are region upgrade as well as checking the encompassing environment.

A Wireless Machine Gun for Self-Defence

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th June 2018

M.H.Gholve | Suraj S. Ombale, Akshay V. Parthe, Ram P. Shahapure

Abstract

Now-a-days we use manual method on the borders of the country or during wars i.e. the soldiers continuously observe any of the terror movement on the actual line of control. These systems are not safe for the soldier’s life and there are ample of chances of mistakes and dangers. The Automatic Machine Gun is mainly designed to provide remote accessibility using wireless technology (RF Module) by using ATmega328P microcontroller which is control machine and robot for land soldiers in battle field.The aim of the proposed system is to build a system which will offer the world’s most complete line of remote armed delay/denial and unarmed reconnaissance platforms. It is designed to keep enemy out of the line of control. This system can be very useful in ground level combat and save most worthy human life

Abandoned Object Detection Based on Statistics for Labeled Regions

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 16th August 2017

Miss.Snehal B. Dahivelkar | Prof. S. B. Borse

Abstract

Many public or open areas are facilitated with cameras at multiple angles to monitor the security of that area for keeping citizens safe. This is known as the surveillance system. Terrorism & global security are one of the major issues worlds facing now days. Abandoned object detection is an essential requirement in many video surveillance contexts. terrorist attacks involving some suspicious bags, box, or any other thing which are left unattended at railway stations, shopping malls, airports or any other public venue, with the rising concern about the security in public places abandoned object detection become very useful system to detect and recognize the suspicious activities that might dangerous to public safety. The most challenging task in video surveillance system is to detect such kind of suspicious bags. So, for that purpose it is necessary to have an efficient threat detection system which can detect & recognize strongly dangerous situations. Many methods were employed for detection of unattended objects but in this paper our focus is on the detection of abandoned objects in video surveillance system. The goal of this project is to design and implement a system which will be able to detect abandoned luggage using the captured videos from the camera as the input of the system. The system realizes image segmentation and image tracking, creates blobs of Objects, labels the blobs based on the shape and size of binary blobs and accordingly the status of baggage is defined in order to take appropriate action. The complexity of the problem arises from obstructions present in scene, lightening conditions & shadows. Our system is able to successfully overcome these difficulties to obtain impressive results.

Acceleration Control with Latitude and Longitude & Toll pay Transactions on Mass and RFID Method

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 22nd January 2018

G.Pavan Kumar | N.Dilip Kumar

Abstract

Now- a- days the usage of vehicles are increasing day by day in human life. Every home is having at least one or two vehicles, as the traffic has been increasing in the present world, due to increase in number of vehicles there is a probability of more number of accidents. We are having a more number of technologies to reduce the number of accidents. The method involves in this paper have more intelligent and interactive methods for avoiding the accidents. The proposed system is not involved in framing the protocol to avoid accidents, but, involved to implement a system to control the speed of the vehicles. This method provides an alternating system using a GPS technology (using latitude and longitude) that controls vehicle speed. Most of the tolls collect the pay using the type of vehicle, due to this an empty passenger vehicle has to pay the same amount as a full occupancy vehicle. To avoid this type of variation in payees a different method used, so as to get benefited by the owner of the vehicle, hence the proposed system deals with toll pay based on the mass using Load cell technology and RFID.

Active And Reactive Power Control Of 3 Phases DFIG By Using Vector Control

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 22nd January 2018

Abhishek Lokhande | Sagar Kekade , Vaibhav Thakare , Mayur Deshmukh , Prof. J. D. Patil

Abstract

This paper presents vector control of grid-connected wind turbines; also the second goal of this research is to survey the vector control for wind turbines with doubly-fed induction generators (DFIGs) when a short circuit faults in grid happens. In fact in this paper, vector control of stator-flu x is applied for stator- and rotor-side converters in order to control of active and reactive powers simultaneously, and to keep the DC-link voltage constant. Also the method performances are tested in different cases.

Adaptive Cruise Control

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 22nd January 2018

Aditya Badave | Vivek Gondil, Devank Joshi

Abstract

Adaptive Cruise Control (ACC) is Assistive Control System used in a vehicle, to explain the concept of Adaptive Cruise Control; we designed a prototype which is based on microcontroller. This helps to understand the working of Adaptive Cruise Control. This paper gives brief information about Adaptive Cruise Control and how it works.

Adaptive Human Machine Interface Approach for Face Recognition

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 31st May 2017

Mr. L. Guru Kumar | Dr. G. Harinatha Reddy

Abstract

Feature extraction is one of the challenging issues in face recognition and matching process. Here we proposea novel method for dense featureextraction in face recognition.This methodology consists of two steps. In first step, encoding scheme is defined that shifts high dimensional data into compact representation by maximizing intra user correlation. In second step an adaptive feature matching is done for image classification which works for images with different scaling limits. This methodology is implemented on local facial database. We introduce a novel human-machine interface based on movements of head pose. This human machine interface works by detecting facial features from live cam and then tracking face features.Movement and actions of cursor are performed by using facial feature tracking. We prove that our methodology yields better results compared to state-of-art criteria, our method performs better at noisy condition, illumination changes, complex background and at different head poses.

Adaptive Mimo System with OSTBC using Spatial Diversity and Spatial Multiplexing

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 20th September 2017

Ch.Tidula | Dr.Ch.Santhi Rani

Abstract

The advances in wireless technology leads to the simultaneous growth in the field of communication by increasing the data speed with high accuracy .It is a very complex task to increase the requirements of a data rate. So in order to meet these requirements Multiple-Input-Multiple -Output (MIMO) system has been developed. The adaptive system is having the variable number of transmit and receive antennas. Adaptive MIMO system uses an adaption algorithm. The number of transmit and receive antennas will change depending on this algorithm and it uses an Orthogonal Space Time Block Codes (OSTBC). These codes help in improving accuracy and providing high data rates. This can be done by using the two techniques spatial diversity and spatial multiplexing. The frames present in the adaptive system will operate with either one, two or three or four transmit and receive antennas. The OSTBC encoder block will encode the information symbols from the QPSK modulator by using the Almouti code. The QPSK demodulator will demodulate the output of the OSTBC combiner. The frame error rate for three transmit and two receive antennas is 0.1999 at 10db and the frame error rate for four transmit and two receive antennas is 0.5107. From the above results it is observed that the three transmit and two receive antennasisbetter.

ADQ Solar Tracking System (RTC/FCT) in ARM7 with Isis

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 21st May 2018

Srivani Athmakur | Rohith Bandari

Abstract

As now-a-days renewable energy is a rapidly gaining notoriety. Specially, Solar filed is trending with new scope of life for a better change in efficiency with advanced sun tracking system. Here by using fuzzy logic with advanced quadratic RTC system in ARM7 by virtually controlling. By considering the meteorological data for a month to calculate the Altitude, Azimuthal angle by using the DC motor with LDR’s to get accurate result with 50% more efficiency then normal result as applying the mirrors in by adjacent to panel. We use 3D accelerometer for better accuracy in fuzzy logic of controlling RS232 communication. Additionally, Filtering the unnecessary data by using optimization of logic. This system has advantage of controlling circuit in virtual media of schematic (ISIS PROTUES) and code controlling in keil4IDE(software).

Advanced Driver Assistance Systems for Pedestrian Crossing Detection

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 22nd June 2018

B.Srilatha | Ramyasri R, Gnanesh Kumar K, R. D., Vidya Rani

Abstract

The pedestrian crossing has been the major purpose behind the person on foot and vehicle crashes during nights as well as in highways, this project is focused on identifyingthe obstacle crossing for supporting an advanced driver assistance system utilizing an IR sensor mounted on the vehicle. In this paper, a particular issue is addressed, which can hugely affect person's lives. To be particular, the discovery of sudden walker intersection to help drivers in maintaining a strategic distance from mishaps. This is mainly concentrated on the Indian sedan cars and their safety with affordable price & device that can be installed in all type of cars. IR sensors are used for the detection of pedestrian crossing which plays a vital role in paper proposed. In case of rash driving on unbalanced roads, the speed of the motor gets dropped down by the accelerometer. When the driver is drunk he will not be able to drive the vehicle when the alcohol content exceeds the limit which stops the engine further. Buzzer used here gives the alert in all kinds of this situation so that can drive the vehicles harmlessly on roads. Here car reduces its speed automatically when it detects the object passing through the vehicle even when the driver is in absent mood or uncontrollable condition. When the vehicle is moving on the steep or sloppy roads, sometimes it might lead to accidents due to the imbalance of the vehicle. This kind of consequences is also handled and overcome. Hence avoids accidents

Advanced Health Care System

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 22nd January 2018

Pinky Mary Sunny | Sreejith Hari Kumar, Toms Mathew, Tinu Cyriac,Mr.K.M.Abubeker

Abstract

Modern healthcare systems, despite all its breakthroughs and giant leaps of innovations still struggle to achieve an effective response that above all, rises to be a time-effective technique to treat patients. Through this paper, we introduce a system that strives to integrate the existing medical techniques with innovations in electronics and present them on a common platform, thus enhancing the effectiveness and doctor-patient interaction experience. The domain of implementation of this project is NI LabView. The basic building block of programs written in LabVIEW is VI. VI stands for virtual instruments. It is similar to a function or subroutine in other programming language. It includes the front panel (containing controls and indicators), the block diagram (containing control terminals, wires and structures and various other object nodes), the VIís icon and its connector pane (as well as compiled executable code which is hidden behind the scenes). The various blocks for ECG generation and its signal processing steps including wide band noise removal and base line wandering reduction has been achieved on LabVIEW. Monitoring of this signal and mechanisms in case of atrial depolarization (beginning of heart attack) and other atrio ventricular problems have also been set up. Monitoring and alarm mechanisms for irregularity in BP have been implemented. The patientís body parameters are updated into a mainframe database called EMR (Electronic Medical Report) on a real-time basis. The NI LabView 2013 simulator provides a single platform to integrate different VI module executions.

Advanced Intelligent Car System to Prevent Accidents Using Alcohol Detector and Eye Blink Sensor

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 22nd January 2018

Manasa Gattu | Shailaja Chetla , Krishna Marsukola , Sumanth Mateti , Sudha Arvind

Abstract

This paper describes a real-time online prototype driver-fatigue monitor. It is about making cars more intelligent and interactive this may notify or resist user under Unacceptable conditions, they may provide critical information of real time situations to rescue or police or owner himself. In this paper, we provide by means of accident prevention using eye blink sensor and alcohol detector where the vehicle is stopped immediately and intimated where ever needed. If the driver is drunk then the buzzer indicates and the vehicle doesnít allow the driver to start the vehicle. If the driver is drowsy, then the system will give buzzer signal and the speed of the vehicle is reduced and using ultrasonic sensor it checks whether any vehicle is present on the left side, if not the vehicle is parked. According to this project when a vehicle meets with an accident immediately pressure sensor will detect the signal and sends an alert message through the GSM MODEM including the Location to police control room or a rescue team.

Advanced IOT Based Blood Bank

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th July 2017

Aruna R | PradyneshPatil, Rajeev S, Shruti Sanga A , Swathi R

Abstract

Blood is the saver of all life in the case of emergency and,In an emergency situation, if thestock of blood are insufficient or unavailable, the only source of blood will be the people who donate the blood on a voluntary basis. It is certain that, time is a very crucialcomponent in such situations. For this reason, the health care centre should contact the nearestavailable donors in order to ensure the service as quickly as possible and hence this is a time-consuming process.This issue can be overcome by automating the entire system along withaportable smartphone application. The blood packets will be monitored and updated periodically. The Application provides a way to synchronize the information between blood banks and Hospitals with the help of Internet. The android application can be accessed by registered hospitals to check the availability of Blood and can send Request for blood to the nearest blood bank or donor matching with blood requirements.Only a registered person, with willingness to donate blood, will be able to access the service. The application uses GPS technology that will providea way to trace the way to the blood bank or nearby hospitals. The user will get the route to reach the desired location and eliminates the need for manual interventions, thus savingtime.The information about the donor, hospitals and blood banks will be stored in the central database and can accessed globally by authorized user anytime and anywhere.

Advanced Railway Automation and Its Application

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 22nd January 2018

Somashekar.V | Gangadhar.S , Sunil.R , prof. Srilatha

Abstract

The objective of this project is to efficiently avoid the collision of automobile vehicles and to provide a greatest security to the users in adverse or in bad weather conditions by using Collision Avoidance System (CAS). The main aim of this paper is to make an automated place announcement system for Train using RFIDís and vibrator. The radio frequency wireless card for tracking the station data. The paper consists of microcontroller with the RF receiver and the vibrator. The whole system is attached to the vehicle (BUS or Train). The encoded RFID tags are placed in the BUS stops or the railway stations. The microcontroller in the TRAIN is programmed in such a way that every station name is saved in the controller which is having a unique code. So whenever the bus or train reaches the station, the reader in the bus or in the train receives the codes, which are transmitted from the tag and the microcontroller receives this code and checks in the look up table, saved in the chip. Whichever matches, the controller will displays that station name on LCD and activates the respective seat vibrators. If fire happens in a particular train compartment, then respective compartments will be detached.

Advanced Vehicle Security System on FPGA

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 19th September 2018

K.Murali Chandra Babu | Dr.P.A.Harsha Vardhini

Abstract

Now-a-days the automobiles can be ignited using the key which can control the opening the door, high frequency transceiver system, alarm system and so on. Once the key is lost or taken by unauthorized persons then Biometric recognitions techniques can surpass this situation. The proposed system utilizes the fingerprint system, face recognition system and GSM module. If any user can ignite the vehicle, he/she fingerprint image should match with the database. The face detection system can recognize the faces in vehicle. when nobody is present in the vehicle, if unknown person enters and face image does not match, then alarm will blow and if finger print doesn’t match then message will be sent to the owner of the vehicle with the GSM module.

Aging Aware Vedic Multiplier

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 22nd January 2018

Ch.R.Sneha Sindhra | U.V. Ratna Kumari

Abstract

Multipliers are most broadly utilized segment as a part of applications, for example, convolution, Fourier transforms, discrete cosine transforms, and advanced shifting. Since outrun of these applications primarily relies upon multiplier speed, multipliers must be composed effectively. The aging effect of the transistors caused by NBTI and PBTI has a large impact on its performance in a long span. In this paper, the device tradition with the accomplishment of Vedic multiplier is addressed not withstanding bypassing multiplier keeping as a main priority to enhance the execution for more speed and less power .The current plan focuses on Vedic multiplier which comprise of multi-level adders for designing mindful circuit. The huge angle of the proposed strategy is that, the created multiplier depends on Vertical and Crosswise structure of Old Indian Vedic Mathematics called Urdhava Tiryakbhyam Sutra. The advancement is to design the multiplier with the carry save adders in order to enhance better performance.

All optical NOT Gate using modified Photonic Crystal Platform

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 22nd January 2018

Savita Soma | Dr.Sanjay Gowre

Abstract

This paper deals with designing and simulation of all optical NOT gate constructed by using 2-D modified Photonic Crystal. A typical NOT Gate can be constructed on square lattice of 8 Ķm*8 Ķm photonic crystal of silicon rods in doped substrate with refractive index of 3.40 and 1.1 respectively. The lattice constant ?= 1Ķm and radius of the rods r= 0.2?Ķm. Not gate is realized by combining the cross-waveguide geometries and varying its diameter by pitch (d/?). The gate is implemented for the operating wavelength of 1.55Ķm using Rsoft's Fullwave simulator.

Ambubot with Defibrillator for Medical Services in Smart Cities

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 12th September 2017

G.V. Raja | Archana.N, Asha.R, N. Kavya, Navya.N

Abstract

A smart city is an urban development vision to integrate information and communication technology (ICT) and Internet of things (IoT) technology in a secure fashion to manage a city's assets. Through the use of sensors integrated with realtime monitoring systems, data are collected from citizens and devices ‚Äď then processed and analyzed. The information and knowledge gathered are keys to tackling inefficiency. Time is a critical issue when dealing with people who experience a sudden cardiac arrest that unfortunately could die due to inaccessibility of the emergency treatment. Therefore, an immediate treatment using Automated External Defibrillator (AED) must be administered to the victim within a few minutes after collapsing. Hence, we have designed and developed the Ambulance Robot, shortened as Ambubot, which brings along an AED in a sudden event of cardiac arrest and facilitates various modes of operation from manual to autonomous functioning to save someone‚Äôs lives in smart cities. Details of design and development of such robot is presented in this paper.

Ambulatory Assistive System

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 22nd January 2018

S.Vinoth kumar | Dr. R.Jayaparvathy

Abstract

The advancements in wireless communication and sensor technology have grown significantly in the recent years particularly in medical applications. Existing health care systems do not provide real-time monitoring of the patient's health condition. To overcome this limitation, Wireless Body Area Networks(WBANs) have been introduced. WBAN allows for mobility of patients due to its portability and location independent monitoring. We propose the design and implementation of a Wireless Body Area Network for a patient in an ambulance to obtain the vital parameters namely ECG signal, Blood pressure, Temperature etc., from the patient's body using appropriate sensors and transmit them to the WBAN co-ordinator. The WBAN co-ordinator sends the information to a GSM module. This information can be communicated to a doctor/expert to provide continuous treatment before the patient in the critical state reaches the hospital. The collected information will be maintained in a database to be extracted by the people/expert anytime and anywhere using suitable Android application. We also analyze the effect of path loss associated with the signal transmission due to varying position of the nodes. The impact of pathloss on energy consumption of the nodes is also analyzed in this work.

An Adaptive-Profile Modified Active Shape Model for Automatic Landmark Annotation Using Open CV

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 22nd January 2018

Rajesh K M | Naveenkumar M

Abstract

Detection and tracking of face and facial features are the fundamental steps for many applications like Biometrics, human computer interface, video surveillance and expression analysis This paper addresses the challenges in current techniques and presents an adaptive-profile accurate method for facial feature detection and real time tracking. Face and facial features are detected by improved Active shape model (ASM), This application is developed by using Intelís Open source computer vision project, OpenCV, Microsoftís .NET framework and DLIB.

An Advanced Architecture with low Complexity of Partially Parallel Polar Encoder

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 22nd January 2018

U.Mahendra Narasimha Raj | E.V.Narayana

Abstract

Due to the channel achieving property, the polar code has become one of the most favorable error-correcting codes. As the polar code achieves the property asymptotically, however, it should be long enough to have a good error-correcting performance. Although the previous fully parallel encoder is intuitive and easy to implement, it is not suitable for long polar codes because of the huge hardware complexity required. In this brief, we analyze the encoding process in the viewpoint of very-large-scale integration implementation and propose a new efficient encoder architecture that is adequate for long polar codes and effective in alleviating the hardware complexity. As the proposed encoder allows high-throughput encoding with small hardware complexity, it can be systematically applied to the design of any polar code and to any level of parallelism.

An algorithm for the detection of Diabetic Retinopathy, Maculopathy and performing human authentication

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 22nd January 2018

Vipanchi H S | Chandrashekar M Patil

Abstract

Diabetes when effects the eye, results in diabetic retinopathy which intern results in maculopathy. An automated graphical approach has been suggested to detect the Diabetic Retinopathy (DR) and Diabetic Maculopathy (DM) simultaneously by identifying microaneurysms and exudates respectively at the early stage. Microaneurysms (MA) and exudates are the found out by feature extraction process. Depending upon the presence of microaneurysms, the different stages of retinopathy are identified as mild, moderate and severe condition. Human authentication is performed based on the blood vessel pattern matching. This approach is tested over DRIVE, HRF, DIARETDB0, and DIARETDB1 databases and expected results are obtained.

An Alternative Method For Forming The State Matrix Required For Aes Encryption Algorithm To Enhance Security

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 22nd January 2018

Mr. Vikrant Shende | Dr. Meghana Kulkarni , Mr. Giridhar Sudi

Abstract

This paper presents an alternative method for forming the state matrix required for AES encryption algorithm. The design uses alternative method for mapping the individual bytes of the block to different columns of the state matrix depending on previously defined encryption vector. This adds an extra layer of security to the process, but at the same time keeps algorithm simple to implement.

An Android Application for Managing and Maintaining Health Condition of Pregnant Women

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 27th November 2017

Mrs.Sandhya Waghere | Laxmi Patil, Rajeshree Khedkar, Vrushali Chaudhari

Abstract

The purpose of this project is to develop an Android application that can provide a useful guide for the pregnant mom to manage their healthcare issues and maintain all necessary routine checkup with diets by themselves. The application will serve as an alternative to encourage self-care among the pregnant women in order to maintain a healthy weight gain during their pregnancy stages. This application is developed to bring convenience to the pregnant women and increase their self -care awareness. Mobile P2P Network has become part of P2P Network that also deals with various issues of cloud services when is accessed by portable devices in wireless environment. The pregnancy Healthcare data is relatively sensitive compared to other common data which need at most supervision. When Cloud services are accessed by the mobile devices additional challenge like security arises and correct time data delivery. Providing the Security and privacy for the pregnancy medical data is an interesting topic to deal with. In this paper the survey is done about the various challenges faced in Mobile based pregnancy Healthcare P2P Network and the existing scenarios along with pregnant women body checkup with medicine alert system. Our proposed system also consist of diet which is designed to provide the increased nutrients during pregnancy that are essential for the health of the mother and the well-being of the baby

An Approach for Face Detection Using HAAR Features for Automatic Attendance System

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 22nd January 2018

Varshitha Gowda H S | Chandrashekar M Patil

Abstract

Human face detection has a wide application in biometric and security fields. It finds its application in photography, video surveillance and in many other areas. This paper proposes a face detection approach using Viola Jones algorithm with a Haar features converted to integral image to decrease the computational complexity. AdaBoost algorithm is used for feature selection and attentional cascade for fast rejection of non-face windows. This approach performs fifteen times faster than other face detection algorithms. This method is implemented in college for automatic class attendance system, which takes real time image as input and detects faces crops the face region and display along with their count, which helps in taking automatic attendance. With a high accuracy, the detected faces along with the count are updated. An improved result for face detection and accuracy is obtained using this algorithm.

An approach to promote Frequency regulation using Free Governor mode operation method

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 22nd January 2018

Ujwala. Tade | Neelam S. Pinjari, Nutan Attarde, Rekha Sonune

Abstract

As energy consumption as well as reliability based availability of power becomes the main factor to the economic growth. The electrical energy demand in country has been rising at the rate of 15% per annum. Generation capacity has been rising at the rate of 10% per annum. To bridge this gap advanced technologies have been necessary to incorporate in the Indian power sector.. Power system frequency is an important indicator of the quality of power supply. The Indian Electricity Act, the frequency has to be maintained within +/- 3% of the rated frequency, 50Hz. In india the frequency is always low and this causes severe problem to the connected load and power generating equipment. The grid operation in india has undergone a dramatic change in recent years with the introduction of Indian Electricity Grid code(IEGC), Free Governor mode operation(FGMO), Availability Based Triff(ABT). The above factors are gaining importance day by day among all stake holders. The area of my research proposes the success of the FGMO of Chandrapur Thermal Power plant (CTPP) respond to the standard frequency rate and this will make the operation more secure.

An Arduino Uno Microcontroller Based Prototype Overvoltage and Overcurrent Protection System

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th November 2017

Supreeth Y S | Aditya S K, Sudhanva B, S G Raghavendra Prasad

Abstract

Crimes against women, as many as 2.24 million crimes were reported over the past decade. 26 crimes against women are reported every hour, reveals an IndiaSpend analysis based on the last decade’s data. Personal safety is one of the most important concerns for women, as crimes against them have been increasing. Various safety mobile Apps are flooding the market, yet they are not being of any use. This paper highlights the flaws in the existing Apps and also describes a smart wearable device that is easily accessible in panic situations

An Article on ECG Signal Denoising Techniques

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 17th August 2017

V. Supraja | Dr .P.Nageswara Rao, Prof.M.N.Giriprasad

Abstract

The presence of noise in an ECG trace complicates the identification analysis. Due to noise the quality of ECG signal is degrades. So the removal of noise is elaborated due to time varying nature of ECG signal. The ECG is widely used for diagnosis and analysis of heart diseases, so a good quality of ECG signal is required. In this article various types of noises corrupting ECG signal and various techniques based on Wavelet Transform, Fuzzy logic , FIR filtering , Empirical Mode Decomposition used in denoising the signal efficiently are presented in this paper. The results are comparing the performances of different denoising techniques based on related parameters are inserted.

An Average Low-Power Clock Distribution Using Current-Mode Pulsed Flip-Flop with Enable

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 22nd January 2018

Sumaiyya Fatima Ghouri | Rekha S

Abstract

The new prototype for clock distribution that utilizes current, instead of the voltage, to disperse a global clock signal with decreasing power utilization. While current mode (CM) signaling has been utilized as a part of balanced signs, this is the prime use in a one-to - numerous clock appropriation systems. To perform this, we make another best current-mode pulsed flip-flop with enable (CMPFFE) utilizing 45 nm CMOS technology. The power is global transports, clock distribution network (CDN), and synchronous signs by and large. The clock distribution system devours the extensive measure of power in synchronous computerized frameworks. Clock distribution systems are the key component of a synchronous and non- synchronous advanced circuit and a huge power. At the point when the CMPFFE is consolidated with a CM transmitter, the main CM clock dispersion system shows lower normal power contrasted with conventional voltage mode.

An Efficient 4-Bit Processor Design Using Quantum Dot Cellular Automata Technology

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 22nd January 2018

Shalu .M. Sabu | Sukanya Sundaresh

Abstract

Integrated Circuit(IC) fabrication technology is improving, so the internal dimension of semiconductor devices are decreasing day by day. This trend of scaling down dimensions reached its limit in near future. In nanoscale design, Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor (CMOS) has certain limitations such as hot electron effect, interconnect crosstalk, power dissipation, operating speed, gate oxide and interconnect scaling. According to the novel nanotechnology Quantum-dot cellular automata (QCA),which provides a better computation platform than traditional CMOS, in which polarization of electrons indicates the digital information. This work relies on an efficient 4 bit processor design based on QCA technology and it is compared with the CMOS technology. The processor mainly consists of a comparator, ALU, accumulator and data memory. The comparator were designed based on Tree-Based(TB) architecture, that is the entire bit is splitted into two halves and computed separately. Finally, it is cascaded together. The ALU consists of arithmetic operations such as full adder, full subtractor and logical operations such as AND and XOR. The data memory is a 4 *4 volatile memory. QCA based design reduces delay, power dissipation and number of cells used. The VHDL language is used for coding and synthesis can be done by means of Xilinx-ISE 13.2

An Efficient Automatic Method of Optic Disc Segmentation using Region Growing Technique in Retinal Images

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 5th January 2018

Savitha H S | Sowmya.S, Sujatha B.T, Nirmala.M

Abstract

Segmentation of Optic disc (OD) from a retinal image is an essential step while developing automated screening systems for eye disease like diabetic retinopathy, Glaucoma etc. This paper proposes a method of automatic optic disk segmentation based on region growing technique with automatic seed selection. In this method centre of the optic disk is considered as a seed to apply region growing technique to segment the optic disk from the preprocessed retinal image. Automatic detection of the centre of the optic disk is done by double windowing method. The algorithm uses image processing techniques like contrast adjustment, morphological operations & filtering to process the retinal image and to remove the blood vessels from the retinal image. The performance of optic disk segmentation by the proposed method is compared with OptiC disk segmentation ophthalmologists and results are found convincing and efficient. The experimental results indicate this method of segmentation of the OD has good accuracy and also is computationally cheap.

An Efficient Cuckoo Search Algorithm for Segmentation of Satellite Images

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 5th August 2017

K.Bharathi | Mr.M Ravi Kishore,Mr. J Damodhar

Abstract

Satellite imaging is being the most attractive source of information for the governmental agencies and the commercial companies in last decade. Satellite images are characterized by weak local correlation between pixels, complete randomness and small multiple regions of interest which makes difficult to segment. The quality of the images is very important especially for the military or the police forces to pick the valuable information from the details. Satellite images may have unwanted signals called as noise in addition to useful information for several reasons such as heat generated electrons, bad sensor, wrong ISO settings, vibration and clouds. There are several image enhancement algorithms to reduce the effects of noise over the image to see the details and gather meaningful information. Satellite images are acquired with remote sensing. Remote sensing is the science and art of obtaining information about an object or area through a device that is not in contact with the object or the area under investigation. The classification can be done by using Image segmentation via various thresholding algorithms where segmentation is the process of dividing an object into several homogeneous regions such that union of no two adjacent regions is homogeneous. In this work an efficient cuckoo search algorithm is developed for segmentation of satellite images.

An Efficient Design of Dynamic VITERBI Decoder Architecture

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 22nd January 2018

Mr.Parsekar Gaurav Rajanikant | Mrs.Veena H.S , Mr.Girish G Satardekar

Abstract

The emerging applications of wireless networks enforce new challenges in design of algorithms and communication protocols. In such scenario of challenges, coding for error control has be- come extremely important to provide robust communication and maintain quality of service. One method to improve Bit Error Rate (BER) while maintaining high data reliability, is to use an error correction technique like the VITERBI algorithm. The VITERBI algorithm provides an efficient method for Forward Error Correction (FEC) that improves channel reliability. As constraint length associated with input bits increases it needs to implement it with lesser computations and lesser hardware to decode the original data. Therefore Dynamic VITERBI Algorithm is used for decoding which reduces error probability, computation and employ lesser hard- ware with increased speed. The purpose of this paper is to understand VITERBI Algorithm, Adaptive VITERBI Algorithm and to find the alternative to shortcomings in the design and implement the idea on a hardware.

An Efficient Detection Of Primary Users Reoccupation In Cognitive Radio Systems By Active Sensing

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 22nd January 2018

A.Suhanya | RS.Koteeshwari

Abstract

In the past years, fixed spectrum assignment policies worked well. But today, due to the rapid increase in number of users in mobile communication as well as in other communication areas, arises a problem called Ďspectrum scarcityí. It can be solved by developing a new communication paradigm that will use the existing spectrum efficiently. It is achieved with the help of cognitive radio. One of the main functions of the cognitive radio is spectrum sensing. In this paper, Spectrum sensing is carried out by Quite-Active sensing. In that, active sensing is carried out by spectral correlation function which is one of the cyclostationary feature detection with non-cooperative detection. Here, known pilot signals from the primary users base station are duplicated and reallocated in cognitive radio users modulating signal. The spectral correlation is carried out between the cognitive radio user and primary users. With the help of Spectral correlation function, we can efficiently detect the primary users reoccupation in cognitive radio systems. It will provide higher security because the pilots are added with the cognitive radio users modulating signal. And the simulation is carried out with the help of matlab and their results show the effectiveness of proposed approach.

An Efficient Fixed Point DLMS Adaptive Filter For Denoising

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 22nd January 2018

Neethu Mary Raju | Asha A S

Abstract

The fixed point DLMS adaptive filter is employed for image processing applications and typical for image denoising application. Adaptive filter adapts the filter coefficients according to an optimization algorithm. Because of its simplicity and satisfactory convergence performance LMS (Least Mean Square) algorithm is used. It does not support pipelined implementation because of its recursive behaviour. It is modified to a form called the Delayed LMS (DLMS) algorithm, which allows pipelined implementation of the filter. For achieving lower adaptation delay as well as area and delay efficiency, partial product generators (PPG) and ripple carry adder for adding scheme is used. Adaptation delay can be reduced by decoupling the computations at the error computation block and weight update block. It also emphasis on fixed point issues as location of radix point choice of word length and quantization at various stages of computation. It is most popular for real-time adaptive system.

An Efficient Floating Point Arithmetic Unit Using Parallel Prefix Adder

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 22nd January 2018

Rinu Susan Babu | Sukanya Sundaresh

Abstract

In fixed point number representation, digits after the decimal point is fixed and it does not provide a high precision value, while in floating point representation the decimal point is not fixed. Based on the concept of floating point number a fused floating point arithmetic unit is designed. Generally alignment, normalization and rounding are the complex process required in floatingpoint operation, which significantly increase the latency. This work relies on a fused floating-point three-term arithmetic unit, which includes a fused floating point three term adder unit, a fused floating point three term subtractor unit and a fused floating point three term multiplier unit. Here addition is the basic operation used in adder unit, subtractor unit and multipliers unit, which results in decrease or increase of delay. In order to improve the performance of a three term floating point arithmetic unit, carry save adder is replaced by a parallel prefix adder like kogge stone adder. A parallel prefix addition mainly includes a pre-processing stage, a carry generation stage and a post processing stage. This floating point three term arithmetic unit using parallel prefix adder is designed using VHDL language and it is synthesised in Xilinx ISE Design Suit 13.2 and can be simulated in Model SimSE 6.3f.

An Efficient Image Processing Based Method for Gills Segmentation from a Digital Fish Image

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 22nd January 2018

L.V.Pooja | Ashwitha K , Soudri Rakesh Kumar , Aruna Jyothi

Abstract

The quality and freshness of a fish test is for the most part influenced because of the taking care of and capacity conditions amid the post gathering period. The maintenance time and capacity medium are the two principle variables influencing the fish quality. This paper shows a picture handling based technique for programmed and effective division of gills from the fish test picture which can be utilized for fish freshness approval and assurance of any pesticide from the fish test under test. The actualized calculation has delivered a most extreme connection of 92.4% with the ground truth comes about got from specialists. The strategy utilized for gills division is quick and straightforward.

An Efficient Privacy-Preserving Communicating with Multiple Keys Using Assessment toolkit

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 22nd August 2017

Swetha K B | Harshitha M P, Manoj M, VickySamson, Shikar joshi

Abstract

In this paper, we propose a toolkit for efficient and privacy-preserving outsourced calculation under multiple encrypted keys (EPOM). Using EPOM, a large amount of users can safely outsource their information to a cloud server for storage. Moreover, encrypted data which belongs to different users can be processed without compromising on the security of the individual user's (original) data and the final computed results. To avoid the associated key management cost and private key exposure risk in EPOM, we use a distributed two-trapdoor public-key cryptosystem, the core cryptographic primitive. We also present the toolkit to make sure that the commonly used integer operations can be securely handled across different encrypted domains. We then prove that the proposed EPOM achieves the goal of secure integer number processing without resulting in privacy leakage of data to unauthorized parties. Last, we demonstrate the utility and the efficiency of EPOM using simulations.

An Efficient Public Distribution System using IOT, GSM and BAN Technology

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 28th December 2017

Kusuma Prabhu | Rajashree Nambiar, Sowmya bhat, Sachin bhat, Avinash. N.J

Abstract

In India, the government provides various ration materials to economically backward class of people at lower rates. Fraudulent conduct of concerned authorities may lead to improper measurements of the goods or selling of the unused goods without informing ration card holder and government. So central monitoring system is required, which is to be linked with government offices, shopkeeper and the ration card holder. Keeping this in mind, an efficient public distribution system is proposed in this paper using IOT, GSM, BAN technologies. Automatic monitoring of the public distribution system can overcome all the illegal activities by using BAN transmitter & amplifier receiver, where the details about users are provided. Using such a system, Government will be able to control the transactions of ration shop. In this system, once the distribution is done an automatic message is sent to customer and a mail to concerned government office

An Energy Efficient Clustering Algorithm in Wireless Sensor Network

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 22nd January 2018

Sakshi Sukale | Tanaji D. Biradar

Abstract

In this fast forward world, we require all the information instantly . In some areas, Wireless Sensor Network is helping us to get this information. In aa thousand of cheap micro-sensor nodes allows a user to monitor a remote environment for civil as well as a military application from the main station. The data collected by micro-sensors is communicated through a network to a single sink node. For this communication first cluster sensors into groups, and via cluster head they will communicate to a sink node. Major energy Is getting consumed while communicating with the sink node resulting the sensors life become very short. This consumption of energy is not advisable, and also at the remote place it is very difficult to replace the battery of thousands micro sensor. To solve all these issues the algorithms has been invented . For effective balances cluster head and prolonged network lifetime, there is a novel uneven clustering scheme invented by Qi Zhang(2). By considering residual energy and distance from the sink node the modified algorithm has given a better performance. The same algorithm is called Distance and Energy Based Uneven Clustering (DEUC). By changing the method of selection of cluster head and also changing the probability factor modified DEUC algorithm gives a better performance than the previous one. The modified algorithm improves the lifetime of the node also the energy of the network.

An Experimental Investigation on Machinability of Titanium and Steels using Cryogenic Machining

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 13th July 2017

Samatham Madhukar | Aitha Shravan,Katarapu Ram Kuma, J. Jagadesh Kumar

Abstract

Machinability is a property or quality of any material that can be clearly defined and quantified, to indicate how easy (or difficult) it is, to perform machining operations on it. In fact, the term is ambiguous, but the machinability of any material can be assessed using parameters like (i) tool life (ii) cutting forces (iii) power consumption (iv) surface finish and (v) chip morphology. In the current paper machinability of the materials like Mild steel, Stainless Steel and Titanium are studied; however special emphasis is given to Titanium as it difficult to machine due to high cutting forces, temperatures, chemical reactions with tools, and a relatively low modulus of elasticity. Titanium does not form a built-up edge on tools which is a common problem while machining steels and this result in good surface finishes even at low cutting speeds. The lack of a built-up edge, however, increases the alloying and abrading action of the thin chip which races over a small tool-chip contact area under high pressures. The combination of above characteristics and relatively poor thermal conductivity of titanium results in abnormally high tool-tip temperatures. To overcome this, one of the best techniques available is Cryogenic Machining. Cryogenic machining is a process in which the traditional lubrocooling is replaced by liquid nitrogen (LN2). Liquid nitrogen is more preferable in machining to dissipate heat generated because it is cost effective, safe, non-flammable and environment friendly gas. In addition, it does not contaminate work piece and no separate mechanism for disposal is required. In the current paper, the overall machining is done on turning machine and the parameters like Cutting forces, Surface finish, Temperature at cutting area and power consumption are obtained for the three materials. The overall results are tabulated and the conclusions are drawn accordingly. The main objective of the research is to improve the machinability of materials by using Cryogenic Machining techniques.

An Improved Blind Source Separation Using Bispectrum Slide Detection in Blind Spectrum Sensing

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 22nd January 2018

Rina Parikh | Shreya Matta, Anusha Garg

Abstract

Cognitive radio is a pivotal solution to combat the existing problem of inefficient usage of spectrum bands. Spectrum sensing is one of the most important issues in cognitive radio system. The unlicensed secondary user should detect the available idle spectrum resource accurately and thus reuse it opportunistically. Blind spectrum sensing refers to a condition where the signal can be detected under low SNR environment without any prior knowledge about the gain, noise variance and threshold of the channel. Based on the concept of Random Matrix Theory and Blind Source Separation method, a novel spectrum sensing approach is proposed using Bispectrum slide detection analysis. The novel approach of combining Random Matrix Theory with Bispectrum Slide detection based blind source separation in blind spectrum sensing has been proposed in this paper. Simulation results of proposed algorithm are obtained in the form of receiver operating characteristic curves. The results indicate that the proposed approach gives better results with less complexity than commonly used blind spectrum detection techniques.

An Innovative Method For Forest Fire Risk Zoning Map Using Fuzzy Inference System And GIS

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 5th January 2018

A.poonguzhali | Sushmitha B.R, Swati Nagaraj Mesta, Soundarya R, Vanajakshi M

Abstract

Forest Fire causes considerable environmental damage and brings about a significant change in the ecosystem of the region. It is a humanistic and a national duty to protect against fire the forests. Most of such forest fire incidents result from human nonchalance. Other causes such as a thunderstorm, glass objects and etc. are also considered as triggers of such incidents, this paper mainly focuses on the human factor. The considered parameters such as distance from the road, residential areas, river, slope, climate and type of vegetation, and GIS play a significant role in the analysis and determining the factors impacting fire incidents. GIS was used for the analysis and calculations required in regard with these parameters. Therefore the locations with fire risk are determined by a combination of experimental model, fuzzy inference system and GIS. The obtained results indicate high accuracy and good efficiency. Results discussed extensively in the paper. To evaluate the proposed method, the obtained results were compared with fire incidents of past years. The comparison results indicate an improvement in predication by this method in comparison with other methods.

An Integrated Energy Measurement Technique for Smart Grid

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 22nd January 2018

M.A.P.Nareshkumar | 

Abstract

Smart grid is the integration of advanced information, communication and networking technologies in traditional electric grid to make it smarter and faster in making decisions. With the increase in population, there is increase in the demand for electricity. Nowadays we are generating our own power for home and industries. We can reduce demand by selling power to grid after our own usage. Cost can vary in proportion to the demand. In this paper, we explain to implement a smart meter to display power both EB & generated Solar power, and provide for the actual power consumption. By monitoring both EB cost and renewable energy cost is up a single energy meter both selling and consuming power from grid to home and vice-versa can be known using GSM methods through if it possible to intimate the consuming and selling power from grid to consumers through Messages and also to Electricity Board for government data. The monthly EB cost should be intimated through messages by calculating both real time and critical time cost and also selling power to grid and reduced to determine the actual power consumed. We propose to implement a smart meter to display power both EB & generated Solar power, and provide for the actual power consumption.

An Integrated IVCCRL Approach for the reduction of Negative Bias Temperature Instability in an AES Core

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 22nd January 2018

Anitha Patibandla | Dr.B.L.Raju

Abstract

Reliability of Circuits is one of the major concerns in VLSI circuits and systems designs. Negative Bias Temperature Instability(NBTI), which has a deteriorating effect on the threshold voltage and the drive current of semiconductor devices, is emerging as a major reliability degradation mechanism [1].An important Reliability issue in the recent times is the Negative bias temperature instability (NBTI) in the MOS circuits in Cryptographic cores. Many works propose hardware implementations of cryptographic primitives with the promise of reduction in area, power dissipation and cost. An integrated IVCCRL approach for the reduction of Negative Bias Temperature Instability in an AES Core using the techniques of Input Vector Control (IVC) and Reversible Logic (RL) is being proposed in this paper. The effect of input vector control investigated. Mini-mum leakage vectors, which lead to minimum circuit performance degradation and maximum leakage reduction rate, are selected and used when the circuit is in the standby mode. Analysis on the potential to save the circuit performance degradation by internal node control techniques during circuit standby mode is discussed. The optimization is done for the AES algorithm using NCL Reversible Gates for low power, low cost and low area. Simulation Results have been analyzed and presented.

An Investigation of End-To-End Speaker Recognition Using Deep Neural Networks

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 22nd January 2018

Lakhsmi HR | Sivanand Achanta , Suryakanth V Gangashetty , R Kumaraswamy

Abstract

State-of-the-art automatic speaker recognition (SR) has been dominated by Gaussian mixture model-universal background model (GMM-UBM) based i-vector feature extraction methods. Although these systems are robust, extraction of ivectors is very time consuming and a separate classifier needs to be trained for decision making in the end. Inorder to alleviate the above disadvantages, in this paper we propose to use deep neural networks for end-to-end speaker recognition. We perform several experiments to determine the best suited architecture, the hyper-parameter tuning algorithm and the initialization scheme for SR task. The proposed method combines feature extraction and classification step, and is of very low foot print. Through objective metric (equal error rate) we show that the proposed method outperforms the GMM-UBM conventional system

An Optimized Approach for Relay Selection in Cognitive Radio Networks

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 22nd January 2018

Navya P | Sadiqa Bawoor

Abstract

The cognitive radio networks benefits has been well recognized in the wireless communication application. In this paper, a decode and forward protocol is implemented in order to increase the security of the system rather than only amplifying and forwarding. The analysis of throughput is also studied with a different approach of scanning the secondary users based on their even and odd numbers. Simulations are conducted for observation steps and average reward for different number of secondary users. The analyses is also done for the increase in throughput with the modified scanning methodology using the simulation.

An Powerful Instrument Landing System-A Review

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 21st August 2017

Naveen S V | Mr. Mani C, Dr. T.C.Manjunath

Abstract

It is commonly known that the directional pattern of the instrument landing system (ILS)-localizer antenna system, which constitutes the landing-course information for approaching aircraft, can be disturbed by reflections from large aircraft on the ground. Therefore, airport operators are interested in knowing configurations of landed and taxiing aircraft that lead to such ILS disturbance scenarios. Measurements on a real airport for investigating such scenarios are very cost-intensive and not sufficiently possible due to availability reasons. Therefore, a new scaled measurement setup is presented. Scaling down an aircraft by the factor of 144 requires a scaled ILS-localizer operating at a frequency of nearly 16 GHz, the development and realization of which is presented in this paper. Using this scaled ILS-localizer, measurements with an Airbus A380 and a Boeing B747 are conducted showing the feasibility of the scaled approach. Several configurations are shown where those aircraft lead to interferences of the ILS, exceeding allowed tolerances. A comparison of the reflection behavior of both aircraft shows only slight differences. Additionally, this paper presents the derivation of the bistatic radar cross section of both aircraft to be applicable to scenarios with arbitrary ILS patterns. The paper is the result of the seminar report undertaken by Mr. Naveen under the guidance of the faculty & the HOD

An Renewable Energy Source for Street Light Safety System Using Sensor and GSM

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 19th July 2017

Pagar Prajakta S. | Pandit Dnyaneshari H.,Meshram Apurva S.,Pawar Vijaya R.

Abstract

Now a day, the bridges, lanes, flyovers and highways consume a substantial amount of energy, making improved efficiency a significant challenge. For improving the efficiency, Solar Photo volatile based street light system is very common. But there are some limitations with this ordinary system because of the lack of intelligent performance. It is very essential to automate the system so that we can conserve energy and to maximize the efficiency of the system. However, the highway engineering integrated with smart control for energy optimization and provided safety to the vehicle has not been widely used. In these paper new method is suggested so, as to maximize the efficiency of highway lighting system using solar panel and conserved an energy usage with the help of IR sensor and LDR. This system uses a LDR which provide low resistance at day time and high resistance at night time; accordingly system turns on night time. The information about the vehicle position between IR sensors is transferred by using PIC microcontroller and LCD displays the present statement about the vehicle and GSM send the message to the control station hence we can take the immediate action if requiredsuch a way safety provided

Analysis of Microgrid

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 5th January 2018

J.Suganya | Navyashree.A.K, Anusha.A, Praveen.Y.S, Manasa. S

Abstract

Solar energy is a green energy and nearly no carbon traces are present. Hence, the growing demand and challenges to meet the electricity requirement even in remote places can be achieved with a solar microgrid. A microgrid when coordinately controlled can be operated both in grid-connected mode and intentional islanding condition. In this paper control scheme for intentional islanding of utility, the microgrid is analyzed. Also, reviews on various strategies to develop HIL for fast and accurate islanding and coordination control are presented. To overcome generation and demand mismatch study of various centralized adaptive load shedding scheme is investigated.

Analysis of 5-Bit Multiplier Using Reversible Logic

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 23rd January 2018

Krishnapriya T | Lakshmipriya S, Kiruthika T, Swamynathan S.M

Abstract

The Multipliers are the vital component of processors or computers. A Multiplier is one of the key hardware blocks in most digital signal processing systems. It plays an important role in digital filtering, digital communication and spectral analysis. Multiplication is very expensive and slows the overall operation. The performance of many computational problems dominated by the speed where multiplication operation can be executed. Power dissipation becomes one of the primary design constraints. So we are going to analyse multipliers using reversible logic gates.In the current scenario, the reversible logic gate attracting more interest due to low power consumption. The goals of reversible logic are to minimize the garbage, number of inputs, the total number of gates and delay.Under ideal conditions, reversible logic gates produce zero power dissipation.The applications of reversible logic circuits such as low power CMOS, Nanotechnology and optical data processing DNA computing and quantum computing.

Analysis of BCH Codes for Different Channel Conditions in Lab VIEW

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 22nd January 2018

Pramod G Joglekar | Pawan Kumar B

Abstract

In recent past digital data and its transmission over either in wired or wireless channel with the minimum bandwidth requirement and high data rate is playing vital role in communication field. According to studies done by Broadband Commission for mobile communication data transmission over wireless channel decides the growth in economic and social sector of the country. Increase in electronic gadgets and number of users in a geographical area is demanding the efficient utilization of bandwidth by assuring more number of users in a limited channel and high speed data rates in communication devices. In this paper a brief study is done to analyze and estimate the channel parameters for different channels considering BCH block code which is one of the efficient Forward Error Correction code.

Analysis of Blood Smear Images for Leukaemia Detection Using Data Mining Algorithms

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 22nd January 2018

Vasundhara Acharya | Dr.Preetham Kumar

Abstract

Blood cell segmentation and extraction of characteristics of cells plays a vital role in the field of medicine. Blood count is used to analyze the overall health of a person. It can be used to identify diseases like anemia, infection and leukemia. White Blood cells, Red Blood cells and platelets forms the parts of blood. In laboratory, blood cell counting is done by using counting chamber known as Hemocytometer, Petri dish and microscope. The entire procedure involves the use of physicianís skills to prepare the plating which is very time consuming and inaccurate task. The aim of this research is to perform a survey on computer aided system that can detect and estimate the number of red blood cells and white blood cells in the blood smear image using image processing algorithms. Image processing algorithms involves the following steps: Inputting the image, pre-processing, image segmentation, feature extraction and applying appropriate counting algorithm. The main objective here is to gain knowledge about the different methodologies used for counting of red blood cells and extracting features of white blood cells. It also throw light on various research directions used.

ANALYSIS OF LOCOMOTION VERSATILE HEXAPOD ROBOT SYSTEM FOR INDUSTRIAL AUTOMATION

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 22nd January 2018

S.Senthilkumar | P.Suresh , C.R.Tamizhanambi

Abstract

This paper exhibits the hexapod robot movement performance. We analyze the performance of the DC servo motor in the robotic system and to enhance the function, The Hexapod robot movement analysis was made using Virtual Robot Experimentation Platform (V REP) software. Through this simulation we can analysis the performance of hexapod robot body and legs movement in various parameters. The Robotic system was separately analyzed and the simulation results are given..

ANALYSIS OF LOCOMOTION VERSATILE HEXAPOD ROBOT SYSTEM FOR INDUSTRIAL AUTOMATION

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 22nd January 2018

S.Senthilkumar | P.Suresh , C.R.Tamizhanambi

Abstract

This paper exhibits the hexapod robot movement performance. We analyze the performance of the DC servo motor in the robotic system and to enhance the function, The Hexapod robot movement analysis was made using Virtual Robot Experimentation Platform (V REP) software. Through this simulation we can analysis the performance of hexapod robot body and legs movement in various parameters. The Robotic system was separately analyzed and the simulation results are given..

Analysis of Mutual Coupling effect in Micro Strip antenna arrays using IE3D

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 22nd January 2018

Nataraj A N | Sindhu K S

Abstract

In this paper, effect of mutual coupling on the performance of micro strip antenna array is analyzed using IE3D simulation tool. Array is designed using rectangular micro strip antennas to operate at frequency 2.45GHz. Strength of the mutual coupling is measured by extracting parameter S21. It is observed from the simulations that gain of the array reduces as the mutual coupling increases. As the distance between antenna increases mutual coupling reduces but side lobe level increases.

Analysis of Parking Guidance System Using Raspberry PI

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th June 2018

Tiple Anjali Hemant | Tiple Hemant P, Desai Vaishnavi Vilas

Abstract

In recent years the growing problems of car parking in urban areas are due to growing population. Due to this number of vehicles are on roads and traffic jam, parking problems are arrived on large scale. The solution to such problem is to present the parking guidance system based on image processing with the help of raspberry pi and camera module. With the help of image processing technique will easy to find out the empty parking slot in public areas. After detecting the empty slot the detail information of empty slot is provided with printed slip to the car driver with the help of thermal printer hence one can able to park the vehicle at right place by showing the panel in parking areas. This intelligent system will reduce the time required to find vacant slot and wastage of resources .It also used to reduce fuel consumption and pollution which occur due to circulate vehicles for finding the parking areas

Analysis of Rayleigh & RICIAN Channel for OFDM System

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 22nd January 2018

Divya.B | T.P.Surekha , Arjun.K.R

Abstract

With large amount of energy consumed in wireless LAN (WLAN) system, it becomes an important and meaningful issue to reduce the energy consumption of wireless communication devices nowadays. Here we use IEEE 802.11P standard in order to reduce energy in wireless system. In this paper we draw our attention using with the concept of orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) which is a special case of multicarrier transmission, where a single DataStream is transmitted over a number of lower rate subcarriers. The high data rate transmission capability through multipath delay spread, OFDM has been adopted in modern wireless communication systems. The main focus of our paper is analyzing the Rayleigh and Rican channel to know the performance of system. In order to analyze two channels the two parameter are used Bit Error Rate (BER) and Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR). Comparing both the channel with and without using Weiner filter is performed. The wireless channel is assumed to include Additive White Gaussian Noise (AWGN) and multipath fading.Simulation results show that the proposed algorithm can effectively reduce noise while using wiener filter.

Analysis of Routing Protocol for Different Packet Size Data Transfer over WSN

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 15th July 2017

Poonam Thakur | Rahul Pethe,r,Dr. G. M. Asutkar, Dr. S. A. Chaturvedi

Abstract

This paper describe to create distributed client node wireless sensor network using nRF24 wireless networking protocol to send their data on cloud through Ethernet based sink node. WSN widely used in health monitoring, environmental, traffic control, automation system. In each area we required sink and server node. We are presenting the results during evaluating WSN by using ATMEGA 32u4 Microcontroller, transceiver nRF24L01 with Ethernet Shield for Real Time Data Acquisition Process. For real time data acquisition system microcontroller Atmega32u4 is easily interfaced with nRF24. Client sensors continuously generates amount of data in the form of packets and frame (date, time, address, sample, data, CRC, ERC) which can easily reach to the destination and observed the result on different monitor format by using Ethernet Shield and open source API i.e. Thingspeak. Nowadays, WSN processes apply on different size packet formats for example text, images, or video data. In this work we proposed DSR, AODV, DSDV, AOMDV routing protocol using coding and compression technique for different parameters like energy, throughput, jitter, packet delivery ratio.

Analysis of Security and Privacy Features in Map Reduce on Clouds

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 22nd January 2018

K. Roopesh | M. Kiran Kumar

Abstract

Map Reduce is a programming prototype that enables for huge scalability across hundreds or thousands of servers in a Hadoop.. Map Reduce is extensively used daily around the world as an efficient distributed computation tool for a huge class of problems such as search, clustering, log analysis, different types of join operations, pattern matching, matrix multiplication and analysis of social networks. Privacy and security of data and Map Reduce computations are significant concerns when a Map Reduce computation is implements in public or hybrid clouds. In order to perform a Map Reduce functions in hybrid and public clouds, authentication of mappers-reducers, privacy of data-computations, Integrity and reliability of data-computations and freshness-correctness of the outputs are mandatory. Satisfying these necessities defend the operation from a number of types of attacks on data and Map Reduce computations. In this Security and privacy challenges and needs, considering a range of adversarial capabilities, and characteristics within the scope of Map Reduce. We presented security and privacy protocols for Map Reduce and talk about their transparency problems.

ANALYSIS OF SMI,LSMI,KALMAN BASED LMS AND KALMAN BASED RLS FOR ADAPTIVE BEAMFORMING

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 22nd January 2018

G.Essakki Priyanka | C.Gayathri , Nazneen Ansari , Dr.G.Indumathi

Abstract

when the array steering vector is known then in adaptive beam forming we can have resolution and interference rejection capability. In this paper we propose a variety of approaches like SMILSMI,Kalman based LMS and Kalman based RLS for adaptive beamforming through simulation result various adaptive beamforming algorithm can be analysed.

Analysis of Underwater Acoustic Channel for OFDM System

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 22nd January 2018

Jayashree C S | T.P.Surekha , Arjun.K.R

Abstract

Underwater acoustic channel has the characteristics of severe multipath, rapid variation and estimation of its phase is difficult task. Hence achieving high data rate and reliable communication is a challenge for Underwater Acoustic Channel (UAC). Orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) has emerged as a promising modulation scheme for underwater acoustic (UWA) communication. Inter symbol interference (ISI) can be avoided by transmitting a number of narrowband subcarriers by using a guard time. This paper deals with the evaluation of Bit Error Rate (BER) of Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) system under different combinations of modulation techniques with convolution channel coding at different coding rates

Analyzing the Customer Switchover Behavior in Mobile Communication

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 22nd January 2018

Ajeesh S Nair | Pramod V R, Jithin S

Abstract

This research focuses on developing an integrated model to understand and enlist the interrelationship between various aspects for motivating customers to switch their mobile (telecom)connection; categorize them into four clusters based on their driving and dependence powers. In order to achieve this, frame work, based on the inter relationship between the parameters has been developed and these parameters was observed having high interrelationship. The executives involved in mobile networking business could be the beneficiaries of this study as the result from this research will enable them to attract new customers so as to increase their number of connections and also to prevent their existing customers from switching connection. The parameter used in this research is based on the current global telecom scenario so that the result of the research is completely relevant and practically applicable in the contemporary telecom market.

Anomaly Detection Method for Electronic Voting Machine

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 2nd February 2018

Nanda Kumar T | Chiranjeevi D, Sandeep B

Abstract

A method for detecting electrical anomaly in circuit of interest is proposed and implemented. This method describes the use of FPGA and current sense amplifiers for real time monitoring of electrical circuits in EVM. The FPGA uses ADC and multiplexer to poll the circuit currents in round robin method. The diagnostics data recorded in used to assess the health of the unit as a whole. Necessary action is taken if any anomaly is detected. The present work is related to detect the anomaly in the functioning of an electrical circuit in Electronic Voting Machines ‚Äėunits. Diagnostics is required in EVM to ensure fail proof and tamper proof voting process

ANPR Camera Based Smart Parking Management System

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th October 2017

Puneeth G | Rohit Anand, Saurabh Jaiswal

Abstract

There are more than one billion cars being used for moving from one place to another but there is a scarcity for parking those vehicles, parking has become a major problem. In some metropolitan areas, finding a parking space for the vehicles during the rush hours is difficult for drivers. The difficulty arises from not knowing where the available spaces may be at that time. Another difficulty that is often faced by the people is to locate their cars when they forget where they last parked there car. The cameras that are used in the existing parking areas are only meant for video surveillance and cannot help in such situations as there is a lack of proper car parking management and guidance system. This paper discusses an innovative car parking management system based on Automatic Number Plate Recognition (ANPR) camera where the system will allow only the authorized cars to enter the parking lot, denying access to unauthorized cars. This system is also designed to guide the car to the nearest parking slot which is available

Anti-Pilferage Ticketing System for Public Transport

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 22nd January 2018

Saira Sultana | Venkatesh H, Jithendra N, Sangeeta A Tagari, Jacob Monsy

Abstract

The paper based public transport ticketing system, prevailing in mega-cities such as Bengaluru, introduces severe problems and corruption in the system. The project suggests a much more user friendly, automated system of ticketing with the use of RFID based cards. The RFID based cards can be preferred over the conventional system due to low cost, easy operation, portability, durability, reliability and more user friendly to use. In the existing system monthly or yearly passes are issued, which can be easily forged and manipulated thereby corrupting the system. In conventional paper based ticketing system, tickets are being printed and thrown away after traveling, thereby littering the environment. Moreover, large numbers of trees are being destroyed since the current system uses paper based ticketing and the used tickets are just wasted. Therefore by promoting RFID based cards passengers can be encouraged, overtime to shun paper tickets in favour of monthly or yearly RFID based passes issued by the concerned authorities.

Antipiracy Screen System

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 13th September 2017

Savita.C.H | Kajol R D, Monica N,Latha S,Anil Raju Wadeyar

Abstract

Film theft has such a profound impact on a wide range of economy that it is a crime in almost all countries. One major source of the movie piracy is camcorder piracy i.e., movies are recorded by portable devices inside theaters and then sold on internet and grey markets. Different techniques and strategies are explored to overcome the problem and secure the digital cinema content, some are based on spatiotemporal modulation of light, watermarking techniques, maximizing annoyance and temporal effects. This paper deals with a projection technique to avoid piracy in movie theaters. We aim to defeat camcorder piracy by severely degrading the visual quality of the recorded movie while making the interference signals invisible to the audience. Infrared emitters are installed in movie theaters to interfere with the camcorder and create glares in the recorded frames.

Apartment Automation and Security System Using PLC

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 22nd January 2018

S. V. Viraktamath | Sindhu D. Hegadekatte , Sangeeta M. Achari, Sudharani Y. Khawast, Swapna G.M , Swapna G.M

Abstract

The most important source of motivation in continuity of technological developments is to upgrade human living standards. The technological development provides and increases human-beingsí safety and comfort directly and indirectly. Developing technologies for this purpose directly affects the life standards by means of smart home systems design. In this paper the implementation of apartment automation and security system using PLC is proposed. The control of the ventilation, lighting and security units in the smart home were carried out. The output from the different sensors is given to PLC which in turn controls the system by switching ON or OFF the actuators.

Application of Power Electronics in Transmission of Electrical Energy

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 22nd February 2018

Aruna.R  | Kishore, AnishKumar.B, Krithika.K, M.A.Puneeth Kumar

Abstract

In our paper, we have compared various Thyristor and its working principal suitable for the various application. Applications of power electronics range in size from a switched mode power supply in an AC adapter, battery chargers, audio amplifiers, fluorescent lamp ballasts, through variable frequency drives and DC motor drives used to operate pumps, fans, and manufacturing machinery, up to gigawatt-scale high voltage direct current power transmission systems used to interconnect electrical grids. Power electronic systems are found in virtually every electronic device.

Approaches of Artificial Intelligence in Biomedical Image Processing a Leading Tool Between Computer Vision & Biological Vision

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 22nd January 2018

Veenutha G | Shreyas Antin , C H.Nikitha , Mr.Abdul Lateef Haroon P.S.

Abstract

Artificial Intelligence or AI is a subfield of computer science, which can be defined as the intelligence exhibited by a machine or a software having a remarkable impact on the field of biology and medicine. Imaging, on the other hand has become an essential component of many fields in medicine, biomedical applications, biotechnology and laboratory research by which images are processed and analysed. Putting together AI and imaging, the tools and techniques of artificial intelligence are useful for solving many biomedical problems and using a computer based equipped hardware software application for understanding images, researchers and clinicians can enhance their ability to study, diagnose, monitor, understand and treat medical disorders. Therefore the main idea behind this research paper is to focus on understanding the artificial intelligence, its concepts and various models available for the segmentation(or classification) of medical images, its applications, advantages and disadvantages and results and more.

Aquatic Vehicle Navigation System Using AVR Microcontroller

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 22nd January 2018

S h u b h a n g i K h a d e | S h i t a l P a r k h i , J a y a K h a i r k r , M o n a l i M u d e , R u p a l i G a y b h i y e

Abstract

Distance measurement of an object in the path of a person, equipment, or a vehicle, stationary or moving is used in a large number of applications such as robotic movement control, vehicle control, medical applications, etc. Camera capturing the multiple images by stereovision is 3D concept. In this paper we are going to develop an autonomous system which should be able to monitor obstacle, objects, bouys etc. Measurement using ultrasonic sensors is one of the cheapest among various options and it will spark off the navigation system and intimate the base station about it. Distance measurement of an obstacle by using separate ultrasonic transmitter, receiver and a microcontroller is presented.

Arduino Based Advanced Intelligent Security System for Women with Location Tracking Through GPS Network and Bluetooth Operated App

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 22nd January 2018

SudhaArvind | Pooja , MouzzamAhmed , PoonamVerma , DivyaPatel

Abstract

Today in the current global scenario, the prime question in every girlís mind, taking into account the ever rising increase of issues on women harassment in recent past, is only about her safety and security. The only thought haunting every girl is when they will be able to move freely on the streets even in odd hours without worrying about their security. This paper suggests a new perspective to use technology to protect women. The system resembles a simple button which when activated, tracks the location of the victim using GPS (Global Positioning System) and sends emergency messages using GSM (Global System for Mobile communication), to three emergency contacts and police .The main advantage of this system is that the user does not require a internet connection for operating APP unlike other applications that have been developed earlier. The App shall dial the already saved emergency number once the SMS is sent.

ARM Based Automatic Meter Reading and Centralized Control System

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 22nd January 2018

Santosh Kumar N | Chaithanya V , Abhishek R , Archana S , K Raja Prashanth

Abstract

Electronic energy meter is capable of taking readings and can store it into its memory. Taking energy meter reading is time consuming and an expensive task. The meter reader travels for a long distance and take the reading manually to prepare the bill. Consumers have to go to the billing office, stand in a long line and submit the bill. This is a boring job and time consuming also. It can be avoided by remote monitoring of electronic energy meter and prepaid billing system by the use of cash card. In this paper measurement of energy, remote monitoring, preparing of bill and billing system is presented. Low cost ATMEGA8L microcontroller is used here to control the whole system.

ARM Based Smart Drinking Water Distribution System

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 22nd January 2018

J.Krishna Chaithanya | Dr. T. Ramashri

Abstract

The aim of this project is to implement a smart drinking water distribution system through smart card and detecting contamination of water so that people in rural, slums and also in area where there is scarcity of ground water. Not only providing safe and clean water through this system we can also reduce the wastage of water and crowding near the water tankers. Our approach is to design a system which determines the purity of supplied water and with the help of a smart card setup controls the amount of quantity to each member and also controls the illegal supply of water, thereby organizing the supply of water with lightweight implementation and reliable long time operation. This system adopts the ARM based controller to read the inputs from the sensor and determine the contamination levels if any and then provide the supply of water, Smart card system and GSM wireless network. The system can run well under the unattended operation, great reducing the intensity of work and making the water monitoring more secure, reliable and economical.

ARP Burner Automation Using PLC

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 22nd January 2018

Yeshwanth S Naick | Neethu P.S , Anjana Balchandran , Arya Vijayan , Preenima Prasad , Shincy P Kunjumon

Abstract

Automatic control is the application of control theory for regulation of processes without direct human intervention. Automatic control can self-regulate a technical plant such as a machine or an industrial process operating condition or parameters by the controllers such as PLC, DCS etc. Automation of burner in ARP is carried out using PLC with SCADA. A limitation of presently used Relay logic system is overcome by the proposed method. In PLC, centralized action takes place.PID can be used in it for controller action. Graphical view of the process can be drawn using SCADA.

Arrhythmia Analysis and Classification using Gaussian Mixture Model

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 22nd January 2018

Divya K | Veena Karjigi

Abstract

Automatic detection and classification of ECG heart beats is of high value in diagnosis and treatment of patients with lifethreatening cardiac arrhythmia. Arrhythmia is an abnormal or irregular heart rhythm which reflects the bad condition of heart. Abnormal heartbeat comprises Right Bundle Branch Block (RBBB), Left Bundle Branch Block (LBBB), Atrial Premature Contraction (APC), and Ventricular Premature Contraction (VPC). ECG signal analysis includes QRS complex detection, P and T peak detection, feature selection and beat classification. In this paper, time interval features of ECG signal are extracted and Gaussian Mixture Model (GMM) is used to classify the ECG signals. The ECG signals used for the evaluation are taken from MIT-BIH arrhythmia database. The Experimental results obtained after classification are 84.99%, 96.6%, 93.08%, 94.48% and 62.83% for NORM, LBBB, RBBB, VPC and APC, respectively

Arrhythmia Analysis and Classification using Gaussian Mixture Model

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 22nd January 2018

Divya K | Veena Karjigi

Abstract

Automatic detection and classification of ECG heart beats is of high value in diagnosis and treatment of patients with life-threatening cardiac arrhythmia. Arrhythmia is an abnormal or irregular heart rhythm which reflects the bad condition of heart. Abnormal heartbeat comprises Right Bundle Branch Block (RBBB), Left Bundle Branch Block (LBBB), Atrial Premature Contraction (APC), and Ventricular Premature Contraction (VPC). ECG signal analysis includes QRS complex detection, P and T peak detection, feature selection and beat classification. In this paper, time interval features of ECG signal are extracted and Gaussian Mixture Model (GMM) is used to classify the ECG signals. The ECG signals used for the evaluation are taken from MITBIH arrhythmia database. The Experimental results obtained after classification are 84.99%, 96.6%, 93.08%, 94.48% and 62.83% for NORM, LBBB, RBBB, VPC and APC, respectively.

Artificial Floating Islands as Eco-Engineered Remedy: A Review

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 22nd January 2018

Priyanka Baji | Dr.V.D.Salkar

Abstract

In present years, water pollution has become one of the most critical environmental challenges. The Artificial Floating Islands (AFIs) are an innovative variant of wetlands with substrates-rooted plants and free-floating aquatic plant systems, which consist of aquatic or terrestrial plants growing in a hydroponic manner with buoyant frames floating on the surface of water bodies. Eco engineered remedy such as floating wetland is commonly presented as an important strategy for maintaining and improving water quality and aesthetic appearance of water bodies. Literature review indicates that previous works are carried out at different scales using different design parameters. Artificial Floating Islands (AFIs) are vegetated floating platforms applied in lakes, ponds and reservoirs to improve the aquatic environment. AFIs have four functions: water purification, habitat enhancement shoreline erosion protection, and improved landscape features. This paper reviews the studies carried out by earlier researchers on AFI. The primary advantages of AFIs are that they float and adjust to water level variations in reservoirs and reduce predation risks by providing safe protections for nesting birds. The paper presents the type, structure, function, and developing history of AFIs. By analyzing the social-economic benefits, advices are given for applying AFIs technology to improve the water environment and to improve crops thereby creating a ďwin-winĒ model for both environmental protection and agricultural development in rural places. Based on the review it can be concluded that AFI technology is promising and acceptable even indigenously.

Artificial Intelligence Approach To Improve Lifespan Of Wireless Sensor Network : A Survey

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 28th August 2017

Mr. Ranjit V. Bobate | Dr. G.M. Asutkar, Prof. Harsha Ramawat

Abstract

Wireless sensor network is a set of specialized transducer with a communication infrastructure meant to monitor and record the condition at diverse region . Sensor node can be imagine as a small computer , extremely basic in terms of their interfaces and their component .therefore resource management in the wireless sensor network is one of the significant research issue in the improvement of lifespan of of wireless sensor network with intelligence . Hence in this research, we find the survey on artificial intelligence techniques like Neural Network , Fuzzy Logic to improve the lifespan of wireless sensor network along with the optimization techniques to conserve the limited resources in a large collection of sensor nodes .

Artificial Kidney

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 22nd January 2018

Khaleel Naina Mohammed M M S | Arun Mitheran G , Bhuvanesh Kumar R , Kirubasankar.K

Abstract

The main aim of this paper is to reduce the death that is caused by kidney failure and to make every people to get a cheaper treatment towards kidney failure and to find the criteria for this sort of problem, so as a result we have concluded with this idea, so far Hemodialysis was only the rectifier for kidney failure but it is only a temporary cure which is an cyclic process which is said to be done for 2 to 3 times a week as per the subjects condition and the time taken for this process is about hours and the charge is about Rs.1800 and twice a week special injections for blood cell regeneration and blood test is necessary so as an result an person who suffers from kidney malfunction is said to be spending Rs.30,000 approx. it could be even more than that and it is obligatory that transplantation shoulds be done after a phase of instant, so my aphorism is to make an ďArtificial kidneyĒ which can be rooted to an victim at an cost less than that of actual kidney transplantation.

ASIC Implementation of 32-bit MIPS RISC Processor using Multi-VDD Technique

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 22nd January 2018

Jeyakumar R | Suryavanshi Rushank Sharad , David Jey Singh , Jayakrishnan P

Abstract

the phenomena of scaling down the device results into certain hazards in the processor However it can have an adverse impact on the various performance parameters of the processor as area, power and timing. However in order to overcome the enlisted shortcomings the design of Microprocessor without Interlocked Pipeline Stages (MIPS) architecture is preferred. The Microprocessor without Interlocked Pipeline Stages is a RISC processor. The architecture discussed is implemented using Verilog HDL. Further ASIC flow is performed using 32nm technology. However low power realization is achieved by using multiple voltage (Multi-VDD) technique where by the critical path in the design is analyzed and the voltage of that respective path is increased there by achieving a good speed up.

ASIC Implementation of Data Comparison Circuit for Cache Memory

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 22nd January 2018

Basavaraj Mirji | R Pramod , Dr. V. Anandi

Abstract

In current scenario, computing system of microprocessor involves data comparison circuit for matching input data to the stored data in memory. For protection of data and to improve reliability, the recent microprocessor uses error correcting code. In this paper a new architecture for data matching is presented to reduce the delay and hardware circuit complexity. Taking into account the property of the systematic codeword, the deliberate shape comprising of information and parity bits independently, so parallel examination of information and parity bits diminishes the delay of the overall circuit.

Assistive Scene Text Recognition

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 22nd January 2018

Hymavathi K.P | Fouziya v.k

Abstract

Abundance in text along with development of digitalized camera system lead to a new era of recognition and analysis. Traffic sign board which meant for road safety is all time a matter of fact for the traffic safety. The traffic board which carries signs along with informative texts are to be recognized for safe driving. Apart from normal sign board recognition, here the informative boards are also considered. This is a fewer step towards driver assistive system. The scene recognition faces a lot of challenges like motion blur, occlusion and lighting factors. The goal is to implement a system (model) for recognizing the text and signs in the traffic board and to create sound alert. The HOG based vector machine (SVM) classifies the traffic sign and the text is recognized using MSER based OCR. Advantages of the proposed system are well condition under illumination changes sound alert and text recognition is an added advantage with other methods.

ATM Security using Fingerprint Authentication and OTP

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 22nd June 2018

Aruna R | Sudha V, Shruthi G, Usha Rani R, Sushma V

Abstract

In this paper, we propose to add more security to the current ATM Systems. By using Biometric Authentication and GSM technology, we can overcome many of the flaws introduced by our current ATM system such as shoulder surfing, use of skimming device, etc. In our proposed system, Bankers will collect the customer’s as well as respective nominee’s fingerprint and mobile number at the time of opening the account. The primary step is to verify currently provided fingerprint with the fingerprint which is registered in the Bank’s database at the time of account opening. If the two fingerprints get matched, then a message will be delivered immediately to the user’s mobile number which is the random 10 digit pin number called as One Time Password (OTP). This OTP can be used only once, thus this avoids various problems associated with the present system. For every transaction, new OTP will be sent to account holder’s mobile number, thus there will not be fixed PIN number for every transaction. Thus, PIN number will vary during each transaction assuring security

Attacks Resistant to the Routing Level and a Synopsis of Refuge Factor of Routing in Mobile Adhoc Network

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 22nd January 2018

Mrs. U. Srilakshmi | Dr. B. Srinivasa Rao

Abstract

In this composition, the creators have portrayed the different conceivable answers for Security in MANET Systems. Versatile Ad-hoc Networks are spontaneous, self-sorting out systems made out of portable hubs that use work organizing standards for interconnectivity. Steering in impromptu systems is an exceptionally difficult issue because of hubs versatility, dynamic topology, visit connect breakage, impediment of hubs memory, battery, data transfer capacity, and preparing force and absence of main issue like base stations or servers. Portable impromptu system is a self-sufficient arrangement of versatile hubs. Every hub works as an end framework, as well as a switch to forward bundles. The hubs are allowed to move about and arrange themselves into a system. These cause additional difficulties on security. In this paper, assessment of unmistakable on-request steering convention i.e. AODV, MAODV, RAODV has been finished by differing the system estimate. An exertion has been done to do the execution assessment of these conventions utilizing arbitrary way point show. The creators have acquainted the security issues particular with MANETs and present a point by point arrangement of the assaults/assailants against these complex circulated frameworks. At that point we talk about different proactive and responsive arrangements proposed for MANETs. We diagram secure steering answers for keep away from a few assaults against the directing conventions in light of participation between hubs. We additionally give an outline of interruption recognition in MANETs and show the way of IDSs that have been proposed for MANETs in the previous decade.

Authentication by Zero Knowledge Protocol

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 22nd January 2018

K. Prasanth | E.T. Jabajasphin

Abstract

In wireless sensor network (WSN) various types of sensors are used and deployed in the network to collect useful physical parameters and some highly sensitive information is then been transmitted between the nodes and to the base station, without any human intervention. Hence, message authenticity and security are major requirements in WSN. Since the cryptographic schemes used for wired networks tend to exhaust wireless sensor network resources, they cannot be directly used in sensor networks. Here the Zero Knowledge Protocol (ZKP) is implemented in the network for the authentication and verification of sender sensor nodes before transmitting any sensitive information. In proposed scheme an optimal number of challenge questions are also used to maintain a balance between the added security and the increase in cost. Increase in the number of challenge question makes up to the reduced key size thus providing an improved security. The proposed scheme was assessed based on the MATLAB simulation and an analysis was performed.

Auto-Smart Fertilizer

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 22nd June 2018

Halesha H R | Kavya G K , Kavya D S, Kavyashree N V, Manjushree B R

Abstract

The country like India, the economy is heavily dependent on agriculture. Still, we are not able to make optimal, profitable and sustainable use of our agricultural land. Crop production is strongly influenced by soil properties, rooting depth, nutrition and their interaction with climate. For the new agricultural area, without knowing or monitoring the important parameters of soil, cultivation will be difficult and so the farmers suffer financial losses. Soil testing is the basis for the nutrient recommendation and formulated fertilization. The soil test will help to ensure the application of enough fertilizer to meet the requirements of the crop. The farmers find it difficult to know the proper amount of fertilizer which is required for the particular type of crop which yields better productivity. Development of agriculture using technology will be very much useful in cultivation. The main target of our work is to develop a device which continuously monitors soil fertility and provides sufficient fertilizer required.

Automated EB Bill Control Measurement with Automated Power Disconnection

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 22nd January 2018

N.Mahendren | P.Karthik , S.Balakumar, S.Lalith Kishore, S.Bhoopalan

Abstract

The design presents a latest methodology for avoiding the maintenance costs and high construction in the existing indicator sense technology. Apart the use of wireless meter reading with network technologies has become need of the day. The designed system avoids the man involvement in Power Management. The online banking use to credit the amount in user or consumer account in time, if couldnít, the power connection may be disconnected automatically from the remote server. It displays the equivalent amount and reading information on LCD and data is sent to the server through the GSM Module. The PIC based hardware system consists of a processor core board and the peripheral board. The entire user interface design for microcontroller operation is based on Embedded C Language. This system provides capable meter reading, avoiding the billing mistake and reduces the protection charge. Online banking service is used to automatically debit the bill amount in user bank account this paper also addresses compensations of implementing the GSM communiquť module and design detail and discusses the forwardlooking security of the data communications.

Automated Irrigation System Using GSM Module

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 22nd January 2018

Siddharth Bhattacharjee | Machina Hema Mani Kumar , P.N.Vaidyanathan

Abstract

The increasing demand of the food supplies requires a rapid improvement in food production technology. In many countries where agriculture plays an important part in shaping up the economy and the climatic conditions are isotropic, but still we are not able to make full use of agricultural resources. One of the main reason is the lack of rain & scarcity of land reservoir water. Also, the unplanned use of water inadvertently resulting in water wastage. The aim of our project is to minimize the manual intervention of the farmer, which is why we are using a micro-controller PIC- PERIPHERAL INTERRUPT CONTROLLER. It's done using a GSM MODULE attached with the Automated Irrigation System. The micro-controller based AUTOMATED IRRIGATION SYSTEM will serve the following purposes: 1) As there is planned usage of water, a lot of water is saved from being wasted. 2) The soil is irrigated when there is not enough moisture in the soil and the microcontroller decides when should the pump be turned on/off . 3) The water level Indicator checks the amount of water in the water container. Thus this saves much time of the farmers, as they donít have to go and turn the pump on/off manually by monitoring various soil parameters for controlled Irrigation.

Automated Solar Irrigation system with MPPT

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 22nd January 2018

Krishna S. Kolte | Pratik D. Selkar,Abhijit Singare,Sandip Salwe,Reeta Damahe

Abstract

As we know in Mostly in íIndiaí Electrical Energy is generated by the burning of coal. This generation of electrical energy produces lot of pollution. And as we know solar energy is conventional source of energy, it is readily available 12hours in a day. Solar energy can became alternative to this non-conventional energy but there is problem is that photovoltaic cell are less efficient. In order to improve the efficiency of photovoltaic cells MPPT techniques are used.[1] In this paper we present that 12volt battery is charged with the help of solar panel & MPPT. Then this system is used for irrigation purpose by directly applying 12volt dc to the DC pumps with battery, it can also be used in fields by increasing solar panel & battery rating, DC pump for large scale use. It can also used in hotel & motels, bungalows for gardening. This system is completely automated using IC 555.

Automated System for Precision Fisheries & Vegetation Monitoring With Real-Time Analysis

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 16th April 2018

Poonam Soni | Kalpesh Mahajan, Saiprasad Bhoskar, Varsha Patil

Abstract

Hydroponics is the system of hardware and software designed to control and monitor hydroponic gardens. The goal of such a system is to create a precisely controlled automated hydroponic garden. The benefit of such a garden would be autonomous food production, self-sustainability, and conserve water as a resource. The system consists of custom electronics and software. The hardware consists of the Hydroponics modules. The Hydroponics modules are used for wireless plant and environmental sensing

Automatic Auto/Taxi Fare System

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 22nd January 2018

Bharathi R | Arunadevi

Abstract

Taxis or auto rickshaws are an important part means of transportation. Integrating auto-rickshaw services complements public transportation systems, ensuring connectivity and easy access throughout the city. The current fare meter of auto-rickshaws and taxis follows a faring scheme that only computes the cost of the journey after the travel. This allows the drivers to trap new comers to a city to take passenger through a route that is longer than the exact route to his destined address leading to payment of fare which is larger than the actual fare. To eliminate this, a new system may be implemented that calculates the fare and route prior to the journey. Here GPS is used to determine the current location .The system uses a mapping scheme for calculating the shortest path from the current location to the destination and thereby computing the estimate of the fare for entire journey. As it gives an exact cost for the distance travelled, the conflicts between the driver and the passenger can be avoided

Automatic CO2 Extinguisher Fire Fighting Drone

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 4th January 2018

Ethara Bala Vyshnavi | Amareswari Ambati, Gorantla Chamundeswari, Garre Vineetha

Abstract

Unmanned Aerial vehicles commonly known as Quadcopters are aerial vehicles operated through a remote control system to fly independently. They are called rotorcrafts because it work’s with a set of revolving twisted chord aerofoils. The quadcopter is getting more excessively used due to many reasons such as Easy to build and assemble, complexity is less. Generally, in most of the cases, drones are used in Transporting objects, military, spying, educational use, rescue etc. The main target of this paper is to explain the usage of drone for firefighting and rescue. This paper focuses on the components that can be used for a firefighting drone to reduce the overall weight, working principle of automatic sensor detection of fire and reacting corresponding to it.

Automatic Coke Oven Pushing And Charging Schedule

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 31st May 2017

Sneha Bhimrao Joundale | Devendra Sutar,Sajit Sadanandan

Abstract

Most of the coke ovens plant has the manual schedule for pushing and charging sequence of the ovens. The manual schedule gives rise to several problems which affect the process time resulting in the decrease in the production. This paper presents the full automatic system for coke oven scheduling. Further, using this auto schedule battery machines can be made to work according to schedule leading to man-less operation of battery machines. The optimized auto schedule is created by process control system which uses plc logic based on the scheduling algorithm. This auto schedule system reduces all errors and all battery machines are made to work automatically using the schedule. This approach makes the system completely automatic in operation; which improves an efficiency of the plant and also reduces operator workload. Optimized auto pushing and charging schedule of coke ovens create the comfortable working environment.

Automatic Control and Monitor of Green House using Sensors

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 22nd January 2018

C.Vamsivarshika | B.Sravani

Abstract

This paper presents a automatic monitoring and control system for greenhouse through Internet of Things(IOT). The system will monitor the various environmental conditions such as humidity, soil moisture, temperature, presence of fire. If any condition crosses certain limits, a message will be sent to the registered number through GSM module. The microcontroller will automatically turn on the motor if the soil moisture is less than a particular value. This project describes the design and implementation of a wireless sensor networks for greenhouse environment monitoring. In this paper we will present an overview of the IOT phenomena as well as its applications on greenhouse. IOT is a vision of a world in which most objects are connected transmitting updates about their performance thereby people use them to do things more Intelligently.

Automatic Detection of Potholes on Roads to AID Drivers

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 22nd January 2018

Ramya Gayathri.M | Sree Lakshmi . S , Krishna Kumar. H , Bharathi .S , Geetha .R

Abstract

One of the major problems in developing countries is mainte nance of r o a ds. Well maintaine d roads contribute a major portion to the countryís economy. Identification of pavement distress such as potholes not only helps drivers to avoid accidents or vehicle damages, but also helps authorities to maintain roads. This paper discusses previous pothole detection methods that have been developed and proposes a cost- effective solution to identify the potholes on roads and provide timely alerts to drivers to avoid accidents or vehicle damages. Camera captures the image of the road, Beagle bone is used to identify the potholes on the road, the geographical location coordinates of the potholes are identified using a global positioning system receiver respectively. The sensed data includes pothole width and geographic location, which is stored in the database (cloud).This serves as a valuable source of information to the soceity and vehicle drivers. An android application is used to alert drivers so that precautionary measures can be taken to evade accidents. Alerts are given in the form of a App notification and vibration.

Automatic Energy Meter Reading and Load Control System Using ZIGBEE

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 22nd January 2018

Dharani.S | Rajalakshmi S

Abstract

Now-a-days technology has developed to a large extend. At the same time the need for systems with automation and high security are preferred. An automatic energy meter reading (AMR) and load control system is presented in this paper. Conventional energy meter reading method for retrieving energy consumption and billing is a tedious process and cost of data logging systems is high. This requires huge labor and long working hour to achieve the reading process. Human billing are prone to reading errors and sometime in houses the electricity power meter is placed in location where it is not easily accessible, the billing will slowed down due bad weather conditions. AMR technology will automatically collects energy consumption data from energy meter and transfer that data to Electricity Board (EB) office by using wireless sensor networks (WSN).This system use LCD display to provide the meter reading, power cut, total load used and power disconnect information at customer side. This information is being sent and received by concerned energy Provider Company with the help of ZigBee network. It can also control loads with the help of relay circuit, when the demand for energy consumption goes high. This system not only reduces the labor cost but also increase energy meter reading accuracy and save huge amount of time.

Automatic Farm Protection and Irrigation?

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 22nd January 2018

MS Deepa R | Aditi Sharma , Archana.M , Archana.B.Poste , Arun Kumar.R

Abstract

In the field of agriculture, use of proper method of the protection and irrigation is important. The project makes the protection and irrigation automated. With the use of low cost sensors and the simple circuitry makes this project is a low cost product, which can be bought even by a poor farmer. This project is best suited for places where water is scares and has to be used in limited quantity and it is used for protection of farm from various attacks. The heart of the project is the microcontroller. Protection of the farm is done by using PIR sensor, Beeper, Electrical fence and Temperature sensor. For irrigation a wetness sensor is used which checks the moisture level of the soil.

Automatic Gas Cylinder Management

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 22nd June 2018

Dhanya G.S | MulumTejas, Mujasim Pasha I, Raghavendra D, Veeresh K.R

Abstract

In the present scenario, we face a huge issue sometimes as we may require cooking during late night or any other work related to our LPG. However it would be too late to realize the value of that gas unless we realize it is over, by then it is too late as it takes 2-3 days to deliver a new cylinder. The aim of our project is to design and develop a device which is capable of detecting the depletion of gas and book cylinder automatically, to switch off the regulator when the gas is not used and to track the status of cylinder delivery, The cylinder management system would help improve productivity, as well as improve the quality, reliability and efficiency of the cylinder management process. We use WI-FI module in this project for checking the status of cylinder delivery. It is a non-renewable resource for the society to conserve the energy in the best possible way. Making the cylinder automatic relieves home-makers from the pain they take whenever there is emergency in the requirement for the cylinder and we do not know when the cylinder will go empty.

Automatic Lambent Audio Transmission Using LI-FI

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 30th March 2018

R. MercyKingsta | H.S. Rajeswari,S.N. Raseena Nelofur

Abstract

Light Fidelity (Li-Fi) is an emerging technology that is expected to be one of the fastest wireless accesses in future and is used for establishing wireless communication at a very high speed. In this paper, basic LED is used for the purpose of data transfer. The main objective is to use the LED for illumination as well as for the transmission of data automatically in a room by sensing the presence of humans using piezoelectric sensor. Here, the data to be transmitted is audio signal. Since it is used for both the purposes, energy is conserved which is important in the current century. A Piezoelectric sensor is used to detect the person when they enter into a room. So it can be used in waiting halls to make the person entertained by playing an audio when they enter the hall.

Automatic Light Polarizer and Traffic Density Controller

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 22nd January 2018

Muhammed Irshad | Manoj V.P., Athira Krishna K.R.,Krishnapriya A.R., Hafeefa , Ms. Sangeetha Gopinath

Abstract

Now a dayís accident rates are increasing due to excess intensity of light from the opposite vehicle during late night rides. There is the need of reducing the level of accidents by reducing the intensity of light from the opposite vehicle. The first section of this project aims to develop an Automatic light polarizer that reduces the intensity of light from the opposite vehicle. This system works on the principle of operation of light polarizerís. That is, when two polarizing plates are arranged parallel to each other it becomes transparent and when they are arranged perpendicular it becomes opaque to the light. The second section of this project is Traffic density controller. The traffic density control system aims at reducing the traffic in the main town area by making the vehicles to pass through the bypass junction whenever heavy traffic is detected in the town area. The system includes a transmitter and a receiver. The traffic density is sensed at the transmitter side. At the receiver section, a display is used that displays the information about the density and give instruction for the vehicles to take diversion. The main objective of this project is to minimize the accident levels and to ensure life security.

Automatic Monitoring and Controlling of Greenhouse System using Zigbee

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 22nd January 2018

G. Hima Bindu | K. Lokesh Krishna , K. Hemalatha

Abstract

The usage of Wireless Sensor Networks has become really important in recent years because of their ability to manage real-time data for various novel services. In this paper a ZigBee based automatically monitored and controlling system for greenhouse system is designed and implemented. This system utilizes an ARM7 processor, various sensors and ZigBee communication module. The entire system is powered by using a solar plate, placed outside the greenhouse system. Sensors gather various physical data from the field in real time and transmit it to the processor and to the end user via ZigBee communication module. Then necessary actions are initiated to perform action on behalf of people to reduce or eliminate the need of human labor. Necessary threshold values for each sensor measurement have been included in the program, so that the essential parameters necessary for plant growth can be accurately controlled. The proposed system has been tested for a week and reasonable results have been observed, which indicate that this system is very much useful for automatic greenhouse system monitoring and control.

Automatic Monitoring and Controlling of Greenhouse System using Zigbee

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 31st May 2017

G. Hima Bindu | K. Lokesh Krishna, K. Hema Latha

Abstract

The usage of Wireless Sensor Networks has become really important in recent years because of their ability to manage real-time data for various novel services. In this paper a ZigBee based automatically monitored and controlling system for greenhouse system is designed and implemented. This system utilizes an ARM7 processor, various sensors and ZigBee communication module. The entire system is powered by using a solar plate, placed outside the greenhouse system. Sensors gather various physical data from the field in real time and transmit it to the processor and to the end user via ZigBee communication module. Then necessary actions are initiated to perform action on behalf of people to reduce or eliminate the need of human labor. Necessary threshold values for each sensor measurement have been included in the program, so that the essential parameters necessary for plant growth can be accurately controlled. The proposed system has been tested for a week and reasonable results have been observed, which indicate that this system is very much useful for automatic greenhouse system monitoring and control

Automatic Railway Gate Control System

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 22nd January 2018

Sweety Sinha | Pankhuri Priyam , V.Vishnupriya, Showme Joselin

Abstract

In India casualties due to road as well as rail accidents predominates. When we look at a single road mishap ,only a few succumbs but ,in a single rail accident hundreds to thousand tombs are laid. The objective of this paper is to provide an automatic railway gate at the level crossing ,thus replacing the present technique of manual operation done by humans. Also this type of gates can be employed in an unmanned level crossing where the chances of accidents are higher and reliable operation is needed. Since, the operation is automated, mortal accidents can be prevented . This proposed system uses Adriano Uno microcontroller and IR sensors .

Automatic Recognition for Instances of Repetitions in Stuttered Speech using Sequence Training Algorithm

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 22nd January 2018

G. Manjula | Dr. M. Shiva Kumar

Abstract

Stuttering is a speech disorder in which normal flow of speech is messed out by occurrences of dysfluencies. There are high proportion of prolongations and repetitions in stuttered speech. Stuttered speech recognition technology is a great aid to admit the challenges and it is a prominent technology for Human-computer Interaction . Conventionally, stuttering assessment is done by counting number of dysfluent words as a proportion of total words in a passage. Stuttering assessment is also done by measuring the time of dysfluencies and comparing with the duration of the entire passage. However, it is time-consuming and it results in poor agreement with different individuals assessing the same speech data. Therefore, automatic stuttered speech recognition system is used to automate the dysfluency count and type of dysfluency classification, thus providing an objective and consistent assessment of stuttered speech. Such approach can support Speech Language Pathology (SLP) by doing tedious routine works and allowing more time for therapeutic session between SLP and stutterers. Instances of repetitions in stuttered speech are recognized by using back propogation based sequence training method. Artificial neural network is used to make intelligence through the learning process. In this work Multi-layer Feed forward Network and error back propagation learning algorithm is used to train the network. The combination of the artificial neural network and the back propagation algorithm is the sequence training technique. The experimental investigations reveal that the proposed method shows promising results in identifying the instances of repetitions in stuttered speech

Automatic Resistance Spot Welding Using Arm Controller

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 8th August 2017

Mohan Kumar B N | Aruna E, Dhanush S, SaiNikitha D, Sneha V

Abstract

Resistance Spot welding system which is used for performing a welding process. The paper is divided into 3 sections. First, brief introduction of welding, methods of welding control such as resistance and spot welding is given. Secondly, the critical factor in the design of a welding process is dealt along with the principle of the welding process. Following this, the introduction to the design of the control scheme employed by us with the basic block diagram of the welding system and the functioning is presented. Finally, the conclusions is drawn along with its working and future improvements. The traditional approach in relation to spot welding machines is to use 50 Hz welding transformers. The drawback associated with these transformers is that they are both heavy and bulky. With the development of high power semiconductor switches and DC-DC converter topologies, it is now possible to develop inverter drive resistance spot welding equipment which can be operated at frequencies higher than the 50Hz frequency. The advantage of using high frequencies is the reduction in the size of the transformer. Automated resistance welding machines use micro-controller based control systems to regulate and ensure consistent welds. The design hopes to achieve complete automation of the resistance welding process. This is done by accepting various process inputs from the user and after due process, controlling various parameters like the current, conduction angle, weld count, etc.,. This is achieved by using a micro-controller, which will acquire data from the user and process it to generate suitable control signals as and when required during the welding process. The use of arm microcontroller makes the operation extremely fast, reliable and flexible. In the design, the most important parameter to be monitored and controlled is the primary welding current. For this constant current control method, an adaptive algorithm takes care of the past and present values, to predict the firing angles of thyristors in the next cycle, to ensure the present value of the current is maintained. The design and development of the control software algorithm is dealt with. Finally, the conclusions are drawn along with its working.

Automatic Retinal Disorder Identification In Diabetic Retinopathy And Maculopathy Using Neural Network

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 22nd January 2018

Sandeep M S | Dr Chandrashekar M Patil

Abstract

Computational methodologies have become a significant part of the real time applications. One specification application which highly depends on the computing techniques is the medical led ophthalmology is a significant branch of biomedical led which requires computer aided automated techniques for pathology identification in human eyes. Eye is the most essential part of the entire creature in this world for vision. So the main intention of carrying this work is to reduce retinal disorders in younger generation. This work proceeds with detecting the disorder present in human eye based on Diabetic retinopathy and other parameter and develops an efficient algorithm to detect retinal disorder using MATLAB.

Automatic Toll Payment with Tracking of Theft Vehicles

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 22nd January 2018

Ajila Shirin A | Geethu M S , Jayitha O , Kabeer Nisam O , Muhammed Niyas

Abstract

Millions of drivers passing through Toll Gate Stations every day. The conventional way of collecting the toll from the vehicle drivers is to stop the car by the Toll Gate Stations and then pay the amount to the toll collector standing (or perhaps sitting!) by the side of the toll booth, after which the gate is opened either mechanically or electronically for the driver to get through the toll station. An efficient utilization of communication link between RF Modems over a wireless channel to facilitate vehicle monitoring, vehicle authentication and automated toll collection on the highways is proposed. The system is implemented to automatically collecting the toll and more convenient way of traffic management. The implementation is divided into the design of three modules, Vehicle Module, Tollgate station and Central PC End. The three modules communicate via RF Data modem connected to each module.

Automatic Tuberculosis Detection Based On Multiple Instance Learning Classifiers from the X-Ray Images

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 9th February 2018

Vallithai.C  | Ahila

Abstract

The major advantage of multiple-instance learning (MIL) applied to a computer-aided detection (CAD) system is that it allows optimizing the latter with case-level labels instead of accurate lesion outlines as traditionally required for a supervised approach. In previous work, a MIL-based CAD system can perform comparably to its supervised counterpart considering complex tasks such as chest radiograph scoring in tuberculosis (TB) detection. However, despite this remarkable achievement, the uncertainty inherent to MIL can lead to a less satisfactory outcome if analysis at lower levels (e.g., regions or pixels) is needed. This issue may seriously compromise the applicability of MIL to tasks related to quantification or grading, or detection of highly localized lesions. In this project, we propose to reduce uncertainty by embedding a MIL classifier within an active learning (AL) framework. To minimize the labelling effort, we develop a novel instance selection mechanism that exploits the MIL problem definition through one-class classification. We adopt this mechanism to provide meaningful regions instead of individual instances for expert labelling, which a more appropriate strategy is given the application domain. In addition, and contrary to usual AL methods, a single iteration is performed. To show the effectiveness of our approach, we compare the output of a MIL-based CAD system trained with and without the proposed AL framework. The task is to detect textural abnormalities related to TB. Both quantitative and qualitative evaluations at the pixel level are carried out.

Automatic Vehicle Accident Detection & Messaging System Using GPS & GSM

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 31st May 2017

M.Susmitha | H.Keerthana, Y.Aishwarya, S.Parvezahmed,S. Narasimhulu

Abstract

Road accidents constitute the major part of the accident deaths all over the world. According to the Insurance Institute for Highway Safety (IIHS), new cars and its high-tech safety features have helped to lessen auto related deaths over the past 12 years. Though it credits technology for lessening auto accidents, yet the IIHS cannot help accusing bad driving behavior, like drunken driving, speeding and not using seatbelts for still causing major traffic deaths. Automatic vehicle accident detection and messaging system is an embedded intelligence implanted into the automobile. The purpose of the project is to find the vehicle where it is and locate the vehicle by means of sending a message using a system which is placed inside of vehicle system Most of the times we may not be able to find accident location because we don’t know where accident will happen. In order to give treatment for injured people, first we need to know where the accident happened through location tracking and sending a message to your related one or to the emergency services. So in this work we are using the basic microcontroller Arduino atmega328 for cost effective and also for easy understanding. Here we used assembly programming for better accuracy and GPS and GSM modules which helps to trace the vehicle anywhere on the globe. The exact location of the vehicle is sent to our remote devices (mobile phones) using GSM modem.

Automatic Voiture Verschelles

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 13th July 2017

Dhanya G S | Kadar Basha J,Anjukumar S, Akshayaa D, Jeyaramanan S

Abstract

In this project work an automatic car cover is proposed which will opens itself with the help of push button. It covers the whole car with a thin and a strong material that not only protects the car from rain, dust and mud in parked situation but, also from minor scratches. The model also consists of microcontroller and sensors for sensing the surrounding environment and based on the values, the car cover mechanism would be activated. The cover takes the shape of the car and the car is well protected..

Automation of Library System Using Firebird V

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 22nd January 2018

Rohit Kelkar | Mohit Deshmukh , Nihar Pawde , Aditya Chauhan

Abstract

Though the ease of dealing with the library services has evolved in past few years, there are still some chances of finding human errors and locating books in library. The automation technology has developed rapidly in the last two decades and so as the ease of dealing with things in day to day life. In this paper we have tried to demonstrate a prototype of Autonomous Robot Fire Bird Vwhich will automate the book issuing system in library. The robot will take input from the user and serach for the desired book among library shelves. Upon getting the respective book, it will hand it over to the user thereby reducing human work.

Automation of Pizza Delivery System Using Firebird V

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 22nd January 2018

Sampada Patki | Shivam Deshpande , Shubham Mahajan , Shreyas Pande , Prof.S.V.Pattalwar

Abstract

Firebird V Pizza delivery system is robot automated pizza delivery system which enables to reduce the human errors and efforts and reduce the time complexities achieving the maximum possible accuracy at the same time. Firebird V with ATmega 2560 as a micro- processor is used as a hardware in achieving the objectives. We have used embedded C as a programming tool to help the robot perform the required task.

Automation of Remote Areas in Emergency Using Smart Card Or UID Cards

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 31st May 2017

Prof. Abhijit V. Warhade | Prof. Pranali K. Misal, Prof. Harsha Ramawat

Abstract

In the age of electronic system it is important to be able to control and acquire information from anywhere. Although many methods for automation system have been developed limitations in the range of device is main problem faced by all these devices. We developed an electronic system consist of four buttons namely police, fire, ambulance and NMC and a card reader. This system will be known as UID station which will be available at every square like ATM stations. Whenever anybody needs to contact any one of the above mentioned departments, he or she will go to the UID station nearer to him or her will swap the card in card reader then will press the required button. In this way the information will be sent to the particular station indicating the information of complainer and number of times the complain received. At every station there will be a button which will be pressed by the station in charge to show that the complain is received. And the complainer will get the confirmation. In this way information is sent at nearest station and problems are solved at fast rate.

Autonomous Robot for Agrilife

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 22nd January 2018

Prof P.G.Salunke | Radhika R. Deshmukh , Shital R. Chaudhari , Nayan P.Gharte , Poonam K. Desale

Abstract

This paper represents the system which perform high speed operation for an advanced agricultural process which consist cultivation based on the robotic platform. The robotic system is an electromechanical system while the artificial system which is driven by the DC motor which has four wheels. Depending upon the crop, considering particular rows & specific columns the watering operation is performed. The robot will sense the crop on both sides and after detection of crop it will shower them equally and at a proper distance. For which proximity sensor would be used. Assembly language is used for programming the microcontroller. Microcontroller is the heart of the system which is used to control and monitor it with help of the DC motor.

‚ÄúDevelopment of Computer Aided Diagnosis System (CADx) for Detection of Anomalies in Breast using Textural Features with PNN classifier‚ÄĚ

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 4th September 2017

Miss. Ankita Satyendra Singh | Mrs. M. M. Pawar

Abstract

High False Negative Rate (FNR) is a very significant problem in a Computer Aided Diagnostic System as false negative answer may lead to a very high increase in the number of deaths. The main aim of this paper lies in the development of a new Computer Aided Diagnosis (CADx) system for the proper identification of breast masses. It also focuses at extraction of textural features. The input images are pre-processed by using Adaptive Median Filter and then segmented by using Gaussian Mixture Model i.e. GMM segmentation and further are subjected to feature extraction, selection and finally classification by using PNN classifier. MIAS database is used for research purpose which contains 322 mammogram images out of which 60 images as 20 of benign, 20 malignant and 20 normal are taken into consideration for feature extraction. 22 texture features are extracted and are further classified. PNN classifier with 80-20 train-test partition is used for classification. The Sensitivity, Specificity and Accuracy obtained by the selected features are 100%, 100%, and 100% respectively.

‚ÄúDevelopment of Computer Aided Diagnosis System (CADx) for Detection of Anomalies in Breast using Textural Features with PNN classifier‚ÄĚ

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 16th August 2017

Miss. Ankita Satyendra Singh | Prof. Mrs. M. M. Pawar

Abstract

High False Negative Rate (FNR) is a very significant problem in a Computer Aided Diagnostic System as false negative answer may lead to a very high increase in the number of deaths. The main aim of this paper lies in the development of a new Computer Aided Diagnosis (CADx) system for the proper identification of breast masses. It also focuses at extraction of textural features. The input images are pre-processed by using Adaptive Median Filter and then segmented by using Gaussian Mixture Model i.e. GMM segmentation and further are subjected to feature extraction, selection and finally classification by using PNN classifier. MIAS database is used for research purpose which contains 322 mammogram images out of which 60 images as 20 of benign, 20 malignant and 20 normal are taken into consideration for feature extraction. 22 texture features are extracted and are further classified. PNN classifier with 80-20 train-test partition is used for classification. The Sensitivity, Specificity and Accuracy obtained by the selected features are 100%, 100%, and 100% respectively

‚ÄúTechnological utilization in the English Language Teaching and Learning‚ÄĚ

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 28th December 2017

Mr. P. Luther Benny | Mr. Vinayakaswamy Negalurmath, CG Om Prakash, Sangeetha M, Pramodh A Jamadagni, Swathi Balan

Abstract

In the language teaching and learning, there is a profuse scope for selection of the domain of technology: Radio, TV, CD Rom, Computers, C.A.L.L., the Internet, Electronic Dictionary, Email, Blogs and Audio Cassettes, PowerPoint, Videos, DVD’s or VCD’s. The last two decades have realized a revolution due to the inception of technology and has transmuted the dynamics of assorted industries, influencing the industries and the way people interrelate and work in the society. This prompt expansion of the information technology presented an enhanced design to explore the novel instruction model. As an influence, the technology plays an exceedingly significant role in the English teaching. Utilizing the multimedia to engender a context to teach English with has its distinctive recompenses. This paper analyses the certainty of multimedia technology in the English language teaching and conveying the problems encountered by using it. It also facilitates the English teachers to be cognizant of the strategies to use them proficiently.

Bandwidth Enhancement of Multi band Microstrip Patch Antenna

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 22nd January 2018

Pavan Kumar Shandilya | Poonam Sinha

Abstract

Microstrip patch antenna is versatile field of antenna theory. A special antenna design that improves electrical performance and sustainability is described here. A single feed compact microstrip patch antenna with resonant frequency 4 GHz is proposed in this paper for two geometries. The proposed antenna design of different geometries (i.e. Rectangular and circular). The simulation results are : For rectangular geometry return loss of -38.86 dB ,VSWR = 1.023 at 5 GHz, and 28% impedance bandwidth at 4.5 Ė 6 GHz and for circular geometry return loss of -19.54 dB ,VSWR = 1.236 at 7 GHz and 25% impedance bandwidth at 6.2 - 8 GHz.

Bandwidth Extension of Speech Signal: A Review

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 10th February 2018

Janki Patel | Nikunj V. Tahilramani, Ninad Bhatt, Vandana Talreja

Abstract

The narrowband frequency range from about 300 Hz to 3.4 kHz. So, the audio quality of telephone network is restricted. Bandwidth extension(BWE) is used to extend narrowband(NB) frequency range to wideband(WB) frequency range which is 50 Hz to 7 kHz and wideband frequency range to super wideband(SWB) frequency range which is 50 Hz to 14 kHz. This bandwidth extension can be realized with or without side information. The Bandwidth extension is performed by adding missing frequencies artificially at the receiver using information contained in narrowband signal or either using some low bit rate side information. The basic principles of bandwidth extension address by this review paper and discuss different methods of bandwidth extension from narrowband to wideband and narrowband to super wideband.

Bank Locker Security System Using Face Recognition

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 22nd January 2018

Roshiny Thomas | Sanjana Mathews, Sona Ojus, Sona Roselin Joseph, Therese Yamuna Mahesh

Abstract

This paper presents an advanced Bank locker security system based on Face Recognition. The locker holders will be able to access their locker after the system recognizes their face and exercises locker door control to allow entry. Detection is performed on the basis of skin color model. This will help reduce computational complexity. Viola Jones Algorithm is used for the same. An additional password protection is provided to enhance locker security. In case of a wrong password entry, the true locker holder will be notified with an alert call from the bank to the saved contact number in the system. The system is designed to capture a personís real-time image, compare it with the stored images in the database and on detecting a match, will grant them access after password entry has been verified. Face recognition is performed using the Principal Component Analysis and a specific face can be recognized by comparing the principal components of the current face to those of the known individuals in a facial database built in advance. Illuminance variations are manipulated using the Discrete Cosine Transform Algorithm (DCT).

Bare PCB Defect Detection and Sorting Using Image Processing Techniques

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 22nd January 2018

Harshitha.R | Dr.Mahesh Rao

Abstract

The importance of the Printed Circuit Board inspection process has been magnified by requirements of the modern manufacturing environment where delivery of 100% defect free PCBs is the expectation. To meet such expectations, identifying various defects and their types becomes the first step. In this PCB inspection system the inspection algorithm mainly focuses on the defect detection using the natural images. Many practical issues like tilt of the images, bad light conditions, height at which images are taken etc. are to be considered to ensure good quality of the image which can then be used for defect detection. In this paper results of an attempt made at defect detection considering various factors using the image processing techniques with MATLAB is presented.

Basic March-C Algorithm based BIST for Embedded Memories in FPGA

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 22nd January 2018

Hema G D | DivyaPrabha, M.Z. Kurian

Abstract

Built in Self Test is one of the widely used methods for memory testing and it is the cost effective method. The fault in the memory is due to the complexity of the design rules. For complex applications, the memories without faults are necessary. There are many test algorithms for testing of memories, march based tests are the dominant testing algorithms due to simplicity and ability to test the faults. Because of this, march tests are implemented in most modern memories BIST. In this project, by considering optimized march-c algorithm to test the faults. This algorithm uses the concurrent technique. Because of concurrency the testing time is reduced compared to basic march c algorithm. This technique is applied to 256x8 memories it can be extended to any size. For the effectiveness of this algorithm, Built-in selftest technique is considered to test embedded memory of the FPGA.

BER Analysis of LDPC Coded System in AWGN Channel

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 22nd January 2018

Anumol P Joy | Gils Mary George,Greeshma Paul,Jittu Deena Glady

Abstract

Wireless communication is one of the fastest growing segments in communication industry. However, it is faced with the challenge of providing high- speed communications due to channel impediments which change over time in unpredictable ways. This paper deals with analysis of bit error rate using different modulation techniques and finding a better mechanism for reliable communication. The results obtained shows that the proposed technique is robust for signal transmission over mobile radio channels.

Biometric Attendance System

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 31st May 2017

Sneha J. Madake | Asmita D. Murke

Abstract

our project aims at designing student attendance system which could electively manage attendance of students at institutes. Attendance is marked after student identification. For student identification, a fingerprints recognition based identification system is used. Fingerprints are considered to be the best and fastest method for biometric identification. They are secure to use, unique for every person. Fingerprint recognition is still identifying individual from a set of enrolled fingerprints a time taking process. It was our responsibility to improve the fingerprints identification system for implementation on large databases e.g. of an institute. . This system is designed not only to reduce paper work and operational time but also to provide data security. This system is useful for many industries, organizations, security system, schools, colleges and banking sectors.

Biometric based Student attendance and time recording and Communication System

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 22nd January 2018

G.Sobha Rani | A. Venkateswara Rao

Abstract

The aim of this journal focuses at designing a student attendance and time which could effectively manage attendance and maintaining its records of students at educational institutes like Sri Sivani Institute of Technology. Attendance is notified after student identification. The major challenge task in educational institute is taking the attendance of student on daily basis and maintaining the records. For student identification, a fingerprint recognition based identification system is used. Fingerprints are considered to be the unique to each person and can be regarded as some sort of signature, certifying the person's identity. Itís permanent, good anti fake and secure to use. The major advantage of the Fingerprint recognition is that no two persons will have the same fingerprint in this world because of the peculiar genetic code of DNA in each person. The major objective of this paper is very simple to go for paperless attendance recording system to save the environment i.e go for green environment.

Biometrics Based Bus Ticketing System

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 12th April 2018

Abishek Balu | Krishna Raja, Dr. G.ThamaraiSelvi, Dr. R.Prabha, V.Narasimman

Abstract

Over the last few decades, there has been an increase in the use of public transport. This increase in the use of public transport has made the ticket vending and managing the public in a bus, a very complex task. This increase has also increased the paper usage by a large quantity. To overcome this complex task, we have come up with the solution of using the fingerprint of the user to book the tickets upon boarding the bus. This system is highly secured as forgery cannot be made with respect to biometrics. The fingerprints of the user are stored in a database. Upon the time of boarding and exiting the bus, the fingerprint of the user is scanned. The odometer reading of the bus is then stored against the value of the scanned fingerprint during both the time of boarding and exiting the bus. The distance traveled by the user is then calculated and the corresponding amount of money is deducted automatically from the PTS wallet. The user is also subjected via the IR transmitter and receiver led’s after their fingerprint being scanned, so as to not make the user board and exit the bus via different gates and also to not get cheated by the user. Those people whose hand gets most used due to their work and the children of age below 15 will be provided with smartcards that can be used in place of fingerprints. The fingerprints that fail to get read by the system due to some reasons for more than two(2) attempts, the smartcard may be used. This proposed idea will also have another additional feature that if a passenger stands as an obstacle to the IR led’s that are placed both at the entry and exit points, a buzzer rings inside the bus until the obstacle is removed. Thus, this project brings in cent percent accuracy with respect to the amount of money deducted and also the process is completely automated. There will be a large downfall in the usage of paper and the process of public management becomes simpler. There is also a reduction in the accidents that are caused by the footboard travel with the help of the buzzer

Biometrics Liveness Detection by Using Image Quality Assessment

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 22nd January 2018

Akash S. Dange | Mrs. M. R. Banwaskar

Abstract

A biometric system is a system that uses behavioral and physiological characteristic (e.g. iris, fingerprint, face, keystroke, signature, voice) of a person to identify that person. Now days, these biometric systems are vulnerable to adversary attacks. So, the development of novel and efficient security measure is required for the identification of fake trait. In this paper, we have presented a software based multi-biometric liveness detection system which is used to identify a live trait and intruder. The proposed system uses 30 image quality measures (IQMs). These quality features are extracted from single image which is acquired for verification purpose. The present system assures that the use of liveness detection enhances security of biometric system and provides better performance and also reduces complexity of the system. It has been observed that, the proposed method is very much effective in detecting liveness of iris, fingerprint and face compared with different progressive approaches.

BIOTRONICS

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 22nd January 2018

Santhosh.S | Karthikeyan.P, Siva Prakash.P, Malar Mannan.P, Pattu Raja, Venkatesan.M

Abstract

Robotic surgery is a new and exciting emerging technology that is taking the surgical profession by storm. Up to this point, however, the race to acquire and incorporate this emerging technology has primarily been driven by the market. In addition, surgical robots have become the entry fee for centers wanting to be known for excellence in minimally invasive surgery despite the current lack of practical applications. Therefore, robotic devices seem to have more of a marketing role than a practical role. Whether or not robotic devices will grow into a more practical role remains to be seen.

BLE Based Automatic Attendance System using PSoC BLE

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 16th August 2017

Niranjan Shinde | Ashwini Raorane

Abstract

Bluetooth 4.0 named Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE) has low-powered Bluetooth devices. Bluetooth is one of the most widely used wireless technology including large number of mobile phones and other portable devices. This technology is used with IoT (Internet of Things) gives us multiple options for various applications, one of which is education and, attendance system is integral part of education system. The conventional attendance system has so many difficulties. In ‚ÄėBLE Based Attendance System‚Äô project, when students walk into classroom with turned on Bluetooth and enter into classroom, attendance is directly registered on system automatically. This can be achieved as; when teacher enters in classroom they turn on PSoC to take attendance. The board will scan for available BLE devices in the classroom through registered UUIDs (unique addresses provided to every Bluetooth device) of students phones to their specific names/roll no. In this whole scenario students will have to just turn on the Bluetooth on their phone. After this process the attendance will be uploaded on network host (PC, Server, etc.) for further use. The system will give us output in a log which can be further utilized for calculating total attendance, defaulters, etc. So overall this system provides a secure and user friendly approach to a time consuming system

Blind Assistance Technology (B.A.T)

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 22nd January 2018

Abhilash Anandan | Ajith Mathew, Binu Mathew, Dennis John,Geet Rose Jose,Sreedev Krishnakumar

Abstract

A significant challenge that visually impaired people face is finding their belongings when they need them. Most of the object detection methods and algorithms used are too resource hungry to be used on low end hardware. Here, an innovative contour based tagging system has been developed by the authors. The information obtained from these tags is provided in a meaningful and non-intrusive manner. Bone conduction and sound spatialization is used for finding the exact location of objects. Speech recognition is used to accept voice commands from the user. Alongside this is an ultrasonic glove is used to detect obstacles in his path.The glove provides haptic feedback so the user can estimate the distance from the object intuitively.

Blind People Navigate Independently Using ZigBee Technology

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 22nd January 2018

Ms. Punam R. Patil | Bhushan V. Patil

Abstract

The blind person present in the bus station uses the ZigBee unit which is recognized by the ZigBee in the bus and it indicates that the blind person is present in the station. Due to this reason bus stops at the particular location. The desired bus that taken by the blind is notified to him with the help of speech recognition system HM2007. The blind gives the destination name using microphones and the voice recognition system recognizes it. The ZigBee transceiver in the bus sends the bus number to the transceiver with the blind and the bus number is announced to the blind through the headphones. The blind takes the bus parked in front of him and when the destination is reached it is announced with the help of voice synthesizer which produce the audio output.

Blood Pressure Measurement using Pulse Transit Time (PTT)

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 22nd January 2018

Dr.Archana.N.V | M.V.Mallikarjuna Reddy , Bhamini Bhat , Bhargavi.A.S , Bhavana.A.S

Abstract

The present blood pressure (BP) measurement devices are mostly built on the principle of auscultation, oscillometry or tonometry, all of which use an inflatable cuff. This paper aims to develop a cuff-less and continuous technique for measuring BP by pulse transit time (PTT). PTT will be measured as the time interval from the peak of R wave of Electrocardiogram (ECG) to a characteristic point at predetermined thresholds on the Photoplethysmogram (PPG) of the same cardiac cycle. Simultaneous recording of ECG and PPG shall be acquired from fingertips of the subject by stainless steel electrodes and a pair of light emitting diode and photo detector is used to estimate the PTT.A multiple regression model which could estimate unspecified peopleís blood pressure (BP) conveniently & continuously is proposed.

Body Area Network Based Smart Secure Communication System for ATM

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 21st July 2017

Kotra Pavan Kumar | Poornima B K

Abstract

This paper presents the application of Intra Body Communication system to establish a secure communication channel between a wearable device and Model ATM machine. Red Tacton is a Body Area Networking concept which is coined between wired and wireless, Which enables communication through human body as a transmission medium in turn uses the feeble electrical fields generated from the human body which is harmless, safe and fast. With Advancements in Communication, protection also becomes an integral part and this requirement has resulted into creation of many authorization tools such as card readers used in ATM, user pin codes etc. But since these tools were not secure enough, We propose unique solution using Body Area Networking concept which transfers data using the human body as its conductor, Instead of using radio transmission thus maximizing the security of transmitted signals . The Transmitter (Wearable device) module generates frequency signal corresponding to unique ATM ID and can be transmitted through Human body to BAN receiver (Model ATM machine) for detection and further processing. If the signal matches the unique ATM ID then the user is allowed to enter 4-digit password to access his/her account, If the entered password is correct then user need to enter the OTP which has sent to his mobile for higher security. Once the OTP is entered he/she gets access to his/her different bank accounts at single point of contact. This project proposes BAN based smart secure Communication System for ATM.

Body Area Network Based Smart Secure Communication System for ATM

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 21st August 2017

Kotra Pavan Kumar | Poornima B K

Abstract

This paper presents the application of Intra Body Communication system to establish a secure communication channel between a wearable device and Model ATM machine. Red Tacton is a Body Area Networking concept which is coined between wired and wireless, Which enables communication through human body as a transmission medium in turn uses the feeble electrical fields generated from the human body which is harmless, safe and fast. With Advancements in Communication, protection also becomes an integral part and this requirement has resulted into creation of many authorization tools such as card readers used in ATM, user pin codes etc. But since these tools were not secure enough, We propose unique solution using Body Area Networking concept which transfers data using the human body as its conductor, Instead of using radio transmission thus maximizing the security of transmitted signals . The Transmitter (Wearable device) module generates frequency signal corresponding to unique ATM ID and can be transmitted through Human body to BAN receiver (Model ATM machine) for detection and further processing. If the signal matches the unique ATM ID then the user is allowed to enter 4-digit password to access his/her account, If the entered password is correct then user need to enter the OTP which has sent to his mobile for higher security. Once the OTP is entered he/she gets access to his/her different bank accounts at single point of contact. This project proposes BAN based smart secure Communication System for ATM.

Body Sensor Network

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 26th July 2018

Sushma A | Sujata, Pujita Korah, Tejaswini M, Deepika D Pai

Abstract

In the modern day, life keeping track of the health status of the patient at home isn’t easy. So our system puts forward a smart patient health tracking system that uses Sensors to track patient health and uses GSM technology to inform their concerned ones in case of any issues. Our system uses ECG, Pulse rate and temperature sensors to keep track of patient health. If the system detects any abrupt changes in patient health, then it automatically sends an alert message to the registered mobile number and it will display all sensor data on LCD. The system is developed for home use by patients that are not in a critical condition but need to be timely monitored by a doctor or family

Brain-Wave Controlled Automated Wheelchair

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 3rd December 2018

Sachin C Dhannur | Sherwal Tom,Thallapalli Srikanth,Ullas Kumar K,Radhika K R

Abstract

This project attempts to implement an Arduino robot to simulatea brainwave-controlled wheelchair for paralyzed patients with an improved controlling method. The robot should be able to move freely in anywhere under the control of the user and it is not required to predefine any map or path. An accurate and natural controlling method is provided, and the user can stop the robot any time immediately to avoid risks or danger. This project is using a low-cost brainwave-reading headset, which has only a single lead electrode (Neurosky mind wave headset) to collect the EEG signal. BCI will be developed by sending the EEG signal to the Arduino Mega and control the movement of the robot. This project used the eye blinking as the robot controlling method as the eye blinking will cause a significant pulse in the EEG signal. By using the neural network to classify the blinking signal and the noise, the user can send the command to control the robot by blinking twice in a short period of time. The robot will be evaluated by driving in different places to test whether it can follow the expected path, avoid the obstacles, and stop on a specific position.

Broadband Beamformer Combined With Dcd Weighting

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 22nd January 2018

Meenu Unnikrishnan | Jayaraj U Kidav

Abstract

Medical electronic technology has developed to a great extend in last few decades. Ultra sound imaging has been one of the greatest gift to medical science technology. In last few decades, ultrasound imaging technology has revolutionized the field of medical science. Adaptive beam-forming method has contributed much to the resolution and contrast of image. In this work, minimum variance (MV) beamforming for broadband data is proposed. We implement it in frequency domain and for each of these frequency sub band a set of complete, adapted apodization weight is provided. The simulation is done in FIELD ll environment. The simulation is done on point targets as well as on cyst phantoms. We aim at showing that the resolution and image clarity in the case of MV beam former is more when compared to the conventional DAS (delay and sum) beam former, even for fewer number of emission. Investigation on different methods for computation of inverse of the covariance matrix has been done. Also in this work we make use of DCD algorithm for computing the apodization weight and also we aim at showing that the DCD algorithm finds the best place compared to the other iterative algorithm for hardware implementation.

Burst Error Correction Using CRC

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 22nd January 2018

Remya Maria Mathew | Shilpa Cherian, Shyno Mary Alexander, Surumy Salim, Agi Joseph George

Abstract

Networks must be able to transfer data from one device to another with complete accuracy. Data can be corrupted during transmission. For secure communication, errors must be detected and corrected.CRC is an efficient method to detect and correct the errors. In this paper we have introduced a new approach for the burst error detection and correction using non-lookup table technique.

Byte Reconfigurable LDPC Codec Design for High Performance Error Correction

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 22nd January 2018

Anumol Thomas | Abhila R Krishna

Abstract

Error correction provides reliable information free from errors. BCH codes are widely used to perform error correction. However, in order to improve the reliability of error correction BCH codes have been replaced by Low Density Parity Check (LDPC) codes. LDPC codes are special class of error correcting codes widely used in communication and memory systems, due to its Shannon limit approaching performance and favorable structure. A sub class of LDPC codes, called Quasi-Cyclic (QC) LDPC codes is used as the error correcting code due to their structured Parity Check Matrices (PCM). These codes are flexible in the sense of supporting wide range of code lengths and rates. This work deals with an efficient byte reconfigurable, high throughput QC-LDPC codec design. The codec is able to support multiple bits with the constraint that size of the sub-parity matrix be multiples of eight. Error detection is done using modified majority logic decoding. Majority logic decoding is preferred as they can correct large number of errors having even as well as odd number of bit flips. This method reduces the decoding time by detecting errors up to four bit-flips in first three iterations of decoding. If no error is detected decoding terminates without completing rest of the iterations, thereby reducing the average decoding time.

Capacitive Sensors: The Future of Level-Sensing Systems

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 17th August 2017

Vishal V | Sayantan Gangopadhyay, Vivek D, Supreeth Sakrepatna

Abstract

Level-sensors are basically used to detect the level of liquids and monitor their fill. These sensors can be used in overhead tanks or in laboratory equipment’s to monitor the rate of the chemical fill, and also give us an indication regarding the same. Capacitive Sensors are one of the best level-sensors since they can measure the level without being in contact with the container. Water -level management at homes will help in reducing the power consumption as well as the water overflow from the overhead tanks. Capacitive sensors are much used due to their accuracy and resolution of measurement. Since they are sensitive to external factors like environmental changes, the inclusion of an environmental-reference sensor eliminates the drawback. Capacitive sensors are thus replacing the conventional level-sensors due to their versatility, and their precision during measurement applications

Capsule Networks for Vision Intelligence Systems

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 17th November 2017

Anuroop Shannu | Pragnya Kondrakunta

Abstract

The Convolutional Neural Network is a powerful field of study that has been the go-to solution to analyze and classify visual imagery in the recent phase.However, the current state-of-the-art CNN's are facing a reliability crisis when the images are rotated or tilted. There is a drastic fall in their performance when an image isn’t close to the ones in the training data-set. A change in orientation and spatial positioning of features, also, has a negative impact on its working. In this paper, we seek answers to these problems by using Capsule Networks, a recent advancement in deep learning. Instead of adding layers, the Capsule Networks work on nesting the layers of a neural network. These nested layers are called capsules. This increases the internal structure of each neuron rather than the depth of the network. Such a structure helps to improve the learning process of machines and renders them close to human intuition. In our work, we explain Capsule networks for Image classification systems and throw light on their robustness.

Car black box with Collision detection system

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 18th June 2018

Shraddha Pawar | Pooja Pawar, Pooja Dhavale, L.M.Sagale

Abstract

This paper presents an step to the concept of car black-box . Developing an electronic system for enhancing the driving experience . Making car driving rules and regulation friendly . Paper gives solution to increase in accidents problem . It continuously observers car status (different parameters) , detecting the accident emigiatly and gives location of accident . so that assistance of accident can be done

Car Ignition Control By recognition Using SIFT Algorithm

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 31st May 2017

Dantal S.A | Chougule S.B.,Patil P. C.

Abstract

Car theft is big problem create in our country. To avoid this problem we are doing this project. In our project when person enter in car then capture the image and then compare those image with author person. If image match then car will start otherwise will not start. If other person tries to start the second time then an SMS will be sent author person mobile number. In our project use the sift algorithm, matlab, camera, DC motor, GSM, GPS, ARM7. For image matching and recognition, SIFT (scale invariant feature transform) features are extracted from a set of reference image and stored in a database. DC motor is used for the car engine. ARM7 can be used for GSM and GPS. Suppose car will be theft then will be using GPS find the car location. This project can be used for security purpose for schools, collages

Cascade PI Observer with Stabilization Lock

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 22nd January 2018

Rekha.C.G | Rajeev.S.K

Abstract

This paper presents a new practical control structure to achieve the stable condition of electric motor drives. PI observers are incorporated with predesigned PI controllers in order to enhance the robust performance of current and speed controllers. The proposed method uses an adaptive final control by taking the magnitude of processed difference in error to accure faster steady state.

CBIR Based Crack Detection System for Surface Traffic

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 22nd January 2018

Dr.Abraham Mathew | Dr.S. Saravanan, Dr. P. Mohanaiah

Abstract

Content-based image retrieval (CBIR), also known as Query by Image Content (QBIC) and Content-Based Visual Information Retrieval (CBVIR) is the application of computer vision techniques to the image retrieval problem, that is, the problem of searching for digital images in large databases. The term 'content' in this context might refer to colors, shapes, textures, or any other information that can be derived from the image itself. To retrieve images, users provide the retrieval system with example images. Search results then can be sorted based on their distance to the queried image. The traditional approach of analyzing the condition of a road pavement surface is by manual method. Manual method is time consuming, unreliable, subjective, costly and less efficient. Hence instead of relying the traditional approach, this research proposes a cost effective video based technique which can overcome the drawbacks of the conventional method. Image and video processing have been revolutionized the fields of medicine, space exploration, surveillance, geology, oceanography and it is also a well sought after area, for active research. People will retain only 20% of what they hear and about 30% of what they see, but they remember 50% of what they see and hear, also they will be able to retain as much as 80% of what they see, hear and do simultaneously. This is why multimedia is a powerful tool for various fields. In this research , various hybrid technique is applied to a captured input video to detect the cracks in a road surface.

CBIR for MRI Brain Tumor Images

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 22nd January 2018

Nischitha S | Dr. D.J.Ravi , Chethan K

Abstract

With world being digitized the CBIR has attracted many researchers. CBIR can make a major difference in the field of medicine. Several efforts is been made to minimize the human intervention in the system. The paper presents a CBIR system for the retrieval of the brain tumor images on the correct classification of the tumor by SVM classifier using the features extracted from the tumor images. The method is implemented using 200 MRI brain tumor images containing benign and malignant images

Cell Phone Based Fuel Consumption Tracking System

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 22nd January 2018

Shrinivas Joshi | Laxmikant Bordekar, Mrunal Sawant, Alister Dísouza, Muriel Fernandes, Omkar Chari

Abstract

In todayís world, actual record of fuel consumption in vehicles is not maintained. To avoid this in this digitized world a system is created which will display the exact amount of fuel present in the fuel tank of a vehicle on to a cellphone. By keeping a track on the fuel consumption of the vehicle, the user will get an idea of the efficiency of the vehicle by incorporating embedded system into the existing system and creating a cellphone based application to display the data that has been transmitted wirelessly on to a cellphone.

Channel Estimation Algorithm For Multi Input Multi Output System To Reduce The Mean Shift Error And Improve The Desired Signal Quality

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 22nd January 2018

Ashish Agrawal | Neelesh Gupta, Chetan Barde

Abstract

The appropriate choice of the convergence factor in the Least Mean Square (LMS) and recursive least-squares (RLS) algorithm with the forgetting factor in the are key to assuring good performance for the adaptive filter. These choices are environment dependent and optimal ked values for these factors are difficult to determine especially in non stationary environments (High Noise). In this paper, 3 adaptive filtering algorithms with variable convergence factor are analyzed. We compare Least Mean Square algorithm (LMS), Recursive Means Square algorithm (RMS) and our proposed algorithm. The relations of these algorithms with the conventional LMS algorithm are first addressed. Their performance in stationary and non stationary environments is studied and then compare with one exiting and one proposed algorithm. Our Proposed algorithm reduces the noise effect and MSE on signal and gives better desired output as compare to existing algorithms. The paper concludes with experimental results analysis presented. Keywords: Static hand gesture, Fourier Descriptors, Support Vector Machine, Classification Accuracy.

Channel Estimation Analysis in MIMO OFDM System over Fading Channel

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 22nd January 2018

Arpitha K K | T. P. Surekha , Sharath Kumar A J

Abstract

Multiple Input Multiple Output-Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (MIMO-OFDM) systems play a vital role in the channel estimation. The wireless channel suffers from impairments like fading and interference. Technologies that achieved above requirements are Multiple Input Multiple Output (MIMO) and Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM). Channel impairments must be mitigated at the receiver by using channel estimation techniques. In this paper, BER performance improvements of MIMO-OFDM systems using different techniques such as Least Square (LS), Minimum mean square error (MMSE) are implemented and compared. Work is carried out in Mat lab under fading channels.

Channel Estimation Techniques in MIMO-OFDM

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 22nd January 2018

Salihath P | Nandakumar P

Abstract

This paper presents different channel estimation techniques in MIMO-OFDM. The combination of MIMO with OFDM increases the bit rate as well as capacity. This is a survey on channel estimation. A main challenge in MIMO-OFDM system is retrieval of channel state information (CSI) accurately and the synchronization between the transmitter and receiver. The CSI is retrieved with the help of different types of estimation algorithms such as training based, blind and semi blind channel estimation. This paper focuses the basic introduction of OFDM, MIMO-OFDM system and explain different channel estimation algorithms, optimization techniques and their utilization in MIMO systems for 4G wireless mobile communication systems.

Character Segmentation of Video Subtitles

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 22nd January 2018

Satish S Hiremath | K V Suresh

Abstract

Subtitle extraction from video sequences finds numerous useful applications in video classification. The complex background, illumination and font size of text present in the video makes subtitles extraction extremely challenging. Text in the video are classified as scene text and graphics text. In this paper, character segmentation of graphics text is implemented using morphological operations. Compared to word segmentation in video subtitles, single character segmentation can achieve higher precision because of the simple background. In this paper, the English text present in subtitle of the video is considered for processing. All the character segmentation steps are implemented in Microsoft Visual Studio 2010.

Character Segmentation of Video Subtitles

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 22nd January 2018

Satish S Hiremath | K V Suresh

Abstract

Subtitle extraction from video sequences finds numerous useful applications in video classification. The complex background, illumination and font size of text present in the video makes subtitles extraction extremely challenging. Text in the video are classified as scene text and graphics text. In this paper, character segmentation of graphics text is implemented using morphological operations. Compared to word segmentation in video subtitles, single character segmentation can achieve higher precision because of the simple background. In this paper, the English text present in subtitle of the video is considered for processing. All the character segmentation steps are implemented in Microsoft Visual Studio 2010.

Charge Controller Operated Dc Motor Circuitry for Solar Panel Using Parallel Regulation Technique

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 5th January 2018

Usha.C | Yuvashree.V, Chinmayee.Ks

Abstract

In a world of increasing energy demand, it is imperative to come up with innovative solutions to reduce and conserve energy use. So the solar energy comes across a good option. Solar power generation has emerged as one of the most rapidly growing renewable sources of electricity. Solar-powered systems consist of solar panel, charge controller, battery, and load. Solar charge controller plays an important role as the system‚Äôs overall success depends mainly on it. It is considered as an important link between the solar panel, battery and load. The series type of regulation ‚Äėwastes‚Äô a lot of energy while charging the battery which is used to operate DC motor, as the control circuitry is always active. So in this paper parallel regulation technique is used but instead of wasting the charging current it is used to keep battery topped-up

Classification of Brain Tumors Using Fuzzy Neural Networks

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 22nd January 2018

Venkatnaresh M | Saikrishna J, Naga Naveen kumar

Abstract

The vital system of a human being is brain, such important part may be affected by unwanted tissue growth i.e tumor. Which is a critical problem in medical science for both diagnosis and treatment. In this paper we are concern about the diagnosis of tumor by analyzing MRI Images. The composite view of MRI images such as high intensive, divergent nature and Improper boundaries is difficult task for physicianís interpretation. So, an automated tumor segmentation methodology is demanded. To confer a solution to this issue, tumor segmentation method by K means clustering and Fuzzy C means clustering is implemented in this paper. After segmentation The features are extracted to classify as tumorous or non-tumorous. The feature extraction form MRI Image are implemented by using Intensity, Intensity Histogram and GLCM Methods. GLCM (Gray Level Co-Occurrence) feature extracting method yields better results when compared with other methods. The Accuracy of the segmented data is evaluated by confusion matrix that is created from the extracted features. All the implementation are performed against BRATS dataset.

Classification of Thyroid Nodules in Ultrasound Images Based On Texture Analysis

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 22nd January 2018

Shruthi C V | Nanda S

Abstract

Thyroid is a butterfly-shaped gland in the front of the neck. It is found below the voice box. Thyroid nodule is one of the indicative of thyroid cancer. Nodule can be due to the growth of thyroid cells or a cyst in the thyroid gland. It is very important to differentiate between the thyroid nodule as benign or malignant. This paper presents characterization and classification of thyroid nodule using Ultrasonography. It includes extraction of set of features by using Gray Level Co-occurrence Matrix GLCM, Wavelet Transform and Local Ternary Pattern (LTP). These features are reduced to set of selected features by using PCA algorithm. The selected features are given to SVM classifier for the classification of thyroid nodule as benign or malignant. The performance of classifiers is evaluated with the accuracy, sensitivity and specificity.

Clock Power Optimizations in VLSI design at advanced technology nodes

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 22nd August 2017

Manjunath rao B M | Dr H V Ravish Aradhya

Abstract

Power reduction in VLSI designs are one of the key design constraints along with others, namely timing, area, quality constraints, noise, etc. Even though there has been a steady growth of devices that are able to be placed in a given area of a chip as per moore’s law, we cannot say the same for battery technologies as they have never been able to catch up. Since the advent of the deep sub-micron era, speed and higher frequency of operation have become the prime goals of any design as the hunger for faster and better optimized systems are never ending. But as a consequence of faster operating speeds which basically means higher clock frequencies, power becomes one of the main constraints to be considered as the most important component of power dissipation, namely the dynamic power dissipation has a proportional relationship with the clock frequency. Hence clock power optimization is taken up as the prime objective of this paper for technologies below 14 nm as at these technologies, other secondary power dissipation components start to become more prominent. Various design techniques have been discussed and applied at both the circuit design and the rtl levels in order to provide a complete review of most of the low power design techniques which can be used to reduce power at both these levels of abstraction. An improvement of 25% and 15.7% of power reduction is observed in clock power and overall power respectively. There is also a power reduction of 2-5% for each of the rtl level optimization techniques..

Coexistence of zigbee with 802. 11n

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 16th August 2017

Prerana Dhanaraj Mahajan | Shraddha Panbude

Abstract

Wireless technologies are essential and important part of today’s world. Zigbee technology is one of them and getting more popularity due to its advantages like low power and low-cost reliability. It is operated on 2.4 GHz industrial scientific and medical band. On the same band, there is another standard which is 802.11n wifi standard is also operated. When both the technologies coexist together then there is interference occurs. As data rate of zigbee is very less compared to the wifi impact of interference is more on zigbee technology. In this work new features of channel bonding, frame aggregation and multiple input multiple output (MIMO) is applied to the 802.11n and effect of 802.11n on zigbee technology is measured using different performance metrics packet delivery ratio(PDR), bit error rate (BER), control overhead and throughput

Colorectal Cancer Identification in CT Images based on Image Segmentation Techniques

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 22nd January 2018

Sobiya Ambreen | Narayana Swamy G

Abstract

Colorectal cancer is a lethal disorder and a cancer, third most commonly found that will lead to death in both men and women. Computed Tomography (CT) imaging technique has become a primary method for detection and staging in those patients who are suffering from Colorectal cancer. In this paper CT images of the patients suffering from Colorectal cancer, who are in the beginning stages are used to detect the area and mean values of tumor area using Image segmentation techniques. This paper describes algorithms for preprocessing, clustering and post processing of CT images. The paper uses image enhancement techniques, clustering using adaptive k-means algorithm and it is implemented using MATLAB.

Common Phase Estimation in Coherent OFDM System Using Image Processing Technique

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 21st August 2017

Lava Kishore Reddy N, | Sadyojatha K M

Abstract

OFDM is widely used as the modulation standard in all Wireless transceiver systems and recently optical transceiver systems due to its inherent advantage over other modulation standards. The main drawback of the OFDM system is it suffers from the phase noise errors. Common Phase Error (CPE) and Inter Carrier Interference are the two main errors that occur in OFDM systems as result of phase induced noise. Several techniques have been proposed to combat the CPE, such as RF pilot carrier based, Digital Pilot Aided (PA) based, MBB based etc. In this paper a framework for evaluating the performance of MBB and PA based method in estimating the CPE and correcting it is proposed. The framework is designed and implemented in MATLAB 15 Software and the BER is computed for both the methods to compare their performance.

Comparative Analysis of Segmentation Approaches for the Printed Documents

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 22nd January 2018

Pruthvi B K | Pooja A P

Abstract

Segmentation is a vital procedure of any Optical Character Recognition (OCR) framework. It isolates the image content documents first into lines then to words lastly to characters. The accuracy of OCR framework for the most part relies on upon the segmentation algorithm being utilized. Segmentation of printed content of some Indian dialects like Kannada, Telugu and Assamese is troublesome when contrasted and Latin based dialects as a result of its auxiliary many-sided quality and expanded character set. It is be partitioned as vowels and consonants which can likewise contain subscripts and conjunct consonants. In spite of a few effective works in OCR everywhere throughout the world, advancement of OCR instruments in Indian dialects is still a progressing process. Character segmentation assumes a vital part in character acknowledgment in light of the fact that erroneously divided characters are unrealistic to be perceived accurately. In this paper, a segmentation plan for dividing printed Kannada scripts into lines and words utilizing Run Length Smoothing Algorithm (RLSA) and Variational Bayes (VB) strategies are proposed and their comparative analysis is carried out.

Comparative Performance Analysis of CMOS Full Adders Using Various Pass Transistor Logic

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 22nd January 2018

Bore Gowda H B | 

Abstract

with the advancement in semiconductor technology, chip density and power consumption in VLSI circuits has become a major problem consideration. More area and power consumption increases the packaging cost and reduces the battery life of the devices. Hence itís necessary to design any VLSI circuits with less chip area and power consumption. In this paper an efficient full adder circuit is designed with various pass transistor logic families by using microwind simulating tool with CMOS 0.12?m processing technology. Microwind is truly integrated EDA software encompassing IC designs from concept to completion, enabling chip designers to design beyond their imagination. Microwind integrates traditionally separated front end and back end chip design into an integrated flow, accelerated the design cycle and reduced design complexity.

Comparative Study of Ship Intrusion Detection By Using SAR,WSN,Labview

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 12th April 2018

Purva N. Pawar | Laxmikant Shevda

Abstract

Robotics is the future of the modern era and the people wants it more entertaining and the user-friendly.Newly launch controllers that improving the concentration of the developers and programers towards the robotics.this paper presents the one such device, that is leap motion technology and Augmented and virtual reality and its implementation in new age robot the robotics system developing till now also the new experience to the students and industrial trainees.It needs a google cardboard, personal computer and smartphone and gesture control sensor that is nothing but Leap motion controller.This robot can assist a lot in search and shopping mall and industrial application for making human life simple and entertaining also useful for Inquiry-Based Learning using Mixed Reality and leap motion

Comparative Study On Radio Frequency Power Harvesting Technique

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 22nd June 2018

Meghana B.S | Navaneetha.G.R G.R, Jayanth H.J, Pooja G.M, Ashritha Vinay

Abstract

In recent years, the use of wireless devices is increasing tremendously in many applications such as mobile phones, remote sensing and many more. This has resulted in an increased demand on the use of batteries. Compared to other methods of energy scavenging,rf deals with low energy density and poses big challenges. With semiconductor and many other technologies continually struggling towards the low operating powers, batteries can be replaced by alternative sources that employ energy harvesting techniques. In this paper we present a comparative study on rfph also referred to as rf energy scavenging that includes background, system design, advantages and disadvantages and applications of rfph

Comparision of QoS Parameters for DSDV and DSR in Hybrid Scenario

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 22nd January 2018

T.K.Kalaiarasan | A.SureshBabu, A.Shailaja

Abstract

Mobile Multi-hop Ad Hoc Networks are collections of mobile nodes connected together over a wireless medium. These nodes can freely and dynamically self-organize into arbitrary and temporary, ďad-hocĒ network topologies, allowing people and devices to seamlessly internetwork in areas with no pre-existing communication infrastructure. It is, however, possible to combine an infrastructure-less ad hoc network with a fixed one to form a hybrid network which can cover a wider area with the advantage of having less fixed infrastructure. Due to the hybrid nature of these networks, routing is considered a challenging task. Several routing protocols have been proposed and tested under various traffic conditions. However, the simulations of such routing protocols usually do not consider the hybrid network scenario. In this work we have carried out a systematic simulation based performance analysis of the two prominent routing protocols: Destination Sequenced Distance Vector Routing (DSDV) and Dynamic Source Routing (DSR) protocols in the hybrid networking environment using NS2. The performance of the DSDV is better than the performance of the DSR routing protocol. To compare the performance of DSDV and DSR routing protocol, the simulation results were analyzed by graphical manner and trace file based on Quality of Service (QOS) metrics: such as , packet delivery fraction, average end-to-end delay and normalized routing load under varying pause time with different number of sources.

Comparison of Filters for Despeckle With Improved Speckle Reducing Antiscopic Diffusion Filter for Ultrasound Images

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 22nd January 2018

Stafford Michahial | Dr Bindu A Thomas

Abstract

Due to the presence of speckle noise leads to the poor quality of the US images. The presence of speckle noise makes it difficult to understand the information contain in the US image hence filtering of US image is required to improve the image quality. The paper gives us the comparison of different filters techniques (linear filter (lf),Anisotropic Diffusion(AD),Nonlinear filter kuwahara(Kuwa) ,median filter(med),hybrid median filter(hmed) , Lee Filter &kaun, frost filter, Wavelet based speckle reduction methods, speckle reducing anisotropic diffusion filter (srad),improved srad(Israd). 65 texture feature, image intensity normalization, 15 image quantitative metrics and image quality evaluation. It is observed that the Israd, improves the image quality of liver, kidney, uterus, live mass ultrasound images.

Comparison Of Modelling Results On Si0.74ge0.26 And Ge Using HighĖK Dielectrics

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 22nd January 2018

VinayBudhraja | Himanshu Gautam, Nitten

Abstract

This work focusses on the use of Silicon Germanium (Si0.74Ge0.26) alloy and Germanium (Ge) as substrate materials for the simulation of MOS devices having a highĖK material. HfO2 was used as the dielectric material and Al as a metal gate. Two MOS devices on Si0.74Ge0.26 and Ge substrates have been simulated and their capacitance-voltage analysis has been done at different frequencies and compared. A comparative analysis of electrical characteristics of n-type MOSFETs made from Si0.74Ge0.26 and Ge substrate have been done in which channel length was varied to see the short-channel effects.

Comparison of Rectenna Array Configurations for Enhanced Efficiency

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 22nd January 2018

Mathew M. John | Pooja S, Ritchie Johnson, Sneha Thankom Thomas, Prof.Jaison C.S, Prof. G. Senthil Kumar

Abstract

A rectenna is a rectifying antenna, that is used for converting microwave energy to DC. This can be used for the transmission of electric power to a long distance, without physical cabling, i.e., by using microwaves [2]. DC power generated by multiple rectennas can be used for reliable device operation. Two recent methods adopted for rectenna array configuration are RF Combiner and DC Combiner5. In this proposal we are planning to make more detailed investigations on some novel methods for improving the efficiency of rectenna in various coupling combinations so that we can attain a more reliable RF power harvesting method.

Comparison of Upper Ultra Wide Band Antennas: A Review

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 13th February 2018

Arya S | R. Sindhu, Rekha G Nair

Abstract

This paper describes the design of Ultra Wide Band (UWB) antenna suitable for upper UWB frequency applications. In this context, three UWB antennas are designed: the first is with circle slot in a square, second is with triangle slot in a square and the third is with G shaped elements. The antenna element with small size of 8 x 8 mm2 is designed for UWB applications. The antenna element is fed through a 50 ohm microstrip line (MTL) and a thin strip is provided at the end of the MTL to provide impedance matching. It is printed on FR4 - epoxy substrate. The output is simulated on Ansoft HFSS (High Frequency Structure Simulator). The Parameters like return loss and bandwidth is discussed. From these three antennas, G shape antenna gives more return loss (S11) of -21.50dB compared with other two.

Complexity Reduction of MIMO Decoder

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 22nd January 2018

Ch. Ashok Kumar Reddy | M. Anand

Abstract

The data rates and the supported range in communication systems, can be increased using MIMO (Multiple input and multiple output) technique. MIMO technique uses multiple antennas at both transmitter and receiver. MIMO systems uses Orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) technique for multicarrier modulation. QR decomposition (QRD) is the first step in the decoding of the MIMO receiver. Gram Schmidt, Householder and Givens described QR decomposition method which are computationally intensive as these involve division operation for normalization. The computation complexity of these methods for MIMO-OFDM systems is difficult to handle because QR decomposition is performed for each subcarrier. Sphere decoder is an efficient decoder for MIMO systems. In this paper we use Modified Householderís method for reducing the computation complexity without affecting the system packet error rate (PER) performance. The simulation process is carried out in all different models of 802.11 TGAC channels.

Computer Aided Brain Tumor Localization and Tumor Growth Model Generation based on Machine Learning Techniques

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 17th January 2018

Chitra K | Ahila A

Abstract

In this paper, we propose a proof of concept for the automatic planning of personalized radiotherapy for brain tumours. A computational model of brain tumor growth is combined with an exponential cell survival model to describe the effect of radiotherapy. The model is personalized to the magnetic resonance images (MRIs) of a given patient. It takes into account the uncertainty in the model parameters, together with the uncertainty in the MRI segmentation. The computed probability distribution over tumor cell densities, together with the cell survival model, is used to define the prescription dose distribution, which is the basis for subsequent Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy (IMRT) planning. Depending on the clinical data available first, we include the uncertainty in the segmentation process. We show how our method allows the user to compute a patient specific radiotherapy planning conformal to the tumor growth. The presented approach and its proof of concept may help in the future to better target the tumor and spare organs at risk

Computer Automation Perform Smooth Functioning of Industries in Dhule District

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 30th November 2018

Mr. Dagadu. M. Marathe | Dr. A.D. Bhosale

Abstract

In this paper to study on how computer automation techniques use in business operation, data management, improved product quality, reduce human work, smooth function of organization, good management of work. To analyze of computer automation how perform smooth functioning in commercial organization using computers as well as positive impact to increase performance of industries in Dhule District.

Computer Vision Based Object Sorting & Fault Detection Using Ann

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 22nd January 2018

Amol Dhenge | Pallavi Keskar, Anupriya Kuhikar,Pallavi Kawadkar, Trupti Chaudhary,Prateeksha Palasmode, Mohini Neware

Abstract

This Paper focuses on the recognition system of bolt and nut in real time for application in various industries. The objective of this study is to develop the image processing algorithm using back propagation to get the normalized cropping images which would be suitable inputs processing and detection. Testing is done using a real-time visual recognition system. The MATLAB software version 11 is used to integrate all algorithms. The implementation so consists of a prototype that emulates the sorting of nuts and bolts. Consisting of a control system this hardware provides data through the microcontroller based system of the MATLAB code which then activates the camera for image processing. It also activates the motor differently to sort the different parts. The results howís that the system can detect moving object accurately on the belt conveyor and sort them accordingly as required for the application.

Contrast Enhancement based on Gaussian Mixture Modeling with Noise Adaptive Fuzzy Switching Median Filter

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 22nd January 2018

Jayasilpa S | Kavitha N Nair

Abstract

The proposed algorithm automatically enhances the contrast in an input image. The algorithm uses the Gaussian mixture model to model the image gray-level distribution. In a mixture distribution, its density function is just a convex combination (a linear combination in which all coefficients or weights sum to one) of other probability density functions. The Gaussian components with small variances are weighted with smaller values than the Gaussian components with larger variances By enhancing the contrast of an image in such a way might amplify noise if present and produce worse results. A noise adaptive fuzzy switching median filter is used for salt-and-pepper noise removal. It is able to suppress high-density of salt-and-pepper noise, at the same time preserving fine image details, edges and textures.

Contrast Enhancement of Satellite Images Using Dual- Tree Complex Wavelet Transforms Technique

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 22nd January 2018

M.Hemalatha | Dr.S.Varadarajan , A.V.Kiranmai

Abstract

this paper forwards enhancement of satellite picture using Discrete Time Complex Wavelet Transform Technique. The discrete-wavelet-transform-based (DWT) contrast image scheme generates artifacts (due to a DWT shift-variant property). A wavelet-domain approach based on dual-tree complex wavelet transform (DT-CWT) proposed for contrast of the satellite images. A satellite input image is decomposed by DT-CWT (which is nearly shift invariant) to obtain high-frequency subbands. The highfrequency subbands and the low-resolution (LR) input Iím-age are interpolated using the Lanczos interpolator. The highfrequency subbands are passed through an NLM filter to cater for the artifacts generated by DT-CWT (despite of its nearly shift invariance). The filtered high-frequency subbands and the LR input image are combined using inverse DT-CWT to obtain a resolution-enhanced image. The contrast enhancement method uses the analysis of excellent glaze levels and appropriate flexible radiant transfiguration which performs DWT in reducing the rate of image which is given as input, into a group of band bounded constituents by a sampling factor, called High-High, High-Low, Low-High, and Low-Low sub bands. The brightness propaganda is contained in the Low-Low sub-band where the input image with the superlative glaze level is computed. According to the superlative glaze level the Low-Low sub band is disintegrated into trilayer. The suitable flexible radiant transfiguration is processed in the disintegrated trilayer of the sub-band using knee shift function, dominant glaze level and gamma adjustment function. For preserving the texture of contrast suitable enhanced flexible radiant transfiguration is processed. The final enhanced image is acquired by means of the use of inverse DWT. In this method, the distant sensed image is bifurcated into petite blocks, and then each block is improvised using advanced block based discrete wavelet transform. The enhanced blocks are then fused together and by using inverse DWT, the emanated image is obtained. The glaze and radiance of the satellite image will be better when compared with the image used in the Existing systems. Haar Wavelet Transform (HWT) is used for disintegrating the pictures into sub-bands. Trilayer is formed using preeminent glaze level analysis. From the preeminent glaze, each disintegrated layer there is a generation of suitable radiance transfer function.

Controller Tuning for Integrator Plus Delay Processes

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 20th June 2017

B. S. Patil | Dr. L. M. Waghmare,Dr. M. D. Uplane

Abstract

design method for PID controllers base on internal model control (IMC) principles, direct synthesis method (DS), stability analysis (SA) system for pure integrating process with time delay is proposed. Analytical expressions for PID controllers are derived for several common types of process models, including first order and second-order plus time delay models and an integrator plus time delay model. Here in this paper, a simple manager design rule and tuning procedure for unstable processes with delay time is discuss. Simulation examples are included to show the effectiveness of the proposed method. The SIMC rules are logically resulting, and from a first or second order process we can simply find the pi and PID controller setting, respectively. Even though the rule was originally derived largely with ease in mind, recent studies have establish that the resulting setting are very close to optimal (Grimholt and Skogestad, 2012, 2013). For the twice integrating process, the SIMC rule gives the pid setting for the serial form.

Conversion of Speech to Text for Hearing Impaired People

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 22nd January 2018

Avi Kumar | Ashwini B N,Lalitha K

Abstract

Speech to text conversion is a useful tool for integrating people with hearing Impairments in oral communication settings, e.g. counselling interviews or conferences. However, the transfer of speech into written language requires special techniques as it must be very fast and almost 100% correct to be understandable. The main objective of our project is to design a conversion of speech to text for hearing impaired people. The entire system is controlled by the 8 Bit microcontroller and the speech recognition IC (HM2007) which is capable of storing speech signals, and generating good recognition performance on highly disordered speech. The speech IC consists of non-volatile memory back-up with 3V battery onboard, which will store the speech recognition data in RAM after the power off condition. Whenever a speech is given as input to the Microphone the received speech is compared against the stored data. The keypad and digital display are used to communicate and program the HM2007 chip. The keypad is made up of 12 normally open momentary contact switches. On successful matching of the speech the HM2007 IC will send the corresponding codes to the controller. From the microcontroller the data will be sent to LCD display and to the mobile through the GSM.

Convertion of Available Sound Energy to Usable Electric Power

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 22nd January 2018

Sarvasva G.R | Vinutha N , Vanitha K.S

Abstract

We all know everywhere there is huge scarcity of energy and for running most of our appliances and to carry out daily work we need electricity. Itís really very difficult to imagine our life without electricity, our life would really stop so there is high need, to produce electricity at faster rate and find some other feasible method to produce electric energy. On the other hand we see that in this modern world there is lot of noise pollution in roads, airports, industries. Just think if we would be able to convert this noise pollution to electric energy....??? Yes this could be made possible letís see how. There will be many ways of converting the sound energy to electric energy but mainly we are concentrating on piezoelectric transducers in this paper. A small 9 volt DC battery was found to be fully recharged within half an hour from fully discharged stage using medium sound source through the proposed conversion circuit. In this way, random sound energy from numerous sources around us can be stored as electric energy which can be used later to deliver electric power to drive compatible small loads. The proposed idea can give a new source of green energy and can contribute in global search for renewable energy.

Convolution and Stochastic Pooling Algorithm

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 22nd January 2018

Monish Katari | Reethu Gali Ramesh, MSA Srivatsava

Abstract

This paper presents an efficient hardware implementation of Convolution and Stochastic pooling algorithm. The main objective of the design is to minimize the area and power, while maximizing the throughput. Performing Convolution and Stochastic pooling in CPU consumes high amount of power and low performance relative to hardware accelerator implementation. In this paper, we propose a hardware accelerator to minimize area, power and maximize throughput. We also propose architectural techniques like Interleaving and folding to improve power and area. The optimized approach which is mapped to a 28nm ASIC target demonstrated significant power and area reduction when compared to traditional model. On the other hand, the optimized approach mapped to a FPGA target has increased source utilization when compared to conventional model.

Cooperative Message Authentication Used In L-P2dsa

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 22nd January 2018

Riya Baby | 

Abstract

VANET is a special kind of MANET. It will provide communication between vehicles and fixed units and also among the vehicles . VANETs are mainly used for Traffic optimization and improving safety. Due to open nature of wireless medium, a lot of attacks are possible in vanet. In this paper we propose a method to reduce the overload of DMV and vehicle. To improve the computation overhead in DMV, we use 2 hash values and location of vehicle. In the case of vehicle we use co-operative message authentication method.

Correlation Based Continuity Metric for Concatenative Speech Synthesis

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 22nd January 2018

Naina Teertha | Dr.R.Kumaraswamy , Sai Sirisha Rallabandi, Sai Krishna Rallabandi , Venkatesh Potluri , Suryakanth V Gangashetty

Abstract

In this paper, we investigate the use of a new continuity measure based on maximum signal correlation for optimal selection of units in concatenative text-to-speech (TTS) synthesis framework. We explore two formulations for calculating the signal correlation: cross correlation (CC) based and average magnitude difference function (AMDF) based. We first perform an initial experiment to understand the significance of the approach and then build 5 experimental systems which are available a web demo. Evaluations on 30 sentences each for Telugu and Hindi by native users of the languages show that the proposed continuity measure results in more natural sounding synthesis.

Cost Effective Smart Transport System for Educational Institution

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th July 2017

C. Sivaprakash | Arpitha.R ,Chandana.R ,Kajanthini.K,Megha.D,V. K. Tivari

Abstract

In this research paper, it deals with a smart way of transportation for educational institutions in a cost-effective manner. In present scenario, the transport system in educational institutions has few electronic modules inbuilt in the vehicle for effective communication, which are bit expensive. To overcome the economical barrier, we propose a cost effective intelligent way of transport system, using GSM module with RFID tag which makes the fleet management easier. The features of this system are accurate, robust, economical as well as flexible. Here we are using two modules, GSM and RFID. The Candidate who misses the bus, need to enquire the current location of that bus. The GSM based transport system provides the solution to this problem without calling or disturbing the person travelling in the bus. It consists of accident detection system in which the vibration sensor is used to detect the occurrence of the accident; the information will be communicated to the transport management of the institution which helps to overcome the problem. The college bus student’s information, their entry and exit are kept in record. Thus, at server side, whole information about buses and the respective student’s details are stored in database, with minimum technologies, our idea is to develop a user-friendly educational institutions transportation system which abides the rules and regulations of institution.

Counterfeit Currency Note Detection using Multispectral Imaging and Image Processing

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 22nd August 2017

Pradeep Raj.R | Pranathi.C.P, Soundarya.M, Y.SreeLekha

Abstract

Automatic currency recognition and authentication has become an impending challenge today particularly because of the prevailing fraudulent activities as it hampers our economy. In the light of the recent stunt of demonetization by Prime Minister Narendra Modi, it is essential to build tools to identify the new fraudulent notes. Millions of fraudulent money in the form of new currency notes has already been seized, and it would be appropriate to say that more is being circulated or kept in possession. This scenario demands for an easy recognition of the authenticity of the currency notes. The objective is to use a replacement for manual recognition of the fraudulent notes as it is cumbersome and unreliable, with a more reliable software tool. We used Multi-spectral imaging, to determine and compare the intensity levels of thus obtained images with that of the original notes, in order to determine their authenticity. We combine this approach with image processing with the help of MatLab.

CPW Fed Fractal Antenna for Multiband Applications

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 26th April 2018

Amrutha P B | Harikrishnan A I

Abstract

In this paper, a novel fractal design technique for the multiband antenna is presented. A coplanar waveguide (CPW) - the fed circular patch is used to obtain the wideband characteristics. Applying the concept of the fractal to antennas allows for multiband operation along with miniaturization. The antenna has been fabricated on an FR4 epoxy substrate with thickness 1.6mm and relative permittivity of 4.4. The simulations are performed using Ansoft HFSS and the results show that the proposed antenna can be used for different wireless communications.

Dark Image Enhancement Through Channel Division Using Super Resolution Technique

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 22nd January 2018

Volga Mohan | Kavitha N Nair

Abstract

Image enhancement is the one of the challenging issues in image processing. Since Image clarity is very easily affected by lighting, weather, or equipment that has been used to capture image .These conditions lead to image may suffer from loss of information. Principle objective of image enhancement is to process an image so that result is more suitable than original image for specific application. The Content aware algorithm enhances the image by producing ad hoc transformation for each image by selecting particular content of an image which has to be processed. In order to produce better result of an image content aware method with super resolution technique is introduced in this paper. To implement the proposed algorithm, first transform the image into hueĖsaturationĖvalue color space. Then proposed algorithm applied to image intensity. After the enhancement, use hue (H) and saturation (S) components from the original image and merge with the enhanced intensities to create the final image. These procedures maintain the color (HS) of the image while improving its intensity level (V).Then super resolution technique is applied to the image. It creates an improved resolution image from all low feature values.

Data Collection Strategies Using Static Sink and Mobile Sink: A Review

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 7th February 2018

Radhika R | Dr Binu GS, Vinod G

Abstract

Wireless sensor networks fundamentally comprise of low-cost sensor nodes which gather data from the environment and convey them to a sink, where they will be subsequently processed. As sensor nodes are severely power-constrained, the key concern is how to conserve the nodes energy so that network lifetime can be prolonged significantly.Efficient data collection schemes are crucial in effectively utilizing the available energy. This paper defines various techniques of data collection that are adopted in wireless sensor networks. The data collection schemes are broadly classified into two major classes: one approach which uses the static sink for data collection and the other approach which uses the mobile sink for data collection. Various techniques that are adopted in both the schemes are defined.

Data Encoding Techniques for Reducing Energy Consumption in Network-On-Chip

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 10th March 2018

G.Manasa | A.Mounika

Abstract

In this paper, we display an arrangement of information encoding plans went for diminishing the power disseminated by the connections of a NoC. As innovation recoils, the power disseminated by the connections of a system-on-chip (NoC) begins to contend with the power dispersed by alternate components of the correspondence subsystem to be specific the switches and the system interfaces (NIs). The proposed plans are general and straightforward regarding the hidden NoC texture (i.e., their application does not require any adjustment of the switches and connection design). Examinations completed on both engineered and genuine movement situations demonstrate the adequacy of the proposed plans, which permit setting aside to 51% of energy scattering and 14% of vitality utilization with no huge execution corruption and with under 15% territory overhead in the system interface. The EDA instrument utilized as a part of the paper is Software apparatuses i.e. Modalism 10.0c (Simulation), Xilinx ISE 14.4 (Synthesis) and dialects utilized for yields is Verilog-HDL

Data Extract: Mining Context from the Web for Dataset Extraction

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 5th January 2018

Prashanth Kumar | Vinayak Nase, Nandini B, Abhilasha M, Sushma N, V.K. Tivari

Abstract

In this paper, we address the problem of dataset extraction from research articles. With the growing digital data repositories and the demand for data-centric research in data mining community, finding appropriate dataset for a research problem has become an essential step in scientific research. But given the wide variety of data usage in scientific research, it is very difficult to figure out which datasets are most useful for a particular research topic. To alleviate this problem, an automated dataset search engine is a powerful tool. In this work, we propose a novel approach to extract dataset names from research articles. We propose a novel way of using ‚Äúweb intelligence‚ÄĚ from academic search engines and online dictionaries to mine data set names from research articles. We also show a comparison between different sources of ‚Äúweb knowledge‚ÄĚ by comparing different academic search engines such as Google Scholar, Microsoft academic search. The performance of this approach is evaluated using standard information retrieval metrics such as precision, recall and F-measure. We get an F-measure of 80%. This accuracy is significant for an unsupervised approach.

Data Gathering in IoT: COOJA Simulation

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 22nd January 2018

Anusha A M | A. V. Sutagundar

Abstract

Anything which is IP addressable can be included in the new emerging field, Internet of Things (IoT). IPV6 format is used to address the physical objects to Internet. In IoT battery of every sensor node is assigned with IP address. The proposed work uses the cluster concept for data gathering in IoT. Every sensor node sends their data to cluster head and intern cluster head sends their data to sink node. The gathered data is sent to connected client machine through gateway. sensors decides the network lifetime. Data gathering is one of the main challenges in IoT for increasing the network life time. The proposed work is simulated using Cooja simulator. Cooja simulator is one of the tools of Conitiki OS. Some of the performance parameters that are considered are data gathering time, packet delivery ratio and energy consumption.

Data Optimization Technique for NOx Reduction

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 22nd January 2018

Divyata Khachane | Prof. Ashok Suryawanshi, Durvesh Pathak

Abstract

Exhaust system is one of the important part of engine. Many gases are exhausted from an engine, one of them is NOX which has adverse effects on environment and human health. To reduce these effects government has developed emission regulatory standards (BSIII/ BSIV). According to regulatory standards, exhaust gases must be emitted within a specified range, to fulfil this condition some tools are available in automobile industry for checking and regulating exhaust gas. These tools are generally excel based and lots of manual work has to be done till final result. As well it requires more time to complete whole process. To overcome these disadvantages we have proposed MATLAB tool. Proposed MATLAB tool will filter test cell data and calculate the regression coefficients. These coefficients will be given to Simulink model and response will be observed.

Data Storage Security and Access Privilege Control in Cloud using Server Aided Attribute Based Encryption

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 22nd January 2018

Ashish S | Sarala S M

Abstract

Cloud computing technique is a new and precise data storage and access technology, in which the dynamic sharing of resources of the computer takes place dynamically via the Internet. This technology has gathered a remarkable amount of attention from educational and research institutes and industry. This computing virtualization enables flexible and low cost computing thus enabling it to be outsourced to the cloud servers thus making privacy a least concern. Although various schemes have been put forward to overcome the issue of privacy and safeguarding its information, it is quite understandable that the users of cloud would want to keep their identities private, and to review privilege control while they still get their privacy and so accessing this information should not cause reentrancy and an overhead during the communication. This paper, discusses a scheme for control on a semi-anonymous privilege scheme which ensures to address both data privacy and privacy of the user identity. Server Aided Cipher-text policy works by the principle that decentralizing the control authority will lessen the probability of the identity leakage and in this way it helps to achieve semi -anonymity. The data is encrypted in two hierarchies one credential uses AES encryption which occurs at the local slot and one in the medium with server host, SA-CPABE technique is used to accomplish this task.

Data Transfer From Fpga To Pc Through Ethernet

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 22nd July 2017

Sandhyarani N | P C Srikanth

Abstract

This paper represents the implementation of embedded processor inside FPGA (Field programmable Gate Array) such that it can send data through Ethernet to Pc. The implementation platform is a development board which has a waxwing Spartan 6 FPGA. Using the XPS (Xilinx Platform Studio) tool, microblaze processor is specified. The software part of the processor is configured I SDK (software development kit).The implementation requires development board, Ethernet, power supply, high end PC. Using the application of echo I have written the c program. through the telnet software serial port results will be come.

DAWN Algorithm for Cellular Data Usage on the Quality of Service (QOS) Requirements of the Applications

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 22nd January 2018

V.Rajanaik | B. Neelima , A.Rajani

Abstract

The Wi-Fi offloading with delay-tolerant applications under usage based pricing is the major problem in cellular data usage. We aim to achieve a good tradeoff between the userís payment and its QoS characterized by the file transfer deadline. A general Delay-Aware Wi-Fi Offloading and Network Selection (DAWN) algorithm for a general single-user decision scenario was used. We then analytically establish the sufficient conditions, under which the optimal policy exhibits a threshold structure in terms of both the time and file size. As a result, we propose a monotone DAWN algorithm that approximately solves the general offloading problem, and has a much lower computational complexity comparing to the optimal algorithm. Simulation results show that both the general and monotone DAWN schemes achieve a high probability of completing file transfer under a stringent deadline, and require the lowest payment under a non stringent deadline as compared with three heuristic schemes.

DC Motor Movement Controlled by Gesture Orientation Using ARDUINO

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 22nd January 2018

Arijita Das | Bansari Deb Majumder, Dibyendu Sur, Susmita Das, Kaushik Pal, Mugdha Mondal

Abstract

The paper aims to create a ĎDC Motor controlled by gesture orientationí. The gesture orientation of a monochromatic red color is captured as a video input. The gesture orientation controls the direction of the movement of the motor. The movement of the motor is governed by the position of the video captured of the monochromatic red object. If the red object is moved towards left then the motor rotates anti clockwise and if the object is detected towards right then the motor moves clockwise. The relative movement of the object is detected on the basis of the co-ordinate change. The controlling of the motor is done by ARDUINO programming. The logic of the work is set through the MATLAB domain.

De-Noising Of Degraded Document Image Using Adaptive and OTSU Thresholding Techniques

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 22nd January 2018

Chittari Padma | Pullarevu Sreenivasulu

Abstract

Segmentation of text from badly degraded document an image is a very challenging task due to the high inters/intra variation between the document background and the foreground text of different document images. In this project, we propose a novel document image binarization technique that addresses these issues by using adaptive image contrast. The adaptive image contrast is a combination of the local image contrast and the local image gradient that is tolerant to text and background variation caused by different types of document degradations. In the proposed technique, an adaptive contrast map is first constructed for an input degraded document image. The contrast map is then binarized and combined with Cannyís edge map to identify the text stroke edge pixels. The document text is further segmented by a local threshold that is estimated based on the intensities of detected text stroke edge pixels within a local window. The proposed method is simple, robust, and involves minimum parameter tuning

De-Noising of Medical Image Using Wavelets

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 22nd January 2018

Aravindan.T.E | Dr.Seshasayanan R

Abstract

De-noising of images is an important task in image processing and analysis, and it plays a significant role in modern applications in different fields, including medical imaging and pre-processing for computer vision. This paper analysis various medical image using different wavelet transform. Particularly the discrete wavelet transform (DWT) is best suited for De-noising of medical image. To apply two dimensional DWT is applied to the image and the four different sub filters section are obtained. Each section has some threshold value based on the noise effect. The inverse DWT (IDWT) is applied and de-noise effect estimated. To apply various soft threshold techniques like, Visu Shrink, Sureshrink, Bayes Shrink, etc., are applied and results rare compared with state of art techniques. The physical parameters like, RMSE, MSE, PSNR, SNR etc.are compared.

De-Noising, Enhancement and Developmental Analysis for Fetal Images

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 22nd January 2018

Shamya Shetty | Dr. Jose Alex Mathew

Abstract

Medical Image Processing has broadened in recent years. To monitor the behavior of the fetal ultrasound images are considered. These images provide the view of internal organs of the body. But ultrasound images have the drawback of having speckle noise. The quality of the image gets reduced due to the presence of speckle noise. Hence, it is necessary to reduce the speckle noise and to enhance the quality of the image for further images analysis. The detection of any movement as well as the development of the fetus can be analyzed after the preprocessing steps. The system helps the pregnant women to take care of her health stage by stage.

Decentralized Proportional-Plus-Integral Design Method for Two Area Interconnected Power Systems

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 22nd January 2018

Ms.Rekha Sonune | Ms Ujwala Tade, Ms Nutan attarde, Ms Neelam Pinjari

Abstract

A simple and computationally efficient de-centralized control design method is given for load frequency control in the interconnected power systems. This de-centralized scheme comprises of a reduced order observer and a proportional plus integral controller in each area of the power system. It ensures zero static change in area-frequency and tie-line power. Some of the features of the de-centralized scheme are de-centralized implementation of a wide choice of feedback controllers, which have been designed off-line to meet the requirement of the global system and there is no need for inter-area transfer of data, for the purpose of load frequency control. The de-centralized controls are tested on computer-base simulation of two area interconnected power system. The simulated responses show that the de-centralized control scheme gives the satisfactory performance similar to centralized control scheme.

Decision Support System For Finding Fetal Heart Images Using Image Processing

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 22nd June 2018

Kavitha. D | Aman Mujawar, Mr Kartik Kohli, Kavitha V, Kavya MR

Abstract

Congenital heart defects(CHD) are broadly in charge of over 10% of neonatal mortality in India. The target of this work portrays the use of few procedures, for example, image enhancement, speckle noise removal, morphology and edge identification to depict the formation of 4 chamber heart from clinical ultrasound imaging. In this paper we are going to examine the fetal 4- chambered heart within 4 months and classify the normal and abnormal, indeed cannot be identified by expertise so early, using image processing. To classify we use fetal echocardiogram images and SVM algorithm

Denoising of Multiscale Images Blind Denoising Algorithm

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 31st May 2017

C.Vijaya Lakshmi | V.Komala Devi

Abstract

In this research work, we are proposing multiscale denoising algorithm to the broad noise mode. This denoising algorithm is used real JPEG images and on scans of old pictures of unknown formation unknown formation model. The consistency of this algorithm is also verified on simulated distorted images. In the previous techniques of image denoising of fixed noise model used mainly Gaussian or Poissonain noise. In this denoising technique, the noise model is imperfectly known or unknown. The result of a complex image processing chain effectuated by uncontrolled hardware and software. The PSNR, RMSE and lapse time is calculated noise estimation from a single image is a noise model. The multiscale blind denoising technique is giving better performance than existing techniques and also verified on simulated distorted images.

Deriving ECG Signal from PPG Signal

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 22nd January 2018

Madhura V. Gupte | Prof. S. A. More

Abstract

Due to high cost of ECG signal, it is difficult to measure it regularly. In this paper we suggested a low cost, non invasive and easy methodology to analyze human cardio vascular system by using parameters of PPG as this signal is highly correlated with ECG. This paper deals with extraction of time domain features of PPG signal, correlate it with ECG and select most relevant features. The comparison of selected features and overall features has been done by Support Vector Machine (SVM) and Artificial Neural Network (ANN) and Linear Regression which is use as a predictors.

Design & Development of Compact Met Material Based Antenna for WLAN/WiMAX Applications

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 22nd January 2018

Mohasin R. Sheikh | Dr. Pankaj S. Ashtankar

Abstract

This project presents a compact triple band antenna for the frequency bands 5.5/6.7/9 GHz, These bands are assigned to the IEEE 802.11g and IEEE 802.16e standards. The resonant modes for WLAN, WiMAX bands are achieved by employing a rectangular slot and a met material inspired split ring structure. Also Ultra-wideband (UWB) systems have attracted significant research attention since the Federal Communication Commission (FCC) released a band of 7.5 GHz (3.1-10.6 GHz) as UWB in 2002. The proposed antenna with a compact size of 35 mm ◊ 35 mm is fabricated and tested. The triple band antenna yields a ?10 dB impedance bandwidth of about 18.6%, 4.3% and 40.3% in 5.5, 6.7 and 9 GHz bands respectively. Stable radiation patterns with low cross polarization and high average antenna gain of 6 dBi are observed for the operating bands.

Design a Dipole Antenna for the Time Varying Electric Field Frequency Measurement for the Future Space Mission

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 22nd January 2018

Krishna Thulasi | Dr.Vipin.K.Yadav , Jismi K

Abstract

The solar system and bulk of universe comprises matter which is strongly in the form of plasma. Any plasma having finite plasma density has a natural frequency of oscillations and the free energy sources present in that plasma may provide sufficient energy to the natural frequencies to propagate are termed as plasma waves. Plasma wave exist in the frequency range between Hertz to Kilohertz. Strong interactions are created between the charged particles in plasma results instabilities. To measure plasma parameters efficient antenna is required with less mass and small power consumption. The plasma wave instrument uses an electric dipole antenna to detect electric fields, and two search coil magnetic antennas to detect magnetic fields. Dipole antenna is preferred to operate in smaller frequency range to measure the local plasma wave parameters for the future space mission. Design the dipole antenna using HFSS software help to observe the frequency variation of plasma wave. The advantages of dipole antenna is that, it can be folded in to smaller dimension, shows Omni directional behavior, provide good directivity ,gain and radiation characteristics can be utilized in PWD instrument.

Design and Analysis of Airborne Thermo Graphic Cameras for Night Vision in Maritime Surveillance Applications

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 22nd January 2018

Sonika Obheroi | Vetrivelan P

Abstract

In this paper, we endeavour to discuss and analyse the operation of a thermographic camera embedded in an airborne vessel (surveillance aircraft) for maritime surveillance applications subject to properties such as response time, range, imaging time, suitability of material for infrared detection, resolution and contrast enhancement, operating temperatures, etc for given wavelengths, to work towards an optimal design.

Design and Analysis of Fuzzy Based Wormhole Detection in MANET

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 20th June 2017

Abhijit Ghanshyam Raut | D. Vydeki

Abstract

Currently, wireless communication is becoming a major part of our day today life. Due to immense growth in the turf of wireless communications, different types of wireless networks such as Vehicular Ad-Hoc Networks (VANET), Mobile Ad-Hoc Networks (MANET) play a key role in communication systems. MANETs are the ones having free mobile nodes which can traverse throughout the system and can be a host, furthermore a router for transmitting /forwarding data packets to the distant node. As this system lacks centralized coordinator and is a self-organized, self-healing network without infrastructure, their adaptive nature and frequently changing topology it is more likely endangered to different security attacks such as black hole attack, wormhole attack etc. This paper emphases on providing a solution for secure transmission through the network. In this paper, we aimed at detecting wormhole attack in MANET using Fuzzy Inference System. As it is one of the dangerous active attacks on the network layer of MANET, in which data packet can get lost or replayed within the system by the wormhole nodes which can be more than a pair and are situated at different points within the system. To detect the wormhole nodes in the system, we have measured parameters such as No. of dropped packets, Reply packets, Forwarded packets to collect the data for analysis. The key objective of our paper is to detect the presence of wormhole attack in MANET. This is done by proposing soft computing algorithms such as Fuzzy Inference System (FIS). The suggested algorithm identifies wormhole nodes based on the above parameters.

Design and Analysis of Mems Cantilever Switch

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 22nd January 2018

Prof. Vijay Matta | Ms. Sayali Dhongade,Mr. Mayur Agrawal,Ms. Sumita Jana,Mr. Amol Bhongade

Abstract

The intent of this paper is to discuss about the MEMS switch ,its design in an optimized way .Various aspect in which MEMS switches are advantageous over semiconductor switches are also compared in it. Mechanical coaxial and waveguide switches have low insertion loss, large off-state isolation and high power handling capabilities, but they are bulky, heavy and slow. The semiconductor switches have faster switching speed and are small in size and weight but have high insertion loss hence more static power consumption and less isolation and power handling capacity; Whereas MEMS switches have the advantages of both , the Mechanical and Semiconductor Switches .They provide higher RF performance , low static power consumption but with smaller size ,weight and is available at low cost .The MEMS switches are designed and its result are obtained by using Coventorware and this software is explained in detail in pervious paper.

Design and Analysis of Pair of Pyramidal Horn Antenna Using HFSS

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 22nd January 2018

R. Pallavi | M. Sukanya , Umesh Kumar

Abstract

This paper discusses the design, simulation of medium gain, lightweight, wide beamwidth pyramidal horn antenna pair for terrestrial microwave line of sight communication in mobile & wireless applications. This antenna has been designed for Kband frequencies widely used in terrestrial microwave communication for mobile & wireless applications. Simulated horn antenna pair shows wideband characteristics of VSWR < 2 for bandwidth range of minimum 8GHz. Antenna is linearly polarized and show wide beam characteristics in azimuth plane with minimum gain of 16.9dB. E-field & H-field analysis for K-band Applications for pyramidal horn feeds have also been discussed. Absolute gain measurement techniques have been employed for the measurement of antenna gain. Design meets the ruggedness, strength & reliability, durability, weight, corrosion resistance, temperature variation requirements of terrestrial/ line of sight (LOS) communication. Design, Simulation & Optimization for K-band pyramidal horn antenna pair has been done on ANSOFT HFSS 13.

Design and Control of Flexible Pneumatic Glass Climbing Robot

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 22nd January 2018

Rasika Tade | Ketki Gowardipe, Yashika Chavan,Mr. Atul Sharma

Abstract

The main motive of glass climbing robot is to climb on vertical glass surface. For this purpose efficient attachment and detachment is an important aspect. The purpose of designing this type of robot is that they can take place of humans to carry out hazardous work such as cleaning of glass surfaces, fire rescue, inspection of high rise buildings, etc. this robot can also be used for security purpose and also to calculate the height of building. The robot can move in all the four directions up, down, right, left. This project is aimed at developing robot which can move on vertical glass surface when suction pump is on and even on ground surface when suction pump is off. One of the most challenging task is to make the robotís weight as light as possible along with proper adhesion and locomotion system with low cost.

Design And Development Of ARINC 717 Protocol

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 22nd January 2018

Smitha M R | Aparna

Abstract

ARINC has provided leadership in developing specifications and standards for avionics equipment, and one of the standard protocol used for communication bus is ARINC 717. This communication occurs between Digital flight data acquisition unit (DFDAU) and Digital flight data recorder (DFDR). The basic unit of information defined by the ARINC 717 protocol is a 12- bit word. The Programmable bit rates of ARINC 717 are 384, 768, 1536, 3072, 6144, 12288, 24576, 49152 and 98304 bits/sec (32, 64, 128, 256, 512, 1024, 2048, 4096 and 8192 words/sec). The data is serially transmitted in ARINC 717. The top level architecture of the ARINC 717 protocol has 4 modules ARINC 717 transmitter, ARINC 717 receiver, Transmit and Receive 32*12-bit FIFO to store and fetch the data, and ARINC 717 clock generation. In this proposed work a Hardware Descriptive Language (HDL) based design and development of the ARINC 717 protocol for standard data bus communication. The input data is taken from Digital flight data acquisition unit. This continuous data stream is stored in a 32*12-bit FIFO. The encoder module at ARINC 717 transmitter converts a continuous data stream into a 12 bit encoded Harvard Bi-Phase (HBP) format which are then encoded to form ARINC 717 frames. This encoded data is decoded using both Harvard bi-phase and bi-polar return to zero at the receiver. The decoded data is stored in the Receive FIFO. Then the continuous stream of output data is taken for recording in Digital flight data recorder. The design and development is done using Xilinx software.

Design and Development of Bi-Phase Coded RF Signal Generator for Atmospheric Radars

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 22nd January 2018

K. Jaya Raj | P. Kamaraj, A. Suresh Babu

Abstract

The aim of the present work is to design and develop an RF Exciter in the VHF band frequency. The exciter provides pulse modulated Bi-phase coded RF signal at 53 MHz frequency. And it generates highly coherent Receiver local oscillator signal, as well as required auxiliary clock signal for synchronizing operations of all the sub-systems of the radar. The spectral performance of the 53MHz RF signal is achieved via use of quartz crystals in the Master Oscillator, and a variety of recently developed circuit technologies and frequency synthesis techniques.

Design and Development of Compact Line Impedance Stabilization Network for Measurement of Conducted Emission

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 29th November 2017

Maddu Srinivasa Rao | Dr. D. Nagendra Rao, Dr. V. Usha Shree

Abstract

In modern life bit commercial Electronic, industrial are defense electronics problem of electromagnetic interference (EMI) is ever growing problem. Accurate and precision measurement of EMI gives vital information about the characteristics of noise (or) EMI which leads to the achievement of electromagnetic comparability. Measurement of conducted emission is an important step towards electromagnetic comparability. Conducted emission can be measured using current probes, voltage probes depending on the applicable measurement standard. In MIL-STD461E a voltage probe method is recommended. A LISN is nothing but a voltage probe associated with impedance stabilization circuit. In the proposed paper a LISN as per MIL-STD461E studied it will be simulated using P-spice software for optimization of its performance. Based on the simulation results a compact LISN will be designed, fabricated and tested for its performance various conducted emission measurements will be carried out using fabricated LISN.

Design and Development of Low cost Real Time Data Logger Based on Embedded Linux

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 7th June 2017

Dr. R. Lakshmi Narayana | Prof. K. Nagabhushan Raju

Abstract

BeagleBone electronic instrument power status reports generation system, based an inexpensive ARM Cortex processor board, which hosts its own web server to display and store data on database. A development platform that utilizes the low cost TI Sitara AM3358 ARM Cortex-A8 processor and runs an Debian operating system. An external real-time clock provides time and date-stamping for each captured quantity. The BeagleBone black captures the event from different equipments or electronic devices which ever going to monitor the status. The proposed system detects events when events happen, states how long between events, and counts how many events.

Design and Development of Radar Signal Emulator for Electronic Warfare Scenario Simulation

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 22nd January 2018

Gowriprasad, R | Nayana. K. S , Apoorva Kushal , Salila Hegde , A. R. Sachin

Abstract

The objective of this project is to design and develop software based Radar Signal Emulator (RSE) to generate various classes of modern radar signals synthetically and simulate complex electronic warfare scenarios. This involves formulation of time, frequency and spatial domain properties of radar signals such as frequency, modulation bandwidth, modulation slope, instantaneous amplitude, frequency and phase, waveform pattern, scan modulations etc. in the presence of additive white Gaussian noise. Analytical formulation followed by Matlab implementation of the candidate signal set has been carried out followed by actual generation of the same using vector signal generators. Proposed RSE provides a developmental platform for various electronic warfare systems, concepts and algorithms. RSE facilitates performance quantification under realistic threat scenarios with a broad class of signals and modulations.

Design and Development of RBS Based Network Monitoring Tool for Wireless Systems

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 4th January 2018

B.Anusha | Prof. Patchigolla Subba Rao, B S Srinivasa Rao

Abstract

This paper aims at the development of monitoring critical data in different network entities i.e., in both Base transceiver station (BTS) in GSM and Node-B in UMTS of wireless communication system so that preventive measures can be taken before the actual failure. It enables users to obtain readings remotely and gives protection of the safety of monitoring personally under certain dangerous circumstances. This improves system reliability and reduces cost. The data and its associated history are stored in servers and the logs generated due to interruption, identify the cause of failures in the system using characteristics as configuration management, performance, backup and restoration procedures which are provided by applications available to every end users all the time. The system consists of maintenance terminal for monitoring the various network entities of wireless communication systems. This tool utilises GUI interface and representing physical model. This tool is implemented in the logical model via Visual studios, C# language.

Design and Evaluation of a New 802.11KT MAC Protocol for ADHOC Network

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 22nd January 2018

V.K.Taksande | 

Abstract

The main thrust of this research paper is to propose and design a new MAC 802.11KT protocol to overcome the limits of the IEEE 802.11 MAC protocol and improve the system performance in multi-hop adhoc networks. Proposed 1.5TDDIbackoff algorithm and proposed small RTS and CTS frame format of control fields are implemented in newly designed 802.11KT MAC protocol. The effect of proposed backoff algorithm and proposed control frame of new 802.11KT mac protocol would be examined and the results and insights obtained would be used to maximize the network packet delivery ratio, reduce end to end delay and reduce power consumption of the ad-hoc wireless network. The simulation analysis of existing IEEE 802.11 MAC protocol and newly proposed and designed 802.11KT MAC protocol is done using network simulator NS-2.Simulation results observed that proposed 802.11KT Mac protocol is superior in performance than existing IEEE 802.11 Mac protocol.

Design and Implementaion of Booth Multiplier using optical reversible carry select adder with AOI logic

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 26th July 2017

Rashmi Pande | H.Sudha

Abstract

An important requirement of digital system design is to reduce Area, Propogation delay and Power dissipation. Reversible logic is one of the emerging technology for reducing Area, Delay and Power. The aim of this paper is to realize Booth multiplier using optical reversible carry select adder (ORCSA) with And-or-invert (AOI) logic. Optical reversible full adder (ORFA) and optical reversible mux (ORM) has been used for designing optical reversible carry select adder. Here two reversible gates i.e. Feyman gate (FG) and Toffolli gate (TG) are been used. Optical switches such as Beam combiner (BC) Beam splitter (BS) and Mach-zehender Interferometer (MZI) are also been used. The circuit has been implemented and simulated in Xilinx. The synthesis results shows that the proposed booth multiplier improves both interms of Area and Propagation delay over the conventional booth multiplier.

Design and Implementation Intelligent WSN System for Environmental Monitoring Applications

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 22nd January 2018

Mr. Manohar G R | Dr.M Nagaraja , Dr. M Z Kurian

Abstract

Wireless sensor network technology has been emerging as a violable solution to many innovative applications like industry, science, transport, civil industry, agriculture and security. A wireless sensor network system that is developed using open source hardware platform called Raspberry pi. The system is low cost and highly scalable both in terms of type of sensors and number of sensor node, which makes it well suited for a wide variety of applications related to environmental monitoring. The design of ZigBee Protocol is investigated using XBee module to establish WSN. A brief introduction to wireless sensor network(WSN) and temperature sensor briefing their characteristics and their applications, wireless crop management in agriculture. Monitoring agricultural environment for various factors such as soil moisture, temperature and humidity along with other factors can be of significance. Crop management system that is capable of watering the different kinds of crops with different amount of water according to their requirement based on environmental parameters of the field soil like moisture and temperature and monitoring the reservoir water level and sending necessary warning messages to concerned authority during water shortage in reservoir. A temperature sensor designed for weather monitoring applications.

Design and Implementation of 12-T SRAM Cell in 32nm FinFET Technology

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 1st September 2017

Kishore Kumar K | Radha B. L

Abstract

The primary downside of utilizing CMOS transistors is high power utilization and high leakage current. FinFET has turned into the most encouraging substitute for CMOS which has less short channel effects compared to CMOS technology. In low power applications, as the technology is scaling down leakage current and leakage power are the most noticeable problems for SRAM cell. The interest for static random access memory (SRAM) is expanding with extensive utilization of SRAM in System On- Chip and VLSI circuits. In order to design low power devices leakage current and power dissipation must be kept low. To reduce this dissipation conventional 12T SRAM is implemented using FinFET technology. In this paper power consumption during hold, read and write operations of CMOS 12T SRAM cell with FinFET based 12T SRAM cell are compared with the help of HSPICE simulator

Design and Implementation of 4x4 Pipelined Iterative Logarithmic Multiplier using Reversible Logic

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 22nd January 2018

Kavya Shree M S | Praveen Kumar Y G , Dr. M Z Kurian

Abstract

As the demand increases for low power dissipation in digital computing system, a new technique called Reversible Logic was introduced. Reversible logic is one of the promising field which solves the problem of power dissipation and also it is the basic requirement for the field of quantum computing. The multiplication which plays a prior role in DSP applications. Some of the important operations in DSP are filtering, convolution and inner partial products. These are the processes which requires multipliers so the speed and performance of their operations depends on the speed of the multiplication and addition. The logarithmic multiplier which is designed based on the Mitchellís Algorithm proposed by Mitchell. The logarithmic multiplier convert multiplication and division problem into addition and subtraction.. This paper gives the design of pipelined iterative logarithmic multiplier using reversible logic.

Design and Implementation of a High Speed Multiplier Using Reversible Logic

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 22nd January 2018

Vinutha P | Praveen Kumar Y G

Abstract

The core of all the digital signal processor(DSPs) are its multipliers and the speed of the DSPs is mainly determined by the speed of its multipliers. Latency and throughput are the two important parameters associated with multiplication algorithm performed in DSP application. The performance of multiplication in terms of speed and power is crucial for most of the digital signal processor applications. In this paper, a design of 32 bit multiplier using the nikilam sutra to minimize the power delay product of multipliers intended for high performance and low power applications.

Design And Implementation Of A Low Power Ecg Based Processor

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 2nd August 2017

H.M. Zeba Fathima | J.C. Narayana Swamy

Abstract

This paper introduces the plan of an electrocardiogram (ECG) based processor (ESP) for the detection of ventricular arrhythmia utilizing a novel arrangement of ECG features and a radial basis function as a classifier. Constant and versatile systems for the identification and the depiction of the P-QRS-T waves were researched to extract the fiducial points. Those systems are hearty to any varieties in the ECG flag with high precision and accuracy. Two databases of the heart-beat recordings from the MIT PhysioNet and the American Heart Association were utilized as an approval set to assess the execution of the processor. The proposed system compares the heart signal recordings with the normal heart-beat signals so as to classify whether the heart-beat is normal or abnormal. Based on simulation results and synthesis using FPGA, the proposed system consumes a low power of 203 mW.

Design and implementation of automated smart irrigation system based on clustering in WSN

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 30th June 2017

Rakshit Gowda G | Dr. Byra Reddy. C.R

Abstract

Site-specific agriculture may be a farming management idea supported perceptive, measurement and responding to inter and intra-field variability in crops. The goal of site-specific agriculture analysis is to outline a decision support system (DSS) for whole farm management with the goal of optimizing returns on inputs whereas protective resources. the expansion and advancements in wireless sensing element network (WSN) technology has directed agriculture sector into a brand new trend of sensible agriculture. WSN technology provides process of real time information from field. this is often obtained through the sensors that square measure physically deployed into the fields. during this paper wireless agriculture and setting sensing system for crop observance is given. This paper introduces the idea of the period observation system, and discusses the side of hardware and software system style of the composed modules, network topology, network communication protocol, IoT idea. Experiments show that the node can do agricultural environmental info collection and transmission. This method reduces wastage of water, protects agricultural fields kind accidental fires. It greatly improves the automated level and agricultural production capability drastically.

Design and Implementation of Camera Based Classroom Attendance System

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 22nd January 2018

Mrunal Sawant | Shrinivas Joshi, Laxmikant Bordekar, Sayesh Sawant, Jaidev Naik

Abstract

The face is one of the unique identity of a person. Image processing techniques are widely used nowadays to exploit this physical feature of a person. The attendance is taken in every schools, colleges and library. Traditional approach for attendance is professor calls student name and record attendance, which results in wastage of time. For each lecture this is wastage of time. To avoid this, we propose an automatic process which is based on image processing. The proposed system is based on face detection and recognition. The face detection differentiates faces from non-faces and is therefore essential for accurate attendance. The other approach involves face detection and recognition for marking the students attendance. The proposed system provides an efficient way to record and manage the attendance activity in a university/institution. The proposed system stores the details of each student as well as their facial features in the database and it compares the new patterns with the previously stored patterns as per the requirement.

Design and Implementation of cascaded H-Bridge Multilevel inverter using digital control schemes

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 21st July 2017

Amit Kumar Tiwari | Priyanka Bhardwaj,Sumair Yasin Baig, Sunil Kumar Paswan ,Mrs. Savitha S.C

Abstract

the objective of the present work is to obtain a three level ac output, which is obtained by a 4-stage, 3-level multilevel inverter. An inverter receives dc supply for its input and produces ac output. It stepped up to 220 V, 50 Hz single-phase ac supply with the help of a step up transformer with E/I core with a resulting given input of 12V. Using a simple L-C filter at the rectifier output terminals the obtained dc supply can be made ripple free. The circuit consists of 4 MOSFET’s which requires more current and generate heat and to dissipate heat sink, which is fabricated in aluminum. The obtained dc from the renewable sources i.e., Solar Panel, Wind Mill and Hydro Mill is directly fed to the dc to dc converter which boost up the input power and this is fed to the battery with the capacity of 12V, 24 AHC. Simulation of the firing pulse generation circuit and multilevel inverter was done using MATLAB 13a and Simulink. Since we are using Hybrid inverter, to establish the communication, ARM Processor (LPC2148) and GSM (SIM900A) module is used to provide access of the user to the model i.e., controlling its mode of control of operation.

Design and implementation of CMOS Domino Circuit for Low Power VLSI Applications

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 22nd January 2018

Aravind R | Manasa M G , Raju D H

Abstract

Dynamic logic style is used in high performance circuit design because of its fast speed of operation and less number of transistors requirement as compared to CMOS logic style. But it is not widely accepted for all types of circuit implementations due to its less noise tolerance and charge sharing problems. A small noise at the input of the dynamic logic can change the desired output. Domino logic uses one static CMOS inverter at the output of dynamic node which is more noise immune and consuming very less power as compared to other proposed circuit. In this paper we have proposed a novel circuit for domino logic which has less area and has less power-delay product (PDP) as compared to previous reported articles. Low PDP is achieved by using semidynamic logic buffer and also reducing leakage current when PDN is not conducting. Then comparison analysis has been carried out by simulating the circuits in 90nm CMOS process technology from TSMC using Tanner EDA 14.11.

Design and Implementation of Face Recognition System Using CORDIC-FFT

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 22nd January 2018

Pradeep Hulihalli | M.C.Chandrashekhar , Dr. M Z Kurian

Abstract

In the real world applications like access control and identification of an individual from a group of people which uses parts of human body called as biometrics, like finger prints, face, iris, Deoxyribo Nucleic Acid(DNA), palm print etc which are different for every individual, are being used abundantly in recent times due to their overwhelming features like uniqueness, the reliable results obtained by using them. CO-ordinate Rotation DIgital Computer (CORDIC) is used to find the trigonometric functions like sin ?,cos ?, tan ?, sinh ?, cosh ?, tanh ? of a given angle ?, logarithmic functions. Fast Fourier Transform(FFT) algorithm is used to compute the Discrete Fourier Transform(DFT) of a sequence or its inverse. Fourier analysis converts from time domain to the representation in frequency domain or vice versa. In this proposed work an efficient face recognition system is designed and implemented on FPGA using simulink.

Design and Implementation of Greenhouse Parameters Monitoring and Controlling System

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 22nd January 2018

N. Gayathri | G. Tirumala vasu, Dr. V. Rajesh

Abstract

This paper proposes a new approach towards the monitoring and controlling of Greenhouse environment which is based on GSM technology. Microcontroller reads the value of sensor periodically and transmits the sensed data from monitoring node to sink node via GSM module. This proposed system is implemented using ARM7, Sensors (Humidity sensor, temperature sensor, gas sensor), GSM modem. If any of the Greenhouse parameters exceeds the threshold value set by the user, necessary control action will takes place automatically. Also alert will be provided to the user through GSM module. The controlling action will takes place with the help of fan, motor. If the Greenhouse parameter falls below the threshold value, the controllers will be turned off automatically.

Design and Implementation of Multiple Access techniques Addressing Performance Issues in Data Encoding Techniques for Text Messages

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 22nd January 2018

M.Sridevi | Karthik S, Prashanth S, Gopikrishnan T, Ebenezer Abishek A

Abstract

Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) is a multi-carrier transmission technique in which single data with higher rate is partitioned into multiple lower rate data streams to exhibit the parallelism and orthogonality. Modulation technique is one of the important hand tools in OFDM based wireless communication system. In order to improve the OFDM based wireless communication system, it is better to design an efficient modulation technique for achieving efficient Area, Delay, and Power. Thus different types of modulation techniques such Quadrature Amplitude Modulation (QAM), Quadrature Phase Shift Keying (QPSK) modulation; Binary Phase Shift Keying (BPSK) modulation and M-ary PSK for different bits are proposed in this project. In order to reduce the AWGN noises in OFDM signal, an efficient encoders and decoder such as Hamming encoder and hamming decoder are proposed in this project. Performance measurement of this project is analyzed in terms of Lower power consumption, high speed and less area utilization.

Design and Implementation of nRF Based Smart Home System Using IoT

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 22nd January 2018

J.Krishna Chaithanya | Dr. T. Ramashri

Abstract

Presently, conventional wall switches are located in different parts of the house and one has to physically go near them and press them to turn the loads on/off. It becomes very difficult for the elderly or physically handicapped people to do so. We usually forget to switch off the electrical devices when they are not in use. This leads to wastage of lots of power resulting in wastage of money, and if more power is consuming more power is to be generated. To generate more power we need to use more energy resources and we know we are depending on conventional energy resources which are non-renewable which results in depleting enormous reserves of energy resources. So saving power techniques help us to save money, by preserving resources, it also useful for sustainable development, economical sustainability and enhances the quality of life by preserving energy resources. The home automation is one of the most emerging trends in modernization of home appliance control. With the advancement of Automation technology, life is getting simpler and easier in all aspects. In todayís world Automatic systems are being preferred over manual system. With the rapid increase in the number of users of internet over the past decade has made Internet a part and parcel of life, and IoT is the latest and emerging internet technology. Internet of things is a growing network of everyday objectfrom industrial machine to consumer goods that can share information and complete tasks while you are busy with other activities. In the proposed paper we are designing a smart home system such that we can reduce the wastage of power and can use the power efficiently so that no switch is unnecessarily turn on and we can also know power consumed by each and every appliances in our home such that we can manage the usage of electrical appliances and devices.

Design and Implementation of Remote Object Sensor Using MSP430

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 22nd January 2018

Vijayalakshmi G | Shalini M G

Abstract

Over 1.5 billion in the world the elders are suffering from challenges of some sort of memory loss. A very common discomfort is in forgetting where their valuable objects are located, at their residences, cars, offices, etc. Conventional electronic methods to help such people employ a radio signal to excite a beeper tag attached to the object being searched, so that the object is traced by tracking the audible beep. However for people who have auditory challenges and in environments where loud beeps are not encouraged, or at distances where audibility is low, a more sophisticated technology has to be employed, without significant increase in cost and complexity of operation. Considering specific challenges mentioned above the possibility of elderly userís inability to read, write, type, this paper presents a novel method of object location using sensor networks and a locator tag attached to objects in residential settings that can be used not only to track objects, their location and neighbourhood. The system employs a simple, affordable, low-power mobile sensor tag that can either respond on demand to queries originating from a locator or proactively keep informing sensors about its locality, in addition to the legacy alarm sounding method. The paper presents the method and performance of such a system as shown by experimental results.

Design and Implementation of SCF method for PAPR Reduction of OFDM Signals Using ANN

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 22nd January 2018

Monika Patil | S.N.Prasad

Abstract

Clipping and filtering methods is considered one of the simplest ways to cut down high peak to average power ratio (PAPR) of orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) signals. The existing simplified CF method clips the high PAPR in single iteration with reduced complexity. However, these low complexity methods depend upon large complicated fast Fourier transform procedures. In this paper we come up with an advanced method which adopts trained ANN to incorporate with the SCF algorithm. Compared to SCF method, the advanced proposal based on ANN and SCF method provides good performance with respect to bit error rate (BER) with incomparably shortened computing complications. In addition to this it also presents an attractive metric which is a more efficient predictor than peak to average power ratio.

Design and Implementation of Sealing Unit based on PLC

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 31st May 2017

Chaitanya Prabhu Gaunker | Devendra Sutar,Manish Lenpale

Abstract

this paper presents machine vision approach to put and inspect the integrity of LPG cylinder seals. Programmable Logic Controllers (PLC) are used in industries over a decade because of its robust nature, computational power and applications beyond automation and control. Due to its advance features and high speed computations it can be easily used in designing a new sealing unit for sealing LPG cylinders. This paper focuses on Allen Bradley microtransistor 800 model which is widely used in the industries. PLC will be used to monitor the temperature, control the movement of LPG cylinders and seal them once they enter the unit. The whole sealing process should take place only if the temperature of hot air is above 250¬įC. This hot air will be passed onto the blue color plastic cover so that it seals it. SCADA will be used to monitor sealing unit from distance.

Design and Implementation of Security Based Automatic Teller Machine against Intruders

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 8th August 2017

Niranjan L | Sushma S, Shreekanth R,Santhoshilakshmi G S

Abstract

This paper explores The Idea of Designing and Implementation of Security Based ATM against intruder are born with the observation in our real-life incidents happening around us. This paper deals with prevention of intruder from robbery and to overcome the drawback found in existing technology in our society. Whenever an intruder tries to attack a citizen in the ATM unit, the citizen used the panic button which is places next to the keyboard which sends the SMS to the concerned bank manager and the nearest police station and alarm goes on. And whenever the intruder tries to steal the ATM money box in the ATM unit metal detector senses this which is placed near by the ATM money box and sends the SMS to the concerned bank manager and nearby police station and alarm goes on. There by locking down the ATM with the magnetic door lock present at the top of the ATM door till the police attends the place

Design and Implementation of Security Management Using Haar Classifier With Call Alert and Live Video Streaming

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 22nd January 2018

Kopparthi Venkata Thejesh Reddy | Ch.RajaKumari

Abstract

This paper concentrates on the security systems in banks, jewellery shops etc..We are concentrating on a method to accurately and rapidly detect faceswithin an image. This technique can be adapted to accurately detect facialfeatures. However, the area of the image being analyzed for a facial featureneeds to be regionalized to the location with the highest probability ofcontaining the feature. By regionalizing the detection area, false positives areeliminated and the speed of detection is increased due to the reduction of thearea examined. We have used advanced Rasberry Pi processor for the implementation.

Design and Implementation of Serial Protocol Convertor/Translator on FPGA

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 22nd January 2018

G.Mallikarjuna | C.Vijaya Bhaskar

Abstract

In the world of multiple application based product it is very much a mandatory to have multiple devices connected to a system, this includes peripherals following different communication protocols as well. These requirements give rise to the need for an intermediate system which can act as a bridge between two devices following different communication protocols. Today a system is connected to a number of devices and makes the communication smooth and fast. Communication protocols such as I2C, SPI and UART protocols are commonly used protocols. The PC, ADC and DAC will require an interface for communication between them. It is used to minimize system-level interconnect. FPGA is mainly uses serial communication to communicate with peripherals. Therefore serial communication plays vital role in embedded system design. In this paper we focus on the implementation of protocol converter to convert standard protocol of one device to the protocol of other device [SPI, UART, and I2C].The proposed work simulated by using VHDL code in Xilinx 14.7i and implemented on Spartan 3E FPGA.

Design and Implementation of Smart Bins System for Waste Management

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 22nd January 2018

Suman Fernandes | Kajal Patil , Nikita Haveri , Pushpa Perike

Abstract

One of the main concerns with our environment has been solid waste management which in addition to disturbing the balance of the environment also has adverse effects on the health of the society. The detection, monitoring and management of wastes is one of the primary problems of the present era. The traditional way of manually monitoring the wastes in waste bins is a complex, cumbersome process and utilizes more human effort, time and cost which is not compatible with the present day technologies in any way. This paper proposes an advanced method in which waste management is automated. Sensor based system is one of the most promising and anticipated technologies in recent years. The system makes use of IR sensor and GSM support. This work presented here certainly provides a novel approach in handling and disposing off the day to day solid wastes in an efficient and easy way. The system consists Metal Casing, Compressing mechanism, Sensors, Transmitter, Power source and Smart Monitoring and Controlling system using GSM. The proposed system would be able to automate the waste monitoring process and management of the overall collection process. The technologies that would be used in the proposed system are good enough to ensure the practical and perfect for solid waste collection process monitoring and management for green environment.

Design and Implementation of Speech Based Scientific Calculator

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 22nd January 2018

Harish K | Shantha Suresh M, Rajesh K L, Chandan K , Ms. Bindu K

Abstract

In recent days speech recognition based systems are gaining more prominence and are used in a wide range of applications. Calculator has become an indispensable part of our lives, used at home, at local retail shops or at workplaces like banks, IT companies, medical laboratories etc. Speech recognized calculator is one of the speech recognition systems, in which the digits and operators spoken by the user with pauses in between are analyzed using various algorithms and finally one of the 10 digits (0 to 9) and one of the 5 operators(+, -, *, /, =) The objective of our paper is to design and implement the speech recognized calculator in MATLAB and Standalone Microcontroller. This designed system is able to take detect the digits and operators of the arithmetic expression whose result is to be calculated. In this paper we have used linear predictive method for recognizing the digit/operator in MATLAB and Analog Speech Recognition Chip.

Design and Implementation of Super Resolution Reconstruction Based On Efficient Restoration Techniques

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 22nd January 2018

Kamalavva Totagi | Chidananda Murthy M V , M Z Kurian

Abstract

Super Resolution (SR) image can be obtained from a set of Low Resolution (LR) images with noise and blur. The main object of Super Resolution is to get high resolution, high quality image from Low Resolution images. To remove the blur and noises caused by the imaging system as well as recover information, restoration techniques are used. Super resolution imaging processes one or more low resolution images acquired from the same scene to produce a single higher resolution image with more information. Recently, it has been one of the most active research areas to get high-resolution image from a low-resolution image, and for the communication purpose it is necessary to compress the information. To achieve SR, it should be restored properly and free from artifacts such as noises, blur and aliasing. In this paper, the various restoration techniques are designed and implemented. It significantly improves the quality and resolution of image. Restoration recovers the original image by degradation.

Design and Implementation of Supervising Robot Using GSM

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 22nd January 2018

Prof. S. V. Viraktamath | Neha Vernekar , Nivedita Patil, Priyanka Angadi, Shruti Kulkarni

Abstract

The hot emergence of remote monitoring and control systems in recent years is closely related to the outstanding advance in electronics and instrumentation techniques. In the present scenario, there were many recent developments of robotics and communication on a large scale. The objective of designing this robot is simply to facilitate the humans in the future for security purposes. As robotics plays an integral role in all aspects of manufacturing, medicine, industries, home basic and more and it will take on even greater importance in the future. Controlling the robot by using GSM module is a most suggested mechanism for mobile robot which has the capability of changing directions for the long range distances & effectively allows control from a remote area to the desired location. The main aim of the work will be to design a SMS electronic robot control toolkit which can replace the traditional robot control devices. The toolkit receives the short message service (SMS), validates the sending mobile identification number (MIN) and performs the desired operation after necessary code conversion. The system is made efficient by SIMs so that the SMS can be received by number of device boards in a locality using techniques of time division multiple access. The need to be physically present in order to control the robot of a certain location is eliminated with the use of our system.

Design and Implementation of TCSC Controller for Power Flow Enhancement

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 22nd January 2018

Dr.K.C.Sindu Thampatty | P. Geetha Sai Lakshmi

Abstract

In the present day scenario, transmission systems are becoming more insecure with unscheduled power flows. The transmission and distribution losses are increasing day by day because of high demand. However, many high voltage transmission systems are operating below their thermal ratings due to constraints, such as voltage and stability limits. This leads to reduction of life of transmission lines and is less economical. The power flow through the transmission network is mainly limited due to line impedance and load angle of the generator. To control the real power flow through any transmission line it is needed to control the impedance of the line or load angle. This control can be achieved by Flexible Alternating Current Transmission System (FACTS) device. In this paper, Thyristor Controlled Series Capacitor is used to compensate the line reactance of transmission line and look up table based TCSC controller is proposed for power flow control. The design and hardware implementation of TCSC control is discussed in this paper. The system stability is analyzed with and without TCSC Controller. It can be achieved by introducing TCSC through a transmission line. The effective impedance of the transmission line is changed by giving series compensation to the transmission line, thus compensating line reactance. This system is tested in laboratory set up for open loop and closed loop control under different operating conditions.

Design and Implementation of Underwater Autonomous Vehicle (Uav- Varauna)

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 22nd June 2018

C. Sivaprakash | Kusuma.P, Jeevan.N.R, Kishore Kumar.S, Dr. Pauline. A

Abstract

VARUNA is the first autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV) design and builds by our team. Complete the AUV in a sixmonth design cycle, the vehicle is fully modeled using Solid works software and extensively we will simulate the structural and flow analysis with ANSYS, STARCCM+ software ’s and going to manufacture almost entirely in our campus. Grid Independent studies will be carried out for the structural and flow analysis. Various Turbulence models will be select based on the literature survey for the flow analysis. Based on the Grid independent studies simulation is carried out for various speeds for 0.1-0.5 m/sec then only we can neglect the lift forces based on the wet test. During generation of the meshes, attention will be given for refining the meshes near the AUV so that the boundary layer can be resolved properly. Varuna presents a cheaper, stronger, lighter in weight of 27 kg and compact size of 0.8m*0.6m*0.6mas length, width and height of the vehicle and capable of working under 25 m depth. New advancements include full vehicle control of six degrees of freedom, a dual-hull cantilevered electronics rack and hulls, overhauled wire routing for electrical systems, and significant software for mission reliability and robustness. Varuna sensor suite comprises of inertial measurement units (IMUs), two vision cameras, and humidity sensors, water sensors for kill switches, a depth sensor and an internal pressure sensor. Returning features include a vacuum-assisted sealing system; hot-swappable battery pods, unified serial communications, and flexible mission software architecture will be install.

Design and Implementation of Vedic Multiplier using Verilog Code on FPGA

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 21st July 2017

Laxman Marasini | Manish Lamsal,Deepak Danuwar Rai, Prem Kumar V,Prof. Gopinath.R

Abstract

Currently the speed of the multipliers is limited by the speed of the adders used for partial product addition. We proposed an 8-bit multiplier using a Vedic Mathematics (Urdhva Tiryagbhyam sutra) for generating the partial products. The product addition in Vedic multiplier is realized using partial products in parallel. An 8-bit multiplier is realized using a 8 and 12 bit parallel adders. In the proposed design we have reduced the number of logic levels, thus reducing the logic delay. Simulation of the architecture is synthesized using Xilinx ISE9.1.The performance of the proposed multiplier has been compared with those other multipliers reported in literature.

Design and Implementation of Vehicle Tracking System Using Can Protocol

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 31st May 2017

P. Yaswitha | Y. Veda Samhitha, B. Madhavi

Abstract

Avoiding Vehicle Theft is making buzz in present automobile industry. Design and development of a theft control system for an automobile, can be achieved by making use of ARM LPC2148, GSM and GPS. The developed system makes use of an GSM that is embedded in the vehicle with an interfacing to Engine Control Module(ECM) through Control Area Network (CAN) Bus, which is in turn, communicated to the ECM. The vehicle being stolen can be stopped by using SMS feature of GSM and GPS is used to get the location information and this information is used by the owner of the vehicle for future processing. The owner sends the message to the GSM which is embedded in the vehicle which has stolen which in turn controls the vehicles engine by locking the working of the engine immediately. The developed system accept the message and broadcasted to the Vehicle Network through CAN Bus. The engine can be unlocked only by the owner of the vehicle by sending the message again. The goal behind the design is to develop security for vehicles and embedded system to communicate with engine of the vehicle.

Design and Implementation of Wearable Gas Detector using ATTINY85

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 21st August 2017

Chetanraj K Y | Ravikumar S

Abstract

Recently, there have been many developments in the area of gas detection. In this article, we design a compact wearable gas detector. The designed gas detector is implemented using ATTINY85 microcontroller, a gas sensor and the OLED display. The MQ-4 gas sensor senses methane, propane and butane which are the main constituents of natural gas. To notify the gas concentration to the user an OLED display is used. When the gas concentration reaches the specified threshold the user is notified by an alert message in the OLED display. The gas detector designed is smaller and cheaper and can be used in household, mining sector and industry.

Design and Implementation of Wireless Notice Board Using Wi-Fi

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 22nd January 2018

P. Rosireddy | J. Rajanikanth

Abstract

The project is todesigned by using ARM-LPC2148 interfaced with LCD display. At present, when information has to be up dated in a notice board, it has to be done manually. The main objective of this project is to introduce the developed wireless notice board on displays messages sent from the user by using Wi-Fi, notice board is a primary thing in any institution /organization or public utility places like bus stations, railway stations and parks. But sticking various notices day-to-day is a difficult process. The notice board is a common display for effective mode of providing information to the people, but this is easyfor updating the messages instantly. This system is enhanced to display the latest information through an Android application of smart phone or tablet by using messages.

Design and Performance Analysis of All Terrain Mobile Robot

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 5th January 2018

Sunil S | Sudip C Gupta, Mrityunjaya Sherikhar, Prashanth N, Dr.Jharna Majumdar

Abstract

This work relates to the design of a holonomic and non-holonomic mobile platform and test for the mobility parameters that affect its performance. The system is driven by four-wheel drive mechanism where all the wheels can be steered by two centralized steering actuators. A mathematical model describing the kinematic and dynamic modelling of standard steered and non-steered wheels, which will influence the size, orientation and position of the mobile platform, is mentioned. In addition, this work relates to the study of the performance of the all-terrain mobile robot on various terrain with a different linear controller such as P, PD and PID for the control system. In particular, we compare various mobility parameters like the torque required by system, power or current consumed and robustness of the mobile robot on different terrain like ceramic, concrete and asphalt road by employing different controllers to analyze its performance. The experimental setup includes all terrain mobile robot, rotary encoders, current sensors and circuitry board that houses the mbed LPC1768, Hercules Motor Driver IC and Bluetooth for communication. This experiment is conducted for the number of trials on each terrain with each controller to understand the behavior of robot and also measured basic factors like voltage, current, distance travelled, the time taken to cover the distance. Derivatives of basic parameter like velocity, power, torque, the coefficient of friction are also calculated. Finally, various manoeuvrability of the proposed mobile robot both in holonomic and non-holonomic configuration like straight movement, point turn on different surfaces are tested

Design and Realization of Low Power Multiple Sensors Node & its VLSI Implementation

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 22nd January 2018

P.Kiran Kumar | G.Thirumala Vasu , Dr.V.Rajesh

Abstract

The sensor intelligence has been emerged with a low power processor model. Sensor node within single chip has been developed and implemented on a high performance FPGA kit. This paper is for the purpose of designing a FPGA based data acquisition system, utilizing the high processing speed feature of FPGA The FPGA data acquisition module is designed by the VHDL and simulated by the ISE software. This system has the advantage of being a simple unit with low power consumption and being used to collect data from different sensors. In proposed System, FPGA can sense the maximum of 8 analog channel input from ADC. After conversion of analog to digital. No need to store the corresponding digital data with external memory. You can able to store the digital data in FPGA embedded RAM itself and also the Stored digital data in Xilinx Platform PROM (XCF01S).So that digital data is not erased, until again reprogramming the FPGA ic. The prototype is implemented in SPARTAN- 3E FPGA board and coding used is VHDL.

Design and Simulation of Multiband Band pass Filter Having Rectangular Shaped Defects in Ground Plane

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 1st November 2017

Apurva Misra | Manish Kumar

Abstract

The present paper represents the design and simulation of multiband band pass filter using the hairpin resonator. Two rectangular slot defects are made in the ground plane. The filter is designed on a substrate having thickness of 0.3mm. The filter exhibits improved performance and good selectivity. The filter shows good return loss at 5.0 GHz, 5.7 GHz, 6.5GHz, The return loss of the simulated filtered are measured as -18dB, -16dB, -23db, while the insertion loss are -0.05dB, -0.08dB, 0.1dB. The present work will also be suitable for multiband and multiservice applications.

Design and Simulation of SOI Based Piezoresistive Pressure Sensor

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 22nd January 2018

Shruti Gudur | Ajayakumar C Kategeri , Kirankumar B , B G Sheeparamatti

Abstract

Amongst various pressure sensors, Piezoresistive type of pressure sensor is widely used because of its simple processing and fabrication. Hence in this paper a Piezoresistive pressure sensor is designed using SOI diaphragm.SOI material used to improve sensitivity and also used to achieve high reliability.The simulation is carried out using COMSOL/Multiphysics by considering the membrane geometry size, shape and location of piezoresistors.

Design and Simulation of Vertical Axis Wind Turbine for Highway Electrification

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th September 2017

R Navaneetha Krishna | Manish Kumar, David Dee Vance Marngar, Sonu Kumar, Avinay Kumar Mandal

Abstract

The present day situation is having high demand for power consumption. The effective way and efficient way of generating power is being restructured day by day. This paper presents the method of developing the VAWT for generation of power efficiently for highway electrification.

Design and Study of a Small Tesla Coil for Wireless Power Transmission in Domestic Sector

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 22nd January 2018

Anandita Goswami | Diptanu Dey , Bharat Kumar Boyanapalli , Prasenjit Debnath , Rajnish Kumar Chaudary

Abstract

This paper has focused on the step-by-step design of a high frequency medium size (1-3 kW) air-cored resonance transformer commonly called tesla coil, that can be easily used for measurements and general research. Therefore, the task is to minimize the number of stochastic and unknown parameters influencing the device functionality and pointing out pros and cons of each solution. The physical dimension of the tesla transformer has been chosen due to cost effectiveness and availability of the regarding components. This design has mainly two unitsí viz., a power supply and tesla coil. The power supply which fed the Tesla coil having voltage rating 12kV and current rating 120mA has been designed by using three microwave oven components. These components are assembled as dual MOTs voltage doubler circuit and necessary simulation has been carried out by using MicroSimSchematics for the verification of performance.

Design and Verification of AMBA 3 AHB Lite Protocols by using GO2UVM Package

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 22nd January 2018

Asharani Pattedar | Saroja V. Siddamal

Abstract

The AMBA 3 AHB protocol design act as an interface between two different IP cores. The current project emphasis on AMBA 3 AHB lite where the design and verification of a flexible burst operation is proposed. Basically, AHB lite burst operation is a sequence of operations that happens with respect to the size given and it supports only three burst sizes. During the burst operation, the size acts as one of the inputs to the master. After each burst operation, the master or slave will go to the IDLE stage. The AHB lite design contains basic blocks like master and slave, and the working of these blocks is without arbitration scheme. According to this scheme one master can access the bus at one time. The present work is on AHB-Lite master and slave model, at different test cases and describing their simulation Accuracy is 100%. It is built by the standard language GO2UVM package on the relevant simulator Riviera.

Design and Verification of Nine Port Network Router on Network on Chip

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 22nd January 2018

Mr.Kadgonda Annasaheb Kupade | Mr R A Chougule

Abstract

The focus of this Paper is to design Network Router and Verify the functionality of the nine port router for network on chip using Verilog qualifies the Design for Synthesis and implementation. This Design consists of Registers, FSM and FIFOís. This Router design contains one input port and Eight output ports, and it has packet based Protocol. Router drives the incoming packet which comes from the input port to output ports based on the address contained in the packet. The router has an active low synchronous input Ďresetní which resets the router. Thus the idea is borrowed from large scale multiprocessors and wide area network domain and envisions on chip routers based network. This helps to understand how router is controlling the signals from source todestination based on the header address.

Design Approach for Inter Vehicular Communication in ITS

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 22nd January 2018

Mrs.Pallavi M.Tayade | Prof.P.P.Ashtankar

Abstract

In todayís world, the number of vehicles is increasing; creating colossal traffic and more chances of any type of accidents. Efficient monitoring of vehicles is need of time for smooth traffic flow. Many technologies are in action for collision free traffic. So our focus is in using Inter-vehicular Communication(IVC) beaconing for increasing driver safety. In Previously study of Vehicular networking, safety-enhancing protocols and applications are only evaluated based on delays and packet loss rates that form the networking metrics. We present the evaluation scheme will quantify the probability of a crash by continuously monitoring and transmitting the beacon message to the possibly colliding vehicles. We investigated impact of safety messages between car approaching at intersection using road traffic simulator that allow selected vehicle to disregards traffic rules. We uses Intelligent Control Unit (ICU) and Vehicle to Vehicle communication to predict the collision probability at intersection. Our simulation results evince more details about regarding the criticality assessment of beacon messages, and as such they can be used to develop more sophisticated beaconing solutions.

Design of 512-Bit Ladner Fishner Adder

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 22nd January 2018

K.Sinduja | S.M.Dinesh , M.Vinisha , N.Devi Priya

Abstract

To make addition operations additional economical parallel prefix addition may be a higher technique. during this paper 64-bitparallel prefix addition has been enforced with the assistance of cells like black cell and gray cell operations for carry generation and propagation. This method offers high speed computations with high fan-out and makes carry operations easier. ISE Design suit 14.5 tool has been used for the simulation of projected 512-bit adder. The comparison are often created with the help numerous vary of inputs conjointly. The projected parallel prefix adder has made high speed computation and also efficient in terms of range of transistors and their topology and range of nodes.

Design of 512-bit Wallace Tree Multiplier by Sklansky Adder

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 22nd January 2018

S.M.Dinesh | T.S.Athira, Y.Hariesh

Abstract

Power consumption has become a crucial concern in todayís VLSI system style. The growing marketplace for quickfloating purpose coprocessors, digital signal process chips, and graphics processor has created a requirement for topspeed and space economical multipliers. A Wallace tree multiplier factor may be a improved version tree based mostly multiplier factor design. It uses carry save addition rule to cut back the latency. This paper aims at extrareduction of latency and power consumption of the Wallace tree multiplier factor. The simulation has been meted outmistreatment the Xilinx ISE tool.

Design of AES-256 with Three Stage Pipelining S-Box Using Logic Gates

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 31st May 2017

Pujari Munaswamy | N.Dilipkumar,N.Pushpalatha

Abstract

The cipher is the component which is responsible for performing encryption or decryption on blocks of input data, while the key expander is responsible for preparing the input key for use by the cipher in each round. The Advance Encryption Standard (AES) is composed of four different functions that are repeated in a number of rounds. These are byte substitution, shift row, mix column, and add round key. The AES algorithm is capable of using cryptographic keys of 128, 192, and 256 bits to encrypt and decrypt data in blocks of 128 bits. The number of rounds in AES is variable and depends on the length of the key, i.e10 rounds for 128-bit key, 12 rounds for 192-bit key and 14 rounds for 256-bit key. Each of these rounds uses a different 128-bit round key, which is calculated from the original AES key. When a key of size 256 bits is used, the number of rounds are repeated is equal to 14. The function Sub Bytes is the only non-linear function in AES, operating on each of the state bytes independently. The 16 input bytes are substituted by looking up a fixed table (S-box) given in design. The result is in a matrix of four rows and four columns. It substitutes all bytes of the State using a look-up table called S-Box. A more suitable method of implementing the S-Box is to use composite field approach for calculating multiplicative inverse in a Galois Field GF(28) followed by an affine transformation in the binary extension field , which is based on combinational logic. An efficient design is three stages pipelining for the byte substitution phase. The proposed Three Stages Pipelining S-Box Using Logic gates and efficient in terms of delay and area.

Design of Area and Power Optimization Shift Register

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 14th August 2017

Akshata G. Shete | Aarti Gaikwad

Abstract

This paper describes new technique for area and power evaluation 6T latch for shift register. In this technique area and power optimized by using pulsed latch instead of flip flop. Pulsed latch causes the timing problem which is overlapped in conventional single pulse clock. Here we are using non-overlapped delayed clock signal to solve this problem. The advanced portable devices require area and power efficient devices. The design is implemented with 65nm technology in Micro wind EDA (Electronic Design Automation) Tool. A n-bit shift register using pulsed latches is designed. The simulation results show that the proposed shift register design with less transistor count is better choice for low power and area efficient applications.

Design of Automated Toll Gate System With UHF RFID

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 27th June 2017

Sarvesh Batli | Narayana Swamy J.C

Abstract

This paper describes the UHF RFID based automatic toll-tax collection system for toll gate. Most of the toll collection systems commonly used in India is manual transaction. Now a days, streams of traffic are increased and toll gate on highways are congested. It will cause the traffic jam and waste time. The objective of this project is to transform manual transaction to automated toll collection with the help of UHF RFID technology. There are three portions in toll collection system. They are RFID system, balance deduction system in host computer and toll gate control system. For the RFID system, 867MHz passive RFID reader and tag pairs are used. The8051 microcontroller is also used to control the dc motor to communicate with toll gate. 8051 microcontroller can check the character A in the Zigbee which is received from the PC when the UHF RFID tag detects and the code iswritten on Labview with the database on PC. The amount of tag detects will also update simultaneously at the two database of the toll gate because of Zigbee network. By using this system, it will save time, i.e. by avoiding long queue as no need to stop the vehicle and no need of manual transaction at the toll gate.

Design of Capacitor-less Low Drop-out Voltage Regulator for 100mA Load Current in 90nm Technology

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 7th June 2017

Mr. Nagendra Kumar N | Mr. Kumar N Krishna Murthy

Abstract

A capacitor-free CMOS low-dropout regulator (LDO) for system-on-chip applications to reduce board space and external pins is presented. The 1.5 V LDO with a power supply of 1.8 V with settling time of 0.5 őľs is implemented in GPDK 90nm CMOS technology for load currents up to 0 -100 mA with a drop-out voltage of 300 mV. Simulation results show that the LDO achieves a PSR of -43.741 dB up to 1 kHz and -39.130 dB up to 1MHz. The LDO achieves Line regulation of 6.38mV/V and Load Regulation of 0.027 mV/mA. The proposed LDO design has less output ripple, fast transient response, and achieves current efficiency of 83.33%. T he area acquired by the layout of the design is approximately equal to 0.0299őľm2 .Thus, the presented capacitor-less LDO voltage regulator is suitable for SoC solutions

Design of Convolution Using Vedic Multiplier

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 30th January 2018

M.Anusha | P.Srinivasa Rao

Abstract

In this paper, a novel approach for implementing convolution of two finite length sequences using Vedic multiplier in Cadence tool is proposed. In this, Urdhva Triyagbhyam method is presented. The proposed implementation uses modified hierarchical design approach, which efficiently and accurately speeds up the computation without compromising with the area. The 4√ó4 bit multiplication modules are implemented using small 2√ó2 bit multiplier. The proposed design is Convolution Using Vedic multiplier has less power and low speed compared other multiplier existed earlier. The design of Convolution is compared different technologies i.e. 45nm,90nm, 180nm and results are compared. When comparing these three technologies, 45nm technology requires less power and delay. The design is implemented using cadence tool in using virtuoso schematic editor, virtuoso symbol editor, and ADEL simulator.

Design of Elliptical Slotted Microstrip Patch Antenna for Mobile Communications

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 22nd January 2018

K. Jothilakshmi | Dr. P. JothiLakshmi

Abstract

the microstrip antennas, due to their great advantages, have increasingly wide range of applications in wireless communication systems as handheld mobile services, satellite communication systems, and biomedical applications. A rectangular microstrip patch antenna with elliptical slot is designed here for simulation and developed to examine the Ultra High Frequency (UHF) applications. The design and simulation have been done by Computer Simulation Technique (CST) Microwave Studio tool and further the fabrication is tested for analyzing the simulation results. The proposed design reveals the possibility of having slotted shapes in rectangular patch antenna for UHF Ė Mobile applications. In addition, the development and simulation depict consideration of slots in arrays of rectangular patch antenna to improve the application range from mobile applications to satellite and aerospace applications. These design considerations have led antenna designers to consider a wide variety of structures to meet the often conflicting needs for different applications. There is further scope for this concept by designing and implementing an array of such patch antennas as a substitute for traditional methods.

Design of Energy Efficient WSN Using Smart Sampling and Reliable Routing Technique

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 22nd January 2018

Mr.Veeresh | Mrs. Vinutha C B , Dr. M Z Kurian

Abstract

Wireless sensor networks have a great variety of applications to industry, science, transport, civil industry, and security. Efficiency of Nodes battery energy to improve the network lifetime is the fundamental challenge in wireless sensor network. The design approach of different layered protocols is investigated and since major portion of battery energy is utilized by communication process, it has to be effectively controlled. The concept of smart sampling and reliable routing in WSN is studied to understand that it would result in energy efficient, scalable and load balancing network. In this proposed method the energy efficient WSN is designed using reliable routing technique and smart sampling method

Design of Flex Ray Communication Controller for Automotive Communication System

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 22nd January 2018

Neethu Varghese | Abhila R Krishna

Abstract

the communication bandwidth, flexibility and bit rate has been a serious issue for the serial communication protocols like Controller Area Network (CAN), Time-Triggered CAN (TT-CAN) and Byte-flight in implementing real time applications. The lack of a suitable networking scheme that could handle the requirements such as more sophisticated safety systems and advanced networking application leads to the development of the new protocol, the Flex ray. The main target for the new protocol is the growing demand for massive and complex data exchange in the environment where real time requirements are critical. The Flex-Ray is a new time-triggered protocol which is designed to provide large bunches of data to be exchanged in real-time with high dependability between electronic control units, sensors and actuators installed in a vehicle .The Flex ray node consists of a host, communication controller and a bus driver in which the communication Controller (CC) is an electronic component in a node which is responsible for implementing the protocol aspects of the Flex ray communications system. Flex ray communication controller (CC) is the core of the Flex ray protocol specification. It performs all communication tasks such as transmission and reception of messages in a Time-Triggered protocol (TTP) cluster. The purpose of the the introduced system is to generate a Flex ray protocol frame and the design of Flex ray protocol operational states with Finite State Machine(FSM).The work is coded by Verilog and simulated by Xilinx ISE 13.2.

Design of Flexible Accelerator Based on Recoding Techniques

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 22nd January 2018

Sambhu P.G | Sreejesh Kumar R

Abstract

DSP accelerators are hardware modules attached to a processor core externally to enhance the performance and functionality of computationally intensive DSP functions. Domain specific hardware architectures forms ideal acceleration in terms of performance and power, but their inflexible data paths lead to increased silicon complexity. In flexible DSP accelerator functional computational unit (FCU) are incorporated to improve performance, reduce energy consumption and to provide flexible data paths. The architecture exploits carry save (CS) arithmetic to enable fast chaining of additive and multiplicative operations. However, the carry save optimization approaches have limited impact on data flow graph (DFG) dominated by multiplications. These limitations are tackled by exploiting CS to modified booth recoding, which consists of three algorithms, signed-bit Full Adders (FAs) and Half Adders (HAs) as building blocks. To validate the design, code can be developed using VHDL and synthesis & simulation will be done in Xilinx ISE Suite 13.2 & Model Sim SE 6.3f respectively.

Design of Grid Connected Buck-Boost PV Inverters for Residential Application in a Single Stage

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 22nd January 2018

Preethi Priya K | Mr. Abdul Azeez

Abstract

The Proposed design topology has numerous attractive (useful) features such as higher efficiency since photovoltaic array is utilized efficiently, compact size as only three switches are used in the inverter circuit, low cost, simpler control circuit. A combination of Sinusoidal Pulse Width Modulation (SPWM) and Square wave is used for switching the inverter circuit. To control SPWM duty cycle and to regulate instantaneous ac output current from the inverter and to stabilize the output as fast as possible, a closed loop control circuit is employed. The proposed design is mathema-tically modeled in MAT Lab Simulink and PSIM. Finally, the simulation results are presented to verify the viability of the proposed single stage three-switch buck-boost inverter for gridconnected PV application.

Design of H-Shaped Micro Strip Antenna for Satellite Application with Comparatively Simulation for Different Ground Plane Techniques

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 22nd January 2018

Dheeraj Garg | Roma Rewani

Abstract

The object of this Paper is design a micro strip patch antenna for satellite communication .This complete dissertation is software based. The satellite frequency bands which was commonly used for communication are the C-band, Ka-band, and Kuband. C-band and Ku-band are the commonly used frequency spectrums by today's satellites. The Ku band is the 12GHz to 18 GHz portion of the electromagnetic spectrum in the microwave frequency band. The Ku band offers a user more flexibility. A smaller antenna size and a Ku band system's freedom from terrestrial operations simplify finding a suitable antenna site. For the final users Ku band is generally cheaper and enables smaller antennas (both because of the higher frequency and a more concentrated beam).Ku band is less vulnerable to rain fade than the Ka band frequency spectrum. The proposed antenna have good return loss parameter, VSWR and radiation pattern.

Design of High Speed 8 Bit Carry Look Ahead Logic for Arithmetic Operations

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 17th January 2018

P.Malini | T.Poovika, P.Shanmugavadivu, G.Naveen Balaji

Abstract

This paper attempts to show the survey on 8-bit carry look ahead adder with Gate delay, propagation delay, and the total number of gates are listed. The circuits were built in .asl file and simulated using AUSIM L2.3. The operation of digital logic simulator called the Auburn University Simulator (AUSIM) is described. The AUSIM version L2.3not only provides the simulation of non-hierarchical circuit descriptions but also provides area and performance audits of the cell.

Design of IIR Filter using Hybrid GA and BBO Algorithm

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 22nd January 2018

Aysha Sharma | B.S. Dhaliwal

Abstract

A novel design strategy of Butterworth IIR filter is proposed in this paper. It considers two most effective hybrid optimization techniques GA and BBO. The results show that GA and BBO based filter designer is able to find transfer function required for given magnitude response. The proposed algorithm doesnít take unnecessary computation time and good in exploiting the solution as the solution doesnít die at the end of each generation. Hence, the performance of proposed hybrid algorithm outcomes the performances of previous proposed algorithms for designing of a digital filter. The simulated results show that the design filter is highly stable and the filter gain is exactly same as that of the ideal filter. The magnitude of the filter is less than one (

Design of Image Editor & Edge Detector in Matlab GUI Environment

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 8th March 2018

A.Sanyasi Rao | K.Radha Krishna

Abstract

Digital Image Processing techniques can enhance or distort an image, highlight certain features of an image create a new image from portions of other images, restore an image that has been degraded during or after the image acquisition. This paper envisages the implementation of basic features of Image Processing like viewing the red, green and blue components of a colour image separately, converting image to gray, black & white, negative; image addition & joining, comparison, crop, resize, increase/decrease brightness, rotate and edge detection using different algorithms etc. Also, it deals with accessing Webcam and getting a snapshot of it to process

Design of Microstrip line & Coupled line based equal & unequal Wilkinson Power Divider

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 26th July 2018

Pradeep H S | 

Abstract

The passive devices are most commonly used in radio technology and power dividers are one among them. These power dividers are used to split the power and combine the power. It is a passive device used to couple a defined amount of power in a transmission line from one port to another port. Wilkinson power divider is implemented using various technologies like micro stripline technology, Coupled Line technology and strip line technology. In this paper, the design of 3dB Wilkinson Power Divider(WPD) to split the power equally & unequally at the output ports by using microstrip line technique and Coupled Line technique is proposed. This is useful mainly for mobile applications which has the operating frequency of 915MHz. The simulation is done using Advanced Design System (ADS) tool. Some of the performance parameters like return loss, isolation loss & insertion loss are measured in terms of scattering parameters.

Design of Microstrip patch antenna by two different feeding methods at resonant frequency of 5.08GHz

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 23rd January 2018

T. Prabhu | K. Boopathi Raja, C. Divya, R. Fareen Firdous Fathima

Abstract

In wireless communication, there are different types of microstrip antenna; the most commonly used antenna is patch antenna. In this paper, we designed a patch antenna operated at 5.08GHz for WLAN application by two different feeding methods and analysed results radiation pattern, input impedance, return loss and gain using Ansoft HFSS 13.0 software. The result displays coaxial feeding technique is good in radiation pattern, return loss, input impedance and gain compared with microstrip feeding technique.

Design of Nikhilam Sutra And Reversible Logic For Vedic Multiplier

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 22nd August 2017

Sawankumar | Mr. M.C. Chandrashekhar ,Dr. M.Z. Kurian

Abstract

In this paperNikhilam Sutra of Vedic mathematics and Reversible Logic is discussed which are helpful in improving the performance of Multipliers

Design of Petrol Supply System by Using Licence and Biometric Module

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th June 2018

Swapnil Khopade | Arati Bhargude, Jyotsana Vare, T. M. Dudhane

Abstract

To check non-licences for driving and consequently happening the accidents one of the new system is introduced. Biometric verification is one of the most well-liked and personal biometric verification system. This system consists of a some amount of memory capability to store the thumb print of particular person. Although providing the licence, the particular candidates thumb print reader is to be stored in the memory of reader. Vehicles like cars, bikes etc. must have a reader capable of reading the particular licence. The similar vehicle should have the capacity of thumb print reader component. A man, who is going to drive the vehicle, should keep the thumb on the reader and inserted card (licence) in the vehicle, if the thumb print stored in the module and swiped card are match, if and only if he/she can drive the vehicle, otherwise petrol supply will not work. So that system increase the safe keeping of vehicles and also ensures protected driving by prevent accident because of authorized persons

Design of Sequential Adder by Using Multi Bit Flip-flop for Power Reduction Technique

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 22nd January 2018

G. Sravani | 

Abstract

In VLSI design the power consumption is increased for more transition memory elements. Flip-flop (FF) are the basic sequential components used for memory applications. An adder and multiplier are designed using Multi-Bit Flip-Flop (MBFF). In the proposed work one of the promising ways to improve performance of FF is merging of clock pulse. Operating memory arrays with less clock cycle will reduce the power taken by the FF which leads to total power reduction and maximum internal delay can also be reduced. Besides, reducing number of FF in the circuit design the total wire length reduces the complexity of MBFF. For dynamic storage the required number of FF selected by transformation check method. Transformation check method can be effectively enabled by dynamic combinational block with check task in the proposed work

Design of Shift Register Based on Multi bit Flip Flop for Universal Asynchronous Receiver and Transmitter

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 22nd January 2018

Mohammad Javeed | 

Abstract

In this paper I propose the design and implementation of first in first out shift register based on multi bit flip flop for universal asynchronous receiver and transmitter (UART).UART is a major communication component to interface the microcontroller with the external modules like GSM, GPS etc. One of the problems in embedded systems is the time consuming by the external devices to communicate with the controlling device. Here we are concentrating mainly on fast communication among the devices in embedded applications. Simulation results have been shown that the proposed system is 50% faster than the existing system. Code is written in VHDL and modeled in Xilinx 10.1 ISE, implemented with FPGA Spartan 3E hardware tool.

Design of Soil Condition Management System in Precision Agriculture Using Autonomous Wireless Sensing Nodes

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 22nd January 2018

Santosh.B.Panjagal | M Lakshmipathy , V.Harinath , Dr.G.N.Kodanda Ramaiah

Abstract

Main reasons for the global water crisis besides population growth, urbanization, and climate change are excessive water use, poor management, and inadequate irrigation. According to the United Nations World Water Development Report, 70% of freshwater worldwide is used for irrigation. The amount of applied water does usually not match the requirements of the irrigated crop, and either too much or too little water is used for irrigation. To enhance the resource utilization in a constrained manner an autonomous sensing platform is developed, where a number of wireless sensor nodesare installed in an agriculture land. Weproposed a system with three wireless sensor nodes by the exploration of ďmesh networkĒ to cover large area. Wireless sensor nodes observes the environment, samples and collects the heterogeneous data like soil moisture, temperature, from the interested field and transmits data to the server.A wireless mesh network (WMN) is a communications network made up of radio nodes organized in a mesh topology. It is also a form of wireless ad hoc network. When one node can no longer operate, the rest of the nodes can still communicate with each other, directly or through one or more intermediate nodes by using ZigBee and data of that node is transmitted to main server.

Design of Structural Antennas for Melanoma Treatment

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 16th August 2017

Nagajyothi M | Dr.Imaculate rosline

Abstract

One of the applications that use nanosecond and subnanosecond high voltage pulses is cancer therapy. In particular , non-thermal changes in the cells, especially the permeabilization of the membrane can be introduced using subnanosecond pulses. The motivation is to radiate intense subnanosecond pulses to the tumors non-invasively. Intense EM waves that is emitted at the first focal point is been focused at the second focal point where the target that is the tumor is present. Two antennas with PSR are designed to focus pulsed type field at the second focal point. The modified bicone antenna and elliptically tapered horn antenna as feeds for PSR is designed. Comparison of design parameters and radiation performance is done.

Design of Test Rig for Fuel Probes Pre-Installation Check in a Non-Linear Tank for Helicopter Using Embedded Systems

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 22nd January 2018

Nithin H V | Chiranjeevi S B, Naresh S S, Sujith H P, Sunil K T

Abstract

During the manufacture of helicopter and its subsequent assembly stage, it is required to test every component that goes into helicopter. The fuel probe is one among them. Large amount of fuel is required in order to travel more distance. For this purpose the amount of fuel in a tank is to be measured frequently and this task is performed by fuel probes. The normal operation of fuel probes need to be tested before it can be installed in helicopter. But the existing method is laborious and time consuming. Our project aims at reducing the time and effort required to test the probe and to display the quantity of fuel in the helicopter tanks. Helicopter fuel system consists of five fuel tanks. Each tank has fuel probes for measuring the quantity of fuel which will be displayed in cockpit. To check for proper working condition of fuel probes, the probes are tested in a common tank. The testing is done with the help of suitable microcontroller kit. The altitude of fuel indicates the different frequency levels with respect to fuel probes. The software part of project involves the coding of microcontroller. The calculations such as quantity of fuel in kgs and liters are done using the appropriate interpolation formula and display the calculated value on suitable LCD display.

Design of Welding Fixtures for Boom Arm Assembly

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 1st September 2017

Prof. Rajashekar H | Prof. Ravi Kumar T, Mr. Jayashankar Reddy KN, Mr.Sai Kiran L

Abstract

There is a necessity for boom arm assembly which is one of the subassemblies of an ongoing project at L&T Construction Equipment Limited. So it is necessary to develop a tack welding fixture to reduce the cycle time and reduce welding distortions Tack welding is a temporary weld used to create an initial joint between two pieces of metal being welded together .Full welding is a continuous welding of metal joints using electric arc. In this work an attempt has been made to develop, modify and generate concepts to mount the sub-assemblies from the boom arm assembly onto fixtures to perform tack welding and full welding. For developing the welding fixtures some of the important Critical to Quality (CTQ) issues are orientation of the tube, gap between the two sub-assemblies, clamping, land between the mid-plates and the front plate edge in and perpendicularly between mid plates and front plate. After developing this fixture we may save up to 112.3 minutes per boom arm assembly. Assembly of boom arm assembly without using fixture is 45 units per day after developing the fixture it increases to 60 units per day so that the production is increased and the assembly can be carried out faster

Design of Wireless Passive Optical Communication Network Based On Fusion of Fiber to the X Architecture

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 17th January 2018

R. Shantha Selva Kumari | S.Vineth Ligi

Abstract

The steadfast increase in the demand for internet services had lead to the generation of stupendous traffic in the communication networks, which persuades the need for the implementation of the next generation networks with high data rate for reliable communication. Optical communication can be a solution to this problem which can provide communication with high bandwidth. The Wavelength Division Multiplexing in Passive Optical Network is preferred to be advantageous with low investment and maintenance cost. This work aims at identifying the best type of network by building a fictitious environment, analyzing the Fiber to the X architecture with respect to various performance measures such as Bit Error Rate(BER), Eye diagram to decide the most preferable and optimal network for that environment using simulation software. The simulation results with BER of less than 10-13 for the worst case and zero for the best case have been obtained. The eye diagram shows wider opening as the BER decreases. These results justify that the network is feasible and can be implemented in real cases.

Design Optimization of Mems Based Piezoelectric Energy Harvester For Low Frequency Applications

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 1st August 2018

Roohi Singh | Anil Arora

Abstract

Cantilever-based piezoelectric energy harvester received great demand in last recent years. These are mostly made of thin film technology and different configurations as unimorph and bimorph for sensor and actuator applications. In this paper, analysis and comparison of two widely used cantilever design in MEMS energy harvesting devices i.e. wide beam structure and narrow beam structure have been done. Aluminum Nitride (AIN) is chosen as a piezoelectric material due to its CMOS and biocompatibility. To study the output of the design, Finite Element Modeling was used. The power density obtained based on the volume of the structure was 14.8 őľ W/cm3 for the wide beam structure and 0.10 őľ W/cm3 for narrow beam structure individually. In selecting a device, bandwidth is also a vital parameter. An array of cantilever structure resulted in a bandwidth of 4 Hz for the wide beam structure and 8.1 Hz for narrow beam structure respectively.

Design, Development and Simulation of Microwave High Power Waveguide Dual Directional Coupler

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 22nd January 2018

Vijay Sarode | K.P. Ray, Shoba Krishnan

Abstract

This paper deals with design, development and simulation of waveguide type dual directional coupler operating at microwave heating frequency of 2450MHz Ī 25MHz (ISM Band). The Ansoft HFSS13.0 software is used for carrying out the parametric study of performance parameters i.e coupling factor, directivity, VSWR, impedance, return loss etc. of the designed coupler. The simulation of the dual directional coupler is carried out by varying the various parameters of the dual directional coupler for both the forward and reflected ports. These simulation results are verified with experimental results of the fabricated dual directional coupler only for a single measurement because of hardware limitation of the coupler. The emphasize of this paper is on the simulation results of the coupler for variation in loop plate width, loop hole, angular rotation of loop plate from 0ļ to 350ļ and coupling gap of the coupler.

Designing and Analysis of Compact Crown Circular Patch Antenna by Using Artificial Nural Networks

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 22nd January 2018

Sangeeta Shekhawat | Ashok Kajal, Sudhanshu Singh, Kumar Vaibhav

Abstract

It is very demanding from commercial and military applications to have small size low profile multiband antenna. This proposed work gives a path to transform a dual band antenna into multiband antenna. The geometry of the antenna is defined by designing some circular crown fractal-like erosion in a conventional rectangular patch structure and found the best suited positions for slots which can give multiband operations. Fortunately finally selected position gives enhanced bandwidth and satisfactory return and other characteristics also. In this work we first proposed small size antenna which works on single resonance frequency then it is modified to get multiple resonance frequency operations. For newly designed multi band slot cutted shape antenna gives satisfactory results. Then the results are also processed by the ANN (Artificial Neural Network). Resonance frequency is simulated by IE3D simulator and then simulated results are used o train the neural network, both the results found are almost close to each, very less mean squared error occurs. It gives Return loss for all resonant frequencies less than -10db, VSWR less than 2 with multiband resonance frequencies. Applications of this multiband antenna are in the X, Ku and K band of Super High Frequency range.

Designing and simulation of MEMS based Coaxial cable for Different Impedances

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 22nd July 2017

Satish Nayak | Prabhakar,Pradeep Kumar K,Dr. D V Manjunatha4

Abstract

Coaxial cable is the type of cylindrical shape wave guide cannel used in telecommunications for transmitting information signals for larger distance. They are basically governed by electromagnetic theory. The frequency range of these EM wave cables are more than the frequency range of other cables. The main application of coaxial cable is in the transmission of video signals over a long distance without any disturbance. A method is proposed here to find out the variation of impedance of a dielectric filled transmission cable (Coaxial Cable). This paper provides the theoretical and practical measures and its comparison by using different dielectric filled coaxial cables. This paper gives the composite solution, which involves a method of cable design for different applications, using geometry size and operating frequency, in order to study the variation of characteristic impedance with respect to dielectric material variation. This work is simulated using MEMS COMSOL MULTIPHYSICS Tools.

Designing of Interpolation Using Matlab

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 22nd January 2018

Dr.P.C. Srikanth | Seetharamegowda.S

Abstract

Digital signal interpolation systems can be implemented in a variety of ways. The most basic interpolation system for integer upsampling cascades an expander unit with an interpolation low- pass filter. More complex implementations can cascade multiple expander and low-pass filter pairs. There is also flexibility in the design of interpolation filters.

Designing of Two Channel QMF In Matlab

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 22nd January 2018

Dr.P.C. Srikanth | Rekha B

Abstract

Digital Signal Processing (DSP) is one of the fastest growing techniques in the electronics industry. It is used in a wide range of application fields such as, telecommunications, data communications, image enhancement and processing, video signals, digital TV broadcasting, and voice synthesis and recognition. The focus of this thesis is on one of the basic DSP functions, namely filtering signals to remove unwanted frequency bands. Multirate Digital Filters (MDFs) are the main theme here. Theory and implementation of MDF, as a special class of digital filters, will be discussed. Multirate digital filters represent a class of digital filters having a number of attractive features like, low requirements for the coefficient word lengths, significant saving in computation and storage requirements results in a significant reduction in its dynamic power consumption.

Detecting the Boundary Area of Gas Diffusion in Wireless Sensor Networks

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 9th February 2018

C. Shivanya  | J.A. Jevin

Abstract

Petrochemical plants convert natural resources such as crude oil, natural gas, ores and minerals into products for a wide range of applications. They produce many important building blocks for industrial processes, including ethylene, propylene, butadiene, and aromatics. Detecting and visualizing the dangerous area of leaking toxic gases is important for large-scale petrochemical plants. There are many kinds of toxic gases in petrochemical plants, e.g., sulfuretted hydrogen (H2S), hydrogen chloride (HCl), and sulfur dioxide (SO2). Once these toxic gases leak, they can cause an explosion that results in a serious economic loss. The existing system uses planarization algorithm to planarize a WSN and based on the planarized network, the boundary area of gas diffusion is calculated to delimitate the dangerous area. However, when all of the nodes are in the working state at the same area, the probability of the interference, collision, and congestion in the network will increase during the process of transmitting data. Moreover, multiple nodes covering an interested area will result in the emergence of redundant information. In order to avoid this ant colony optimization algorithm with ad-hoc on demand multicast distance vector routing protocol is used to find the amount of gas diffusion and dangerous area. Also, this protocol will send the alert message to controller of the monitoring area. The simulations are done performed using network simulator the parameter such as node density, probability of gas diffusion, throughput, energy consumed and packetloss is analyzed.

Detection and Classification of soybean leaf diseases using K-means Clustering

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th June 2018

Sachin B. Jadhav | Dr.Sanjay B. Patil

Abstract

Soybean Blight Brown Spot, Soybean powdery mildew and Downy Mildew are most common destructive foliar diseases of soybean and can cause significant yield loss. Timely application of fungicide, in the early stage of fungal infection, is important for effective control of the disease and is largely dependent upon the capability to quantitatively detection of the infection. The main purpose of this work is to identify and classify the soybean leaf disease based on the symptoms that are visible in leaf image. In this paper, Color-based segmentation method (K-means clustering) has been in corporate for separating the infected region from the leaf image. The infected stains are characterized by the features like color and textures. In the classification phase the color co-occurrence features, based on SGDM, are extracted and compared with the corresponding feature values stored in the feature library

Detection and Correction of Multiple Bit Errors in SRAM Based FPGA Frame

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 22nd January 2018

C.Harini | N.Vamsi Praveen

Abstract

Recent studies suggest that multiple bit upsets (MBUs) are a significant part of the error events in advanced memory technologies and that they will continue to grow in the next technology nodes. The errors in an MBU are normally caused by the same physical event and therefore affect memory cells that are close together. Existing techniques employ error correction codes with considerably high overhead to mitigate MBUs in configuration frames. In this paper, we present a low-cost error-detection code to detect MBUs in configuration frames as well as a generic scrubbing scheme to reconstruct the erroneous configuration frame based on the concept of erasure codes. The proposed scheme does not require any modification to the FPGA architecture. Implementation of the proposed scheme on a Xilinx Virtex-6 FPGA device shows that the proposed scheme can detect 100% of MBUs in the configuration frames with only 3.3% resource occupation occupation, while the recovery time is comparable with the previous schemes.

Detection and Prevention of Cooperative Black Hole Attack in Mobile Adhoc Network :A Review

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 17th August 2017

Lakshmi Sabarinath | Mary Anita E A

Abstract

MANETs (Mobile Adhoc Network) are distributed and self directed networks thatoperate without centralized access point and physical fixed infrastructure . Theyare more challenged and prone to attacks when compared to any other conservativenetwork. Black hole attack is one such attack that disrupts communication andreduces the performance of the network. Black hole detection systems aim atremoving this vulnerability. In this paper, we have discussed various techniques fordetection and prevention of cooperative Blackhole attack and provided acomprehensive survey on cooperative BlackHole attack

Detection and Tracking of Facial Features in Video Sequences

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 22nd January 2018

B. Sandhya | V. Sri Lakshmi Priyanka, CH. Kavya

Abstract

In this paper, we present face detection and tracking algorithm in real time camera input environment. The entire face tracking algorithm is divided into two modules. The first module is face detection and second is face tracking. To detect the face in the image, Haar based algorithm is used. On the face image, Shi and Thomasi algorithm is used to extract feature points and Pyramidal Lucas-Kanade algorithm is used to track those detected features. Results on the real time indicate that the proposed algorithm can accurately extract facial features points. The algorithm is applied on the real time camera input and under real time environmental conditions.

Detection of Abnormal Human event using SURF Algorithm with HOI

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 22nd July 2017

Shruti Basavaraj Kadari | Chitra M

Abstract

Detection of complex human occasions in recordings and pictures is a testing issue of PC vision. The difficulty lies in developing compelling association between human exercises and particular occasions. In this paper we concentrate on unsafe human activity, particularly when individuals with handheld weapons before they utilize it. By presenting Human-Question- Interaction model, we can set up techniques and frameworks to perceive occasions that are dangerous. In this paper, the procedure of occasion comprehension depends on recognizing dangerous human events predicted by the human body parts. Using a developed dangerous human event date set, we demonstrate our model and framework beat ordinary occasion order approaches in efficienc

Detection of Abnormal Human event using SURF Algorithm with HOI

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 16th August 2017

Shruti Basavaraj Kadari | Chitra M

Abstract

Detection of complex human occasions in recordings and pictures is a testing issue of PC vision. The difficulty lies in developing compelling association between human exercises and particular occasions. In this paper we concentrate on unsafe human activity, particularly when individuals with handheld weapons before they utilize it. By presenting Human-Question- Interaction model, we can set up techniques and frameworks to perceive occasions that are dangerous. In this paper, the procedure of occasion comprehension depends on recognizing dangerous human events predicted by the human body parts. Using a developed dangerous human event date set, we demonstrate our model and framework beat ordinary occasion order approaches in efficiency.

Detection of Abnormalities in Fetal By Analyzing FECG

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 22nd January 2018

Ashwitha. K Shetty | Dr. Jose Alex Mathew

Abstract

The main aim of this paper is to detect the Fetal heart rate. Fetal heart rate monitoring technique is important for obtaining the important information about the condition of the Fetal during pregnancy. This is obtained from the Fetal ECG Signal which is extracted from the composite Abdominal ECG. The reason for the interest in FECG signal analysis is in clinical diagnosis and biomedical applications. The extraction and detection of FECG signal from abdominal signals using powerful and advanced methods find wide applications in the field of biomedical. Here the primary noises are removed using various filtering techniques. Separation of FECG from Composite abdominal ECG signal is done using Least Mean Square (LMS) Adaptive Filtering technique and finally Fetal heart rate is detected.

Detection Of Brain Tumor Using Mri Image

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 22nd January 2018

Vrishali A. Walanj | V. K. Jadhav

Abstract

Medical images play a vital role in identifying diseases and detecting if organs arefunctioning correctly. Image processing related to medical images is an active research area in which various techniques are used in order to make diagnosis easier and various image processing techniques can be used. In this project, image processing is done for automatically detecting the presence of brain tumors in a given brain scan. We propose an automatic brain tumor detection and localization framework that can detect andlocalize brain tumor in magnetic resonance imaging. The proposed brain tumor detection comprises following steps: Image pre-processing (BGR to gray scale conversion), Histogram equalization, Smoothening, Erode and dilate, Blob detection.

Detection of Diabetic Retinopathy by Texture Analysis of Fundus Images

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 22nd July 2017

Tejaswini G M | Mamtha Mohan

Abstract

Medical analysis is one of the fastest growing fields where a lot of recordings of patients are analyzed. Many researchers finding new technologies to automate the way of detection of the disease. Diabetic Retinopathy is one of the complex diabetics which can cause vision loss. Diabetic Retinopathy is detected by the presence of microaneurysms and exudates in the color fundus image of the eye. This work examines the analyzing capabilities in the texture of color fundus images to differentiate between diseased and healthy images. Aiming this, the performance of Local Binary Patterns as a texture descriptor for retinal images has been explored. The performance of the proposed algorithm is analyzed using parameters like sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy.

Detection of Diabetic Retinopathy by Using Skin Locus Model

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 10th February 2018

G.Manju | 

Abstract

Medical image analysis is a very popular research area in these days in which digital images are analyzed for the diagnosis and screening of different medical problems.Diabetic retinopathy is one of the serious eye diseases that can cause blindness and vision loss.Diabetes mellitus, a metabolic disorder, has become one of the rapidly increasing health threats both in India and worldwide. Diabetic Retinopathy (DR) is an eye disease caused by the increase of insulin in the blood and may cause blindness. An automated system for the early detection of DR can save a patient vision and can also help the ophthalmologist in the screening of DR which contains different types of lesion, i.e., microaneurysms, haemorrhages, exudates. Diabetic retinopathy is a vision-threatening complication as a result of diabetes mellitus which is the main cause of visual impairment and blindness in diabetic patients. In many cases, the patient is not conscious of the disease until it is too late for effective treatment. The prevalence of retinopathy varies with the age of diabetes and the duration of disease. Early diagnosis by regular screening and treatment is beneficial in preventing visual impairment and blindness. This project presents a method for detection and classification of exudates in colored retinal images. It eliminates the replication exudates region by removing the optic disc region. Several image processing techniques including Image Enhancement, Segmentation, Classification, and registration has been developed for the early detection of DR on the basis of features such as blood vessels, exudes, haemorrhages and microaneurysms. This project presents a review of latest work on the use of image processing techniques for DR feature detection. Image Processing techniques are evaluated on the basis of their results. Exudates are found using their high grey level variation, and the classification of exudates is done with exudates features and SVM classifier.

Detection of Fluoride Contaminated Water in Dental Applications

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 22nd January 2018

Girijamba D L | Dr. Preeta Sharan,Dr. P.C. Srikanth

Abstract

Optical biosensors are highly sensitive devices for detection and analysis of bio-analytes that combines biological components with a physicochemical detector. Groundwater is the major source of drinking water for residents of urban or rural areas. Fluoride content in drinkable groundwater directly affects the quality of drinking water. In this paper we have demonstrated a 2-dimensional photonic crystal based biosensor with line defect which can detect different fluorides in water. Simulation and analysis has been done for calcium fluoride, cesium fluoride, potassium fluoride, lithium fluoride and strontium fluoride and peak has been observed. By detecting these fluorides various diseases that are caused by fluorides can be detected easily. One such major detection is to detect dental fluorosis caused by the fluorides present in water. Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) method has been used for the analysis. MEEP (MIT Electromagnetic Equation Propagation) simulation tool have been used for modeling and designing of photonic crystal.

Detection of Lung cancer using digital Image processing

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 5th January 2018

P.Venugopal | Chaithra S, Ishwarya B, Abarna R.J, Chandrashekar S, Prakruthi. P

Abstract

Lung cancer main disease cause of death of among throughout the world. Lung cancer is causing very high mortality rate. There are various cancerous tumours such as lung cancer, breast Cancer, etc. Early stage detection of lung cancer is important for successful treatment. Diagnosis is based on Computed Tomography (CT ) images. In this Histogram Equalization used for pre-processing of the images and feature extraction process and classifier to check the condition of a patient in its early stage whether it is normal or abnormal.

Detection of Nutritional Disorders in Pepper and Pomegranate Plants using MATLAB and LabVIEW

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 22nd January 2018

Raikar Saishree D | Rohini S Patil , Beerappa Tirlapur , Pranav K , C.L.Chayalakshmi

Abstract

This paper provides identification of the diseases at early stages in pepper and pomegranate plants using image processing techniques. Image processing and standard data base is extensively used in the proposed work. Various nutritional disorders of pepper and pomegranate plant lead to change in color of the leaf. These visual symptoms are derived from images of the defected leaves of pepper and pomegranate plants. By detecting nutrient deficiency with this method, plant life span and yield can be improved by providing proper and suitable quantity of manure. MATLAB and Laboratory Virtual Instrument Engineering Workbench (LabVIEW) are the used tools in this process. LabVIEW provides Visual programming methods for image acquisition, image processing. MATLAB and LabVIEW provide easy and convenient methodologies for image processing techniques.

Detection of Streptococcus Pyogenes to Combat Rheumatic Heart Disease

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 22nd January 2018

M.Vilasini | R.Rathipriya

Abstract

Rheumatic Heart Disease (RHD) is a nonsuppurative complication of group A Streptococcal pharyngitis, Streptococcus pyogenes in particular. RHD is a significant cause for cardiovascular disorder in the world today.Despite a documented decrease in the prevalence of the disease, it continues topose medical and public health problems in both industrialized and industrializing countries. For at least five decades Rheumatic Heart Disease has been a concern of the World Health Organization and its member countries. Sentinel studies conducted under the auspices of the WHO clearly documented that the control of the preceding infections and their sequel is both cost effective and inexpensive. The project aims to provide a three way approach to the diagnosis of Rheumatic heart disease: identification of Streptococcus pyogenes, Allele analysis and Jonesís criteria. The initial identification is corroborated by a positive throat culture through a swab test. Allele analysis based on three ethnicities: Black, White and Indian, is directed toward determination of odds ratio. Jonesís criterion is divided into a set of major and minor criteria. The major criteria and the minor criteria together with a preceding instance of infection caused by Streptococcus pyogenes indicate the stage of the disease. However, till RHD remains to be conquered, optimal methods of prevention and management are required.

Detection of Tuberculosis using Lung Segmentation Technique

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 22nd January 2018

Raisa Mujawar | Shashikant Hippargi

Abstract

TB is the second cause of death due to infectious diseases in the world. Though TB can be completely cured if detected at early stage the problem is the unavailability of reliable detection methods. If TB not detected and hence not treated properly it takes lives of the patients. It mainly affects weak immune persons like childrens, old age people, HIV patients etc. Though TB infection can affect any parts of the body it mostly affects lungs of the patients. To detect lung TB X-rays of chest is used. Diagnosing TB using chest X-rays is most cheapest method along with it other tests are also required. This paper presents a method for automatic detection of TB using chest X-rays .Here image processing is used to improve the performance of the existing methods.The performance is tried to improve using different segmentation method.The syetm takes patients X-rays as input and processes it and give result as the case is TB positive or negative.

Determination of general Grooved Chip breaker geometry to enhance the Chip breakability factor for various operations using Fuzzy Logic approach

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 28th February 2018

Vaibhav Srivastava | Mahavir Singh

Abstract

For every machining operation, good chip breakability is desired. Controlling of cutting parameters helps in achieving the desired chip breakability. But many a time there are constraints regarding cutting parameters. Hence we require the help of grooved chip breaker to have a control on chip breakability factor. Therefore the geometry for the grooved chip breaker geometry has to be designed very precisely so as to enhance the good chip breakability. Implementing the fuzzy logic model will help in predicting of geometries for the grooved chip breaker accurately for different machining operation

Developing an Inscript Keyboard with Autocorrection and Text Prediction For Visually Impared

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 29th May 2018

Vaishali Ganganwar | Dheeraj Kumar, Pinky Rout, Bhuvna Prabhu

Abstract

There are about 285 million people who are visually impaired worldwide of which 39 million are blind and 246 million have low vision (severe or moderate visual impairment). With 7.8 million blind people in India, India accounts for 20 per cent of the 39 million blind population across the globe, and this is a big number. Versions after versions of popular typing applications have come, and yet no application yet has addressed the difficulty that smaller user groups such as visually impaired people have while entering input.The intention is to enable blind students be independent of scribes (writers) to write their exams. We want to develop a typing model for Android using the Inscript keyboard layout. This tutor aims to help blindstudents to get familiar with Keyboard in their own native language. And finally made an attempt of reducing typing efforts by predictive texts and language detection using n-gram algorithm.

Development of a Two Wheeler IOT Product

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 20th June 2017

Clament John | Abhiram Dronavalli, Gerardine Immaculate Mary

Abstract

The automotive industry is going through a seismic shift towards electric and smart vehicles. But most of the development is being worked on the car platform, and the two wheelers (bike or scooter) are being left out. Two wheelers are a different field altogether when it come to making them smart. Most low-cost two wheelers have mechanical than electrical sensors. In this paper we attempt to address this issue with the minimal electrical signals we have (such as accelerometer, battery voltage, etc.) This data can be used to monitor the bikes conditions, like battery drain/strength, capacity, speed, acceleration, GPS location data etc. A prototype hardware for the two wheeler market which can do the above checks has been presented

Development of Algorithms for Contrast Enhancement of Remote Sensing Images

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 22nd January 2018

Ramkumar.M.U | Kavitha N Nair

Abstract

For many years remote sensing images have played an important role in almost all fields such as meteorology, agriculture, geology, education etc. As the rising demand for high quality remote sensing images, contrast enhancement techniques are required for better visual perception and color reproduction. In this paper we explained some new enhancement techniques which use dominant brightness level analysis and adaptive intensity transformation with discrete wavelet transform and dual tree complex wavelet transform, DTCWT with principal component analysis (PCA), and a mathematical method for knee correction. Although various histogram equalization methods are proposed in the literature. They tend to degrade the overall image quality by exhibiting saturation artifacts in both low- and high- intensity layers. The proposed algorithms overcome this problem. In one method the DWT is performed first and then decompose the LL subband into low- middle-high- intensity layers using log-average luminance. Intensity layer transfer functions are adaptively estimated by using knee transfer function and the gamma adjustment function based on dominant brightness level on each layer .After the intensity transformation the enhance image is get back by taking Inverse DWT. We can do the decomposition using DTCWT in second method for better result. The contrast enhancement is performed with PCA and alternate knee correction method along with DWT and DTCWT for better results. The performance of every method is evaluated with parameters such Mean Square Error (MSE), Measure of Enhancement (EME), Peak Signal to Noise Ratio (PSNR) and Mean Absolute Error (MAE).

Development of an Energy Controller for Smart Home by Developing an Automatic system

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 28th December 2017

Dr. Manoj priyatham M | Keerthana H, Madhu J

Abstract

This paper presents the development of an energy Controller in a Building Automatic system, based on the availability of natural light and thermal comfort. The system consists of an energy conservation circuit which helps in reducing the energy consumption of household appliances such as fans and lights. This circuit includes an occupancy level detector, environmental thermal comfort temperature level detectors and illumination detector. The PIR sensors are used for the occupancy detection. A pair of temperature sensors is used to detect thermal comfort temperature and Light dependent resistors are used to detect illumination. These sensor outputs are fed to a Microcontroller. The Microcontroller has the task of controlling the lights and fans according to ANSI/ASHRAE Standard 55.

Development of an Image-Based Modelling Tool for the Spinal Deformity Detection Using Curve Fitting Technique

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 27th April 2018

Tabitha Janumala | Dr.K.B.Ramesh, Harish A Haralachar

Abstract

Scoliosis is a 3-dimensional abnormality of the spine that usually found in 2- 4% of adolescents population stated by the statistics of the country for scoliosis. Scoliosis is a disorder in which there is a sideways curve of the spine. Curves are often S-shaped or C-shaped. One of the methods to ascertain a patient with scoliosis is through using Cobb angle measurement. Any Cobb angle measurement takes about 20 ‚Äď 30 minutes of inter and intraobserver. Scoliosis prediction is of great significance to reduce the uncertainty for doctors on deciding the optimum treatment for patients. Therefore the importance of the automatic spinal curve detection system is to detect any spinal disorder quicker and faster. The challenging task in computerized method lies in totally automating the method of curvature measurement from digital X-ray images. The importance of the automatic spine curve detection system is to detect ant spinal disorder quicker and faster. The proposed research work uses a template matching based on Sum of Squared Difference (SSD) to estimate the location of vertebrae. By using polynomial curve fitting method, spinal curvature estimation can be done. In this paper, the performance of SSD used to detect a variety of data sources of X-ray from numerous patients.The results from the implementation indicate that the proposed algorithm can be used to detect all the X-ray images.

Development of Android Based Remote Acquisition- Kroto Finder

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th July 2017

Linija Shylin | Sudha M, Prasoona O, Rhituporna Sarkar , Tejashree M S

Abstract

Crack inspection is an important task in the maintenance of pipe line and it is closely related to structural health of underground pipes. Currently it is done through a very manual procedure, experienced human monitors the whole structure visually and try to detect cracks on the pipe line structure and marks the location of crack. But this manual approach having some frailty issues as limited accuracy. Proposed research focuses on implementing a system having a robot, equipped with a camera to efficiently detect small leaks in plastic or in any type of pipes with complicated pipeline configurations of inner structure of the pipeline. We have proposed a novel method of pipes leakage detection. When there is any leakage or crack in the pipe in industries the sensors will detect the leakage. As the sensors will detect the corresponding signals will be shown in the phone with which the sensors will be connected through Bluetooth.

Development of Anti-Honking Technology to Minimize Noise Pollution

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 22nd January 2018

Aswini Devadas | Uday P Chhatre

Abstract

Transportation sector is one of the major contributors to the noise pollution in urban areas. The most important factors increasing noise pollution in urban areas are vehicular traffic, railway and air traffic. Increased noise levels induce stress, increase accident rates at workplace and stimulate aggression and other anti-social types of behavior. Honking is one of the major causes for noise pollution. This increase in noise pollution due to honking needs to be controlled effectively. We propose a method that can be implemented to reduce the impact of honking on noise pollution.

Development Of Edge Detection Algorithms For Video Frames Using Rgb-Yuv Colour Modelsin Matlab

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 31st May 2017

K.Sai Prasad Reddy | Prof. K.Nagabhushan Raju

Abstract

An edge is a place of rapid change in the image intensity function. Edges are caused by a variety of factors. Image edge detection is an integral component of image processing to enhance the clarity of edges and the type of edges. Edge detection is the process of localizing pixel intensity transitions. The edge detection has been used by object recognition, target tracking, segmentation etc., Therefore, the edge detection is one of the most important parts of image processing. The purpose of edge detection is to discover the information about the shapes and the reflectance or transmittance in an image. It is one of the fundamental steps in image processing, image analysis, image pattern recognition, and computer vision, as well as in human vision. Edges of an image are considered a type of crucial information that can be extracted by applying detectors with different methodology. This paper presents a comparative study on different approaches to edge detection of video frames. These approaches are based on transforming the RGB frame to YUV model. Video frame edges are detected by using edge detector operator called Laplacian operator. This paper provides a deeper analysis regarding video frame edge detection by constructing video input object, selecting source for video acquisition, previewing a stream of image frames, capturing sequence of video frames from live video stream, matrices, partial derivatives and convolutions by using MatLab.

Development of Image Surveillance System using Android

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 22nd January 2018

Ashok V. Sutagundar | Ravikant Belagali,Padmaja Kuruba

Abstract

Smart image surveillance, is the implementation of automatic image technologies to closely monitor various situations. Nowadays, image surveillance is integral to security of many locations such as banks, shopping malls, museums, traffic management and even homes. The proposed smart image surveillance system uses the set of static images in detection of variation in the object positions in the monitoring area. Movement of the objects are may be due to the intruder in the target. The method used for object detection compares the current image and previously stored static image in the database, which is taken as the reference image. The idea is that, if the difference between the current image and the reference image exceeds a specific threshold function, a displacement of the object is detected. The proposed idea is implemented and tested using Android tool.

Development of Robotic Arm to Assist Differently ABLED and Elderly People

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 22nd January 2018

Janardan.M | Mallikarjuna Swamy.M.S

Abstract

Differently abled people who donít have legs or arms have to depend entirely upon others to perform simple tasks, also elderly people suffer a lot to accomplish tasks that are important to lead daily life. Hence they need an assisting device which helps them to lead comfortable life. Application of robotics has become crucial and vital in the field of medical electronics in the present era, this paper deals with design of a robot which can help differently abled people to perform simple tasks such as pick and place through micro switch controlled signals and gesture control. The robot is equipped with intelligent sensing which alerts the presence of fire and water.

Development Of Universal Verification Methodology Verification Component For Near Field Communication Type 5 Tags

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 6th July 2018

Akshata A. Udpikar | Dr. Vijaya Prakash A M

Abstract

In the recent years, radio frequency identification has come a long way from anonymity into mainstream applications that help speed up the access control, authentication, ski ticketing etc. As a finely-honed version of high-frequency Radio Frequency Identification, Near Field Communication devices, have taken benefits of the shorter read range boundaries of its radio frequency i.e. 13.56MHz. NFC facilitates short-range exchange between attuned devices; which implies that they only operate when the two devices are brought closer to each other or they touch. One of the devices must be powered on for a two-way exchange to take place. The second device saves its battery for other things, or it may not have a battery at all. This paper is based on building a Universal Verification Methodology Verification Component based on ISO/IEC 15693 protocol i.e. Type 5 NFC tags. The methodology used to build the verification component was Universal Verification Methodology. This UVM Verification Component developed can be reused in any application of NFC tag which is based on the ISO/IEC 15693 protocol with little modifications to the test bench architecture.

Diagnosing Coronary Artery Disease by Low Frequency Heart Sound Signatures

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 22nd January 2018

ishal Hariet Madtha | Preetha DíSouza

Abstract

Coronary Artery Disease (CAD) develops when major blood vessels that supply the heart with blood becomes damaged or diseased. As the currently available CAD detection methods are invasive, costly and not suitable to detect CAD at the early stage, more than 45% of people are dying suddenly from CAD without any prior symptoms of it. The aim of the current study is to develop a low cost method for noninvasive diagnosis of CAD, based on analysis of heart sounds obtained with a stethoscope using Auto Regressive method there by analyzing and comparing number of features that are extracted from frequency bands of heart sound recording.

DICOM Image Compression for Telemedicine based on Region of Interest (ROI)

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 31st May 2017

K.Gopi | K.M.Hemambaran,T.Ramashri

Abstract

In medical imaging due to increase in demand of storing and transferring the medical images results in need of sufficient memory and transmission bandwidth. Computed Tomography (CT), Magnetic Resonance Image (MRI) procedures produces prohibitive amounts of data, hence compression was introduced in the medical field to renovate these issues. Due to high quantity of information contained in the image, reducing it has become a necessity especially in the medical domain. There exist several compression methods in image processing both lossy and lossless compression. In medical applications Region of Interest (ROI) based compression is preferred to enhance the compression efficiency for transmission and storage. In some areas in medicine, it may be sufficient to maintain high image quality only in the region of interest, i.e., diagnostically important regions, but the cost of a wrong interpretation are high. Due to the reason that in medical filed the diagnostically important region should be compressed with better quality than background. Hence, Region Based Coding (RBC) technique is significant for medical image compression and transmission. Lossless compression schemes with secure transmission play a key role in telemedicine applications that help in accurate diagnosis and research. Block Truncation Coding (BTC) is used for lossy Compression technique and for lossless scalable RBC for Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) images based on Haar Transform and with distortion limiting compression technique for other regions in image. A detailed analysis is carried out on the basis of parameters like compression ratio (CR), mean square error (MSE) and peak signal to noise ratio (PSNR).

Different ADC Architecture Suitable for Your Application

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 5th January 2018

Santosh Kumar N | Praveen Kumar R, Siddesh.Y, Sandeep Reddy, Vivek hegde

Abstract

Selecting the proper ADC for a particular application appears to be a formidable task, considering the thousands of converters currently on the market. A direct approach is to go right to the selection guides and parametric search engines, such as those available1 on the Analog Devices website. Enter the sampling rate, resolution, power supply voltage, and other important properties, But it’s usually not enough. In this paper, we will discuss various ADC suitable for the various industrial application.

Different Architectures of Power Grid

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 16th August 2017

Priyanka Kanade | Sujata Mendgudle

Abstract

There are many challenges that electrical grid face today such as mission critical power demands, diversion of energy sources and integration of renewable energy sources. Also, the different domains have their own requirements. To beat these challenges, it required the intelligent management of the electrical grid. So in this survey we represents the four different types of architecture which is suitable for the different domains.

Different Memristive Functions For Implementing Memristor Spice Model

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 31st May 2017

N Khadar basha | Prof. T Ramashri

Abstract

Memristor is a novel two-port circuit element with a memory, as device that can be used in many applications such as memory, logic, and neuromorphic systems. As passive circuit element the memristor would be a useful tool to analysis circuit behavior via simulation. SPICE model is appropriate way to describe real device operation. In this paper, we incorporate a SPICE model of memristor with threshold logic circuit for nonlinear dopant drift. Various window functions has been proposed in nonlinear ion drift memristor devices. Circuit analysis of the proposed memristor models are studied by investigating and characterizing the physical electronic and behavioral properties of memristor device. The simulation output should have a current‚Äďvoltage hysteresis curve, which looks like bow tie. The loop maps the switching behavior of the device. Then, make comparison of these memristor implemented circuit design between different type of memristor window models. The research verifies the proposed threshold memristor model and the possibilities of implementing memristor model in practical analog circuit

Digital Attendance System

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 22nd January 2018

Anjana K.Menon | Amrutha P V, Banaseer K.A, Janet Varghese , Kavya K , Narayanan P.P

Abstract

Attendance recording in educational institutions is an imperative task. Most present systems provide database management but still involve laborious manual data entry procedures. The design presented in this project offers a twofold solution to the problem. It relieves from handling paper records of attendance taken in the class by providing firsthand entry into a portable gadget. The attendance entered is transferred to application software residing on a computer through the serial port. ? Providing data such as date, department name, roll number of absentees, period, name and thumb impression of the faculty on duty. ? The data are entered through keypad within the device. ? The entered data are transferred to the proposed system of the main authority through zigbee.

Digital Design and Implementation of 8-Bit Carry Bypass & Carry Increment Adder using Xilinx & Cadance Tool

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 8th January 2018

Mangala. S. Jolad | 

Abstract

In Digital Integrated Circuits, Adders are the most widely used digital components for computing applications. In this paper 8-bit Carry Bypass Adder and Carry Increment Adder are implemented using Xilinx and CADANCE tool. The performance parameters such as area, delay and power distribution are discussed.

Digital Image Protection and Self Recovery Using Source-Channel Coding

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 22nd January 2018

V.G Roja | P.Sreekanth , N.Pushpalatha

Abstract

Digital imaging has been rapidly developing in last two decades and digital multimedia products are utilized in countless applications. As a consequence popular and low cost access to image editing applications challenges the integrity of digital images. Digital images can be easily tampered with image editing tools. Tampering is intentional modification of images. Forensics applications have been used in digital images. One of the forensics applications is to protect the images against tampering. To fulfill the purpose of image tampering the algorithm should satisfy two cases 1) Detecting the tampered area of the received image 2) Recovering the lost information in the tampered zones. State-of-the-Art techniques perform these tasks by applying watermarks consisting check bits and reference bits. Check bits are used for detecting the tampered area where as information of whole image is stored in reference bits, but the problem of recovery the lost reference bits still exists. To overcome this problem SPIHT technique is used in which if the tampering locations are known then image tampering can be modeled and dealt with as an erasure error. Therefore reference bits are protected against tampering by designing an appropriate channel code. The total water marking bit budget is dedicated into three groups 1) Source-encoder output bits 2) Channel code parity bits 3) Check bits. In watermark embedding phase, the original image is source coded and the output bit string is protected using appropriate channel encoder. For image recovery erasure locations are detected by check bits. Check bits help channel erasure decoder to recover the original source encoded image. This technique significantly outperforms recent techniques in-terms of image quality of water marked and recovered image. The water marked image quality gain is achieved through spending less bit budget on water mark. The quality of recovered image is considerably improved as a result of consistent performance of designed source and channel codes.

Digital Night Vision Enhancement using Histogram Processing

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 22nd January 2018

Megha Kolhekar | SamrudhiKaulapure, Vidhya Gowda, Rutuja Rajput,BeilaithaKhithie

Abstract

A poor image puts a contrast constraint to the human eye visibility at night,which is one of the main reasons for increase in accidents at night.Digital Night Vision Enhancement is a processing technique to improve night vision by image processing. These techniques can enhance the images captured by ordinary cameras under low light conditions and can be implemented completely in software. This work deals with few basic techniques like histogramequalization,adaptive histogram equalization, contrast limited adaptive histogram equalization and their implementation using python. Also the related work in this field and proposed work using homomorphic filtering has been discussed in brief

Digital PLL as Frequency Synthesizer

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 22nd January 2018

Pauline John | Resmin Serah Thomas , S Shruthi , Steffy Elezabeth Sam , Binu C Pillai

Abstract

The paper describes a digital PLL circuit design as frequency synthesizer and its implementation using MULTISIM, to meet the increasing needs of high speed operation. It includes a Phase-Frequency Detector, a Loop filter, a Voltage Controlled Oscillator and a Divide by N Counter. The main aim is to decrease the power dissipation as compared with the conventional PLL. It ensures better stability, a shorter locking time and as a result, high accuracy as well as a lower sensitivity to power supply variations.

Digital Signal Processing In Advanced Laboratory

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 5th January 2018

Aruna.M.Neeli | Sharada Hegade, Varshini.C, Uday kumar, Geetha R

Abstract

In this report, we discuss a few issues that are important in a digital signal processor. These include issues like bus architectures that are most optimum for a DSP, parallelism and pipelining, fixed and floating point issues, etc. We then see the basic blocks required in any digital signal processor in section 3. The basic computational blocks include multipliers & accumulators (MACs), arithmetic & logic unit (ALUs) and shifters. Other blocks that are required for the proper control of these are program sequencers, data address generators, IO controllers and most important of all memory. In section 4 some issues related to power dissipation are included using an example of FIR filter realization

Digital Stethoscope: Electronic Auscultation and Processing

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 22nd January 2018

Prabhakar Sharma | Swarnima Verma, Shanmukh Sarode, Puneet Sharma, Dr. Vijay Mishra,

Abstract

Stethoscope is one of the basic diagnostic tool used in the medical world. Traditional auscultation of heart, gastrointestinal and lungs sounds requires good listening skills and comes with experience. An attempt is made to modify the acoustic stethoscope in order to ensure efficient auscultation and diagnosis of a patient. The electronic stethoscope enables signal storage, processing, filtering and analysis of signals. It offers an advantage of amplification, noise reduction over the classical stethoscope. The BPM count predicts the abnormalities in the heart and can detect diseases. Through the GUI, a user can control different functionalities of the device. This paper aims to design and develop an electronic stethoscope with minimum complexity and lower cost.

Digitalized Genetic Chips

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 21st August 2017

Nimitha S L Reddy | Nayana H C, Basavaraj I Neelgar,Abhinav Karan

Abstract

Wearable Technology, the future of accessorizing, is becoming less an extension of oneself and more a part of oneself. The power of wearable technology comes from connecting the human senses to sensors. Genetic chips which is a DNA Microarray has test sites on a solid substrate that permits many tests to be performed at the same time in order to achieve higher throughput and speed like a computer chip. The genetic chip using the Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) system communicates between the chip and the reader. This research basically incorporates the sensor technology for the real time data extraction for person identification, health monitoring, women safety monitoring.

Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum Power Line Communication For Home Automation

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 22nd January 2018

Hema Singh | Sunita Siyag , Kriti Parashar

Abstract

The power line communication is used for transferring data over low voltage power line, where electrical power is transmitted over high voltage transmission line distributed over medium voltage & used inside the building at lower voltages. This technology can be extensively used in centralized electric meter reading, remote monitoring of electrical equipment, building automation and security control, stage lighting and street lighting control applications, information displays To overcome the electromagnetic strong polluted channel a direct sequence spread spectrum concept s used with its inherent processing gain.To achieve a simple design to adapt the spectrum to the channel by chip-shaping and use sub optimum detection scheme to avoid synchronization loops.

Disease analysis system using Content Based Image Retrieval

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 21st July 2017

K.Ramalakshmi | P Kanmani,R. N.Devendra Kumar, Nisha Soms,A.Praveena

Abstract

One of the common causes of blindness is Diabetic retinopathy. This disease threatens the visions of a lot of people affected with diabetes in the world. This is an important eye disease that may lead to blindness or may blur the visions. In this work, an attempt has been made to examine retinal images for Content Based Image Retrieval (CBIR) application. Various fundus photographs are collected and given as input for further examination. Based on the anatomical structure and feature of the retinal images we classify the type of diseases in the retina. In this work, an Efficient Fuzzy Neural Network (FNN) is proposed to eliminate the iteration dependent nature of the classification system. This disease identification system includes segmentation from retinal images, feature extraction process followed by image classification. Experimental results show promising possibilities for the proposed CBIR based systems in terms of performance measures

Disease Detection in Paddy Using Image Processing

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 22nd January 2018

Ganesh K | Usha B M , Sachin G , Sanjana.K.S , Mohammed JafferSadiq

Abstract

India is predominantly an agrarian economy with more than 75 percent of its population living in villages and depending on agriculture and allied activities for their livelihood. Land has traditionally been the basic income yielding assets of Indian farmers. Whilst most farmers are familiar with conventional farming practices, they are often ill positioned to promptly deal with diseases and plant infestations affecting their crops. Current advisory systems tend to be generic and are not tailored to specific plots or farms. Our project comprises an agriculture advisory model to provide an agriculture disease mitigation system. The image of diseased/infected paddy crop is captured using the camera. The images are processed in such a way as to provide a visual representation of the affected paddy leaf. A digital image is further analyzed by taking RGB feature of that image and then classified. That classified information can be used for precision farming by farmer for decision support system.

Distributed Clustering Using Density Concepts and K-Means

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 17th November 2017

Babita Kumari | Chetan Kumar

Abstract

Distributed Clustering is in itself a non-trivial challenge and it has further constraints of limiting the communication overhead and the number of processors or deciding the number of parameters required for clustering. There have been several attempts to perform K-means in a distributed environment and some density-based clustering approaches in the distributed environment. Every approach has its own advantage and drawbacks. This paper proposes how density-based approach and a K- means approach can be combined, such that very less information is exchanged among the processor. A Local Clustering is performed based on density concepts. These summaries are then combined together to obtain the global clustering labels through K-means. The K-means is not performed on any portion of data set, rather the information provided by the processors through local clustering. Thus given very less information exchanged the clustering can be performed. We have compared the results against a centralized algorithm baseline, to show the effectiveness.

Driver Assistance System Using Lab VIEW

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 22nd January 2018

Jose J Edathala | Megha Varghese, Mereena Thomas, Navya Athira Ram, Vrinda Krishna

Abstract

This project aims in automising certain features of a car. The two features automised are the wiper system and headlamp system. Both of these are implemented using a graphical platform called LabVIEW.Windshield wipers play a key role in assuring the driver's safety during precipitation. The traditional wiper systems, however, requires driver's constant attention in adjusting the wiper speed and the intermittent wiper interval because the amount of precipitation on the windshield constantly varies according to time and vehicle's speed. The manual adjustment of the wiper distracts driver's attention, which may be a direct cause of traffic accidents. Similarly the automatic dimming of headlamp makes it effortless for the driverís thereby ensuring it to be a reliable mode of transport. Thus the project is an endeavor towards an effective design and development of an automatic windshield wiper system and headlamp system.

Drones in the Field of Agriculture

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 22nd January 2018

Krishna | Saran Kumar G, Rohit M, Pradeep J, Muni Rahul

Abstract

This paper describes the use of Unmanned Aerial Vehicle in the field of Agriculture. Drones, or unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs), have been used by the military since WWI for remote surveillance. In the last decade, farmers have begun using them to monitor their fields as well as aiding precision agriculture programs. There are estimates that 80 to 90% of the growth in the drone market in the next decade will come from agriculture. The ease of use and ability to specialize each system means there will be a UAV for every situation. UAVs can monitor fields more often than satellites, take more detailed pictures, and are not obstructed by clouds. The different types of cameras can monitor data like photosynthesis rates or find where patches of weeds are in a field.

DSP Accelerator Architecture Using Carry-Save Arithmetic

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 8th May 2018

E. Ramya | Roja. S, Roja.R, Sandhiya.G

Abstract

A high-performance data path to implement DSP kernels are introduced in this paper. Hardware acceleration has been proved an extremely promising implementation DSP domain. We present a novel accelerator architecture comprising flexible computational units for the execution of a large set of operation templates in DSP kernels. Carry Save method has been implemented to improve the performance of the accelerator while computing more bits. Advanced arithmetic design concepts, i.e., recording techniques, are utilized enabling CS optimizations to be performed in a larger scope than in previous approaches. Accelerator architecture delivers average gain compared with the state-of-art flexible datapaths.

Dual band Omni-Directional Fractal Boundary Micro-Strip Antenna

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 22nd January 2018

E.Suresh | Dr. J. Lakshmi Narayana

Abstract

Compact fractal boundary dual band Omni-directional antenna is proposed for circular polarization (CP). Total four antennas were proposed by taking different fractal curves as the sides of a square patch. Optimization of indentation parameter is done to design the compact dual band antennas. The proposed antenna works at dual band of operating frequencies at 5.4 GHz and 8 GHz. Results show that an excellent CP is attained with dual band characteristics utilising a single probe feed, besides diminution in the antenna size by applying fractal boundary concept.

Dual band Wireless Sensor Network with Reduced Routing Overhead

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 22nd January 2018

Rijimol V.J | Subeena S

Abstract

Wireless sensor networks have been widely used in health care monitoring systems. With improved technologies in health care monitoring, the demand for high data rate transmission has also increased. Ultra wideband (UWB) is a short range wireless physical layer technology which is used to achieve high data rates in wireless sensor networks, without compromising the power consumption limits. The hardware implementation of UWB receivers is complex and also it consumes high power. This drawback can be overcome either by using a transmitter only method or by using a less complex narrow band wireless technology for receiver. The later method is proposed here with a narrow band feedback system, which increases the throughput. Second part of the paper deals with reducing the routing overhead of the network with a probability based method exploiting the neighbor coverage area. Simulation results show that the proposed methods improve bit error rate and throughput.

Dual-Polarized Antenna with Four Capacitive Feeds at Ultra-Wideband Range

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 22nd January 2018

G. Surendra Babu | Dr..P.Geetha , Dr.D.Leela Rani

Abstract

The design and analysis of a UWB (Ultra-Wideband) dualpolarized antenna with four capacitively coupled feed micro strip antenna suspended above the ground plane is presented. It has been demonstrated that the proposed approach can used for designing antennas with high impedance bandwidth and gain at UWB range. The proposed work includes the designing of dualpolarized UWB antenna for the applications of Global positioning system in handheld equipment and radar imaging. The UWB antenna will operate at the range of 3 to 11 GHz. An FR4 substrate of dielectric constant 4.4 and dielectric loss tangent of 0.027 is used in the present work. This antenna configuration can be used for Bidirectional radiation patterns required over wider bandwidth.

DWDM in Transmission System, a Review

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 29th January 2018

Lakshmi D L | P C Srikanth, Sanjaya kumar C

Abstract

Dense Wavelength Division Multiplexing (DWDM) is a key component of the world’s communications infrastructure. The colossal growth in telecommunications services is possible today in part through optical networks, where DWDM systems allow much greater bandwidth over existing optical systems. DWDM is a means of achieving effective fibre-optic transmission. DWDM is a transmission technology by which we can transmit/multiplex/de-multiplex different wavelengths on a single fiber by which we can utilize maximum bandwidth via optical fiber cable. The fiber plant savings can be optimized by a factor of at least 32.

DWT based Joint Compressive Sensing and Recovery of MECG Signals

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 21st August 2017

Arundhati B | Dr R Srinivasarao Kunte,Rajashekar Kunabeva

Abstract

Remote Health Monitoring is emerging as the smart healthcare solution due to the technological breakthroughs in bio-medical field. One such promising health care application is ECG monitoring to detect cardiac diseases. This is made possible through Wireless Body Area Network (WBAN) which consists of wearable intelligent sensor nodes on human body. These nodes are responsible for acquiring and sending the signals to healthcare centres. Huge data is difficult to store as well as to transmit over energy constrained sensor nodes. Energy-efficient compression techniques offer promising solutions to overcome these drawbacks. The algorithms uses joint compression of Multi-channel ECG (MECG) signals through compressive sensing and joint reconstruction by solving convex optimization problem through Mixed Norm Minimization (MNM). Two channel ECG signals are collected from MIT-BIH Arrhythmia database record 100. Discrete Wavelet Transform is applied for both channels to make signals sparse. Sparse Signals are jointly compressed using sensing matrix and are jointly reconstructed using MNM. Matlab simulation shows good reconstruction quality of 2- channelECG signals with PRD of 0.60 and 0.53 for channel 1 and channel 2 respectively.

Dynamic Power Reduction of LFSR with Clock Gating Technology

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 22nd January 2018

M.Shobhana | RPVG. Ashok Reddy

Abstract

A modified Linear Feedback Shift Register is designed in which power consumption reduction by deactivating the clock signal to Flip Flop when the output signal is same as input signal. The power consumption of the new LFSR is reduced due to the reduced switching of Flip Flop. To verify, the maximum, minimum and average. Dynamic power management (DPM) is a design methodology for dynamically reconfiguring systems to provide the requested services and performance levels with a minimum number of active components or a minimum load on such components. DPM encompasses a set of techniques that achieves energyefficient computation by selectively turning off (or reducing the performance of) system components when they are idle (or partially unexploited). In this paper, we survey several approaches to system-level dynamic power management. We first describe how systems employ power-manageable components and how the use of dynamic reconfiguration can impact the overall power consumption. We then analyze DPM implementation issues in electronic systems, and we survey recent initiatives in standardizing the hardware/software interface to enable software-controlled power management of hardware components.

Dynamic time warping music pattern detection

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 20th July 2017

Ms. Snehal Kshirsagar | Prof. M.N. Annadate

Abstract

Music conduct by a group requires a conductor to play the music. These conductors perform various music patterns in front of band and depend on this pattern band play the music. The pattern or gesture perform by the conductor are require to be more precise and accurate to play the correct musical node. Because of this a conductor has to practice more and more to draw correct pattern. There is always requiring a teacher or a senior music moderator to judge wrong and right pattern drawn by beginner conductor. It is not always possible to observe each and every student whether they drawn correct or wrong pattern. To overcome this problem we proposed a new technique called Dynamic Time Warping for musical pattern detection. We have implemented this concept on basic three pattern detection. In this method we have used a camera to detect the hand movement and then apply DTW algorithm to detect the correct pattern drawn by the beginner conductor.

Dynamic Traffic Grooming With Spectrum Utilization in Elastic Optical Networks

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 22nd January 2018

Naveen Varghese John | S.Vijayananth

Abstract

The massive growth of Internet and communication modes has made the networking technology a promising solution that provides services in a cost effective manner and with better scalability. The traffic in backbone networks is ever increasing. Future networks must be stuffed with advanced resources to meet the increasing traffic demands, the evolution of bandwidth hungry services, like video on demand, e-learning and grid computing applications. Optical networking provides an efficient solution to satisfy the requirements of todayís communication revolution, since it provides massive advantages in terms of bandwidth, which could be exploited to meet the performance requirements. Optical networks based on Wavelength Division Multiplexing provide wavelengths firmly allocated throughout the optical spectrum which is parted by 50 or 100 GHz. The Elastic Optical Network helps to improve the overall performance of the network by allotting multiple sub channels to future connection requests with smaller bandwidth granularity (hence the term elastic) by the use of a flexible spectrum grid. We compare three cases, including traditional coarse ITU-T wavelength grid and spacing, mini-grid and grid-less. Though grid-less is the most flexible of all, it is also equally important to evaluate the mini-grid case that lies between the cases of coarse grid and grid-less. This is because today most of optical components cannot really achieve fully grid-less tunability. The working of flexible-grid EONs to that of fixed-grid WDM networks under dynamic traffic, with and without grooming capability, in cases of blocking probability and overall spectrum occupation is compared, thus determining quantitatively the benefits of EON in comparison to grooming based WDM networks.

E-Bin for Waste Segregation

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 22nd January 2018

Suma N | Navya, NeethaNayak M, Bhavana M, Reji Thomas

Abstract

an E-BIN is a cheap, easy to use solution for a segregation system at households, so that it can be sent directly for processing. It is designed to sort the refuse into metallic waste, wet waste and dry waste. This employs parallel resonant impedance sensing mechanism to identify metallic items, and capacitive sensors to distinguish between wet and dry waste. Experimental results show that the segregation of waste into metallic, wet and dry waste has been successfully implemented using the EBIN. In recent times, garbage disposal has become a huge cause for concern in the world. A voluminous amount of waste that is generated is disposed by means which have an adverse effect on the environment. . In India, rag pickers play an important role in the recycling of urban solid waste. Dependency on the rag-pickers can be diminished if segregation takes place at the source level. Currently there is no system of segregation of dry, wet and metallic wastes at a household level. The purpose of this project is the realization of a compact, low cost and user friendly segregation system for urban households to streamline the waste management process.

E-Board based on LoRa Communication

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 3rd December 2018

Malek Babu | Nishida.K.S,Siddharth Sajit,Nimisha C.J

Abstract

An Information Board is a primary thing in any institution / organization or public utility places like bus stations, railway station and parks. The proper maintenance of the information displayed needs an additional man power, and in this scenario we propose an electronic board that can be used for information displaying. The E- board features on dynamic displaying of the information in the format required by the user on a 2 x 3 feet LED matrix. The user is provided with a facility for changing the color of the text displayed as per the users desire. The system features with controlling and configuring the system from distant location by different authenticated users. This feature is enabled by incorporating the latest wireless communication technology called the LoRa.

E-PASS Sensing and Ticketing

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th July 2017

Pavana M | Poojalakshmi S,Prathibha R, Preethi L

Abstract

The objective of this paper is to issue tickets in public transport system using a smart card. In general, Every Bus has a conductor who will collect money and issues ticket to each passenger. It will take a lot of time as well as create manual error. To overcome this problem, a new system is proposed. In this proposed system, IR sensor is used to count the number of persons entering into the bus. Smart card used here is an RFID which is rechargeable. It contains the information such as name, mobile number and address. The RFID reader will read the information in the RFID Tag. A message is send to the concerned persons mobile. The user must enter the destination. The corresponding amount will be deducted from the smart card. The microcontroller used here is P89V51RD2

EEG Signal Classification Using Feature Level Fusion

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 16th August 2017

Rohini Darade | Prof. S. R. Baji

Abstract

Human brain is a diverse creature, and unveils rich spatiotemporal dynamics. Among the noninvasive techniques for probing human brain dynamics, electroencephalography (EEG) provides a direct measure of cortical activity with millisecond temporal resolution. Electroencephalogram is a signal produced in the human brain when there is an information flow among several neurons. Human brain contains millions of neurons which are responsible for information flow. We have classified the publically available dataset for testing between normal and epileptic persons. We have achieved accuracy of 99.88% which is highest accuracy on this dataset.

Effect of Black Hole attack on MANET routing protocols

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 22nd January 2018

Akshata Prabhu | Shobha Krishnan

Abstract

Mobile ad hoc networks are the extension of wireless networks. They play an important role in military applications, home applications etc. these networks are threatened by various security attacks such as Modification, Fabrication attack, Denial of Service attack, Sybil attack, Worm hole attack, Sleep Deprivation attack, Routing table Overflow etc. Black hole attack is an active attack on mobile ad hoc network. Due to its nature , the attacker makes the source node send all data packets to a Blackhole node that ends up dropping all the packets. In this paper an effect of black hole attack on Ad hoc on-demand distance vector routing protocol (AODV) and Ad hoc on-demand Multi path distance vector routing protocol (AOMDV) routing protocols will be studied. Effect of attack on parameters like dropped packets, throughput and end to end delay is analyzed.

Effect of Load on Coefficient of Friction between TYRE and Road Surface

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 22nd January 2018

Tejas Anpat | Mangesh Khapale, Mayur Magar ,Aniket Chavan, Atul Aradhye

Abstract

The current situation of world is very cautious about energy sources. So we need to develop technology for saving or reducing the use of these sources. In this experiment, we have studied the importance of coefficient of friction between TYRE of vehicle and road for fuel economy. By experimentation, it is found that increase in weight of vehicle, increases coefficient of friction, which affects on fuel economy. So, for fulfilling these requirements, we have to reduce the load on vehicle TYRE, resulting in decrease in coefficient of friction, increasing performance of vehicle which will reduce use of fuel.

Effect of Particle Length and Radius on Movement of Metallic Particle in Single Phase Gas Insulated Bus duct

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 22nd January 2018

A. Giriprasad | M.Surya Kalavathi , PoonamUpadhyay , N.Rama Rao

Abstract

The invention of SF6 insulation gas has revolutionized not only the technology of circuit breakers but also the organization of electrical power transmission lines and substations. Gas Insulated Substations have found a broad range of applications in power systems for more than thirty years because of their high reliability, easy maintenance and small ground space requirement. Metallic contaminants are inexorable in GIS systems and most common causes are mechanical vibrations during shipment and service, thermal expansion/contraction at expansion joints. Free metallic particle contaminants in Gas Insulated Bus duct adversely affect the insulation performance because they can cause serious deterioration of the dielectric strength and thereby the breakdown voltage of the GIS system is reduced. Research studies reveal that free metallic particles seriously decreases breakdown voltage of Gas Insulated Systems. This paper deals with the effect of particle length on the moment of metallic particle in single phase gas insulated bus duct. The simulation of movement of aluminum and copper wire like particles are carried out for various bus voltages 75kV, 100kV, 145KV. The results of the simulation have been presented and analyzed.

Effective Contrast Based Dehazing By Using Air Light Estimation

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 17th January 2018

Sheeba. D | 

Abstract

A comparison with existing methods shows that the proposed method performs better in terms of both processing time and quality Haze is a common natural phenomenon in our daily life caused by the atmospheric absorption and scattering. When haze appears, we always capture the photographs with low contrast and lack of clarity. The low-quality images caused by haze usually degrade the performances of various image processing and video analysis algorithms, such as face recognition, object tracking and intelligent surveillance. The dehazing technique can eliminate the bad effect of haze on images and enhance the performances of image/video processing algorithm in the hazy weather. The present project work is to enhance the visibility, saturation, contrast and reduce the noise in a foggy image. I propose a method that uses the single frame for enhancing foggy images using multilevel transmission map. The method is fast and free from noise or artifacts that generally arise in such enhancement techniques.

Effective Energy Efficient Routing Algorithm for WSN/WBAN

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 15th July 2017

Harish N V | Dhanush yadav M

Abstract

Wireless body area network is a new emerging field in WSN. WBAN is a wireless network of wearable computing devices. The most important application of WBAN is health monitoring. In WBANs the wireless sensors are deployed in the human body and these sensors are used to monitor the various human body parameters such as blood pressure, glucose level, heart rate etc. WBANs capture accurate and quantitative data from a variety of sensors. In this work we propose a energy efficient routing protocol for WSN/WBANs that uses a combination of multi-hop and single-hop topology. We use the concept of cost function in order to select the forwarder node. The calculation of cost function takes into consideration the residual energy parameter into account thus making sure that the energy consumption of the network is balanced. MATLAB simulations of proposed routing algorithm have been performed to obtain the simulation results. The simulation results show that our proposed protocol increases the network stability and the nodes stay alive for a longer duration, which in turn contributes to higher packet delivery to the sink

Efficient Algorithm for Energy Reduction in WSN: Binary to Gray Technique

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 22nd January 2018

Swati P. More | M. S. Borse

Abstract

a wireless sensor network consist of many sensor nodes for doing some tasks like collecting and doing process so that information which is gained by sensor used for communication by means of transmitting and receiving with other sensor nodes in another in WSN. In WSN the sensor nodes are self organized or spatially distributed to monitor physical or environmental conditions such as temperature, pressure and sound etc. And transmit their data through wireless network to the desired location. As a WSN consists of multiple sensor nodes of hundreds of thousands number these sensor nodes have to perform their task without failure like reduction in battery. And in WSN it is very difficult to charge or replace the usable batteries. So for doing their transmission and receiving processes efficiently the sensor nodes should have efficient energy to perform their communication. And for this reason the energy reduction while communicating is to be developed. In this paper, by using gray code technique a new data transmission mechanism is developed to save transmission energy. The power drain in WSN is mainly because of communication, energy efficient communication protocols that can be implemented with low hardware and software cost are thus of paramount importance in WSN stored the device recharging cycle period and hence provide connectivity for longer durations.

Efficient Approach for Traffic Sign Detection based on Saliency Detection via Graph-Based Manifold Ranking

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 16th August 2017

Miss.Namrata Vijay Chavan | Prof.M.S. Borse

Abstract

Now days, traffic sign detection attracted large number of researchers interest due to its important in efficient intelligent transportation systems (ITSs). Traffic sign detection helps to minimize the road accidents and hence to minimize the loss. The efficient traffic sign detection is vital research problem since from last decade. In ITSs, there is more work conducted already on name plate detection and recognition, however there only few concrete research studies presented to solve the problem of traffic sign detection and recognition. For applications like road surveying, autonomous vehicles are mainly demanding the system of road side sign detection and recognition. The current methods for road side sign detection having issues of efficiency and accuracy due to different factors affecting on road sign detection such as shadow, non-uniform sizes of signs, illumination conditions, blurring, occlusion, and sign deterioration etc. In this work, we proposed novel method for road sign detection and recognition based on saliency regions detection. Saliency regions detection helps to locate the road sign efficiently and hence traffic sign detection properly. In this paper, author introduced the efficient segmentation method and graph based ranking approach for the accurate detection salient regions. Additionally we applied the RGB image smoothing algorithm to improve the detection accuracy. The performance results claims that proposed approach outperforming the previous method.

Efficient Channel Allocation Using Cognitive Radio and Avoiding Malicious Attacks

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 30th March 2018

Tanusshri Sivakumar | Swathi Rajeev, Caroline Jebakumari S

Abstract

The most important problem in the cloud service provider is to maintain the elastic property of the cloud in such a way that user will pretend the cloud as limitless. So the challenge is how to make the limited sources unlimited. Every task must be granted what it requires by any mean otherwise it will degrade the performance of cloud. So resource allocation has a lot of solution. Resource allocation is a NP hard problem so no particular solution can perform well always. But these kinds of problems are solved by nature in many ways such that such as ant colony optimization (ACO) algorithm, particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm and firefly algorithm. In this paper a particle swarm optimization technique have been used to resolve the most critical problem of the cloud service provider at cloud data centre. This technique is basically taken from the collective and collaborative nature of the nature swarm. This technique can be used to allocate the resource to the task request by minimizing the makes span, flow time and task execution cost. The simulation and test results show the better efficiency than the other similar existing technique.

Efficient Design of a Reconfigurable FIR Filter using Distributed Arithmetic for FPGA Implementation

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 16th August 2017

Reshma Ghurde | Mrs. Aparna Shinde

Abstract

This paper present Distributed Arithmetic (DA) Algorithm for high-throughput reconfigurable implementation of an FIR Filter. When we directly applied the DA algorithm to FPGA for realization of an FIR filter, it is difficult to achieve the best configuration in the coefficient of FIR filter, the storage resource and the computing speed. For the FPGA implementation, the Dual-Port Distributed RAM based lookup table (LUT) are required for Reconfigurable FIR Filter. Registers are required to store the result of partial inner products of different bit positions for DA processing, but here registers are shared by the DA units for bit slices of different weightage

Efficient Medical Image Compression based on Region of Interest

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 22nd January 2018

S. Muni Rathnam | T. Ramashri

Abstract

The Radiology places very high demands on the networking and digital storage infrastructure of hospitals. An Efficient method for segmentation and compression of medical images is proposed. In this paper we present a clustering algorithm called Adaptive Fuzzy C means for image segmentation which could be applied on general images and specific images (medical and microscopic images).This algorithm employs the concepts of fuzziness and belongingness to provide a better and more adaptive clustering process as compared to other clustering algorithm. Based on the results obtained the proposed algorithm gives better visual quality as compared to other clustering methods. Compression methods capable of delivering higher reconstruction quality for important parts are attractive in this situation. Only a small portion of the image might be diagnostically useful, but the cost of a wrong interpretation is high. Hence, for medical image compression and transmission Region based coding is necessary. In telemedicine applications Lossless compression schemes with secure transmission play a key role in accurate diagnosis and research. In this paper, we propose lossless scalable RBC for Medical images based on improved Ridgelet Transform and with distortion limiting compression technique for other regions in image. The main objective of this work is to reconstruct the image portions losslessly. For Medical images based on improved Ridgelet Transform and with distortion limiting compression technique for other regions in image. The main objective of this work is to reconstruct the image portions losslessly.

Efficient Modular Exponentiation Architectures for RSA Algorithm

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 22nd January 2018

S. Prasanth kumar | K.J.Jegadish kumar, B.Partibane

Abstract

Cryptosystems are used to send confidential messages in secure manner. The most important and efficient type of cryptosystem is RSA. RSA is used in various sectors such as Bank security and Internet protection. One of the various steps involved in RSA is Modular exponentiation, which is used in both Encryption and Decryption. It takes high memory and computation time of algorithm. In order to reduce the computation time of algorithm, the Modular exponentiation complexity is reduced. In this paper, we explain efficient novel Modular exponentiation. This is done by FPGA implementation using ZedBoard and comparing them with the previous methods.

Efficient multiple faults correction in Advanced Encryption Standard (AES)

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 21st July 2017

Anushmita Pathak | Asst. Professor Manjunath C Lakhannavar

Abstract

The data transmitted over the network are vulnerable to electronic eavesdropping. The message transmitted over channels are not similar to the original message since it can be intercepted by some intruder. Encryption is the method to convert the data into secret code and it is viewed as the best approach to guarantee information security. AES is one such encrypting method with the main goal is to achieve secure communication. But its drawback is vulnerability to errors. The cipher text get corrupted once the errors are introduced into the encrypted data, thus resulting in incorrect decrypted data. This paper proposes a method to detect and correct single and correct multiple errors in the data encrypted using AES encryption process.

Efficient Multiplication for the DSP Applications using Static Segment Method

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 22nd January 2018

Swathi Samanthapudi | Murali Krishna D

Abstract

The requirement to hold up different digital signal processing (DSP) and classification applications on energyconstrained devices has regularly developed. This applications usually execute matrix multiplications using fixed-point arithmetic , while indicating tolerance for some counting errors. Hence, improving the energy efficiency of multiplications is critical. In this brief, we introduce multiplier architectures that can tradeoff counting accuracy with energy consumption at design time. Compared with a actual multiplier, the suggested multiplier can consume 57% lower energy/op with average counting error of ?1%. Absolutely, we signify such a little counting error does not particularly failure the effect of DSP and the preciseness of classification applications.

Electricity generation using piezo-road with automatic traffic light and street light control

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 22nd January 2018

Chithra Pradeep | Devika S, Davood K K, Vinila M L

Abstract

Electricity has become a major need of present day civilization and its demand is increasing rapidly. Hence we need a non-conventional method of power generation. This paper emphasis one of the promising electricity generation method using piezoelectric material. Vibration energy that is generated by vehicle movement on the road converted to electrical energy by piezoelectric effect. Instead of considering traffic as a problem we can take it as an opportunity to produce energy. And the generated energy effectively utilized for the automatic control of traffic light and street light. Here, a solar panel is also used as an alternative energy source. Hence by all means a piezo-smart road can be developed.

Electricity Generator Pen (EGP)

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 22nd January 2018

Punyakeerthi.B.L. | 

Abstract

This paper tries to present new way to generate Electricity by using existing technology along with daily usable small physical material components by applying basic science laws and formulae.

Electro-encephalographic Study and Survey of Feature Extraction for Emotion Detection using Wavelets

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 22nd January 2018

Nayana | Dr.Cyril Prasanna Raj P, Mrs. Anuradha J P

Abstract

Emotions play a very important role in finding the state of mind of others, have role in non verbal communication and different emotions have got influence on the voluntary and non-voluntary actions of the human body. So by finding the emotions of a person we can predict in which state the person is and what the person wants to say. Emotion detection is one of the applications of Brain Computer Interface; it mainly helps the people with motor disabilities, neuronal disorders and other disorders by developing tool for them in real time. We mainly concentrating on extracting the features from the EEG and we have discussed about best wavelet for feature extraction and classifying the emotions using neural network. By considering the some of the intrinsic aspects of emotions this can also help in the treatment of Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), Attention deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and anxiety disorder. By developing a real time tool for detecting the emotions automatically can help these people. In this we are mainly classifying five emotions happy, excited, angry, fear and neutral emotions.

Electro-Mechanical Actuator Servo Design For Launch Vehicle Application

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 22nd January 2018

Lini M.Thomas | Mrs. B. Hemalatha

Abstract

In a launch vehicle the Electro-Mechanical Actuation (EMA) system gimbals the rocket nozzle and provides accurate steering of the vehicle. The adequate amount of force or thrust at the gimbal point is obtained by the small rotation of the gimbal. The force generated from the EMA system stabilizes and steers the launch vehicle in the required direction in to overcome the wind-gust disturbances and balance the aerodynamic movements. The mathematical model of the linear actuator is considered for the servo system design. In this paper the servo design of the actuation system is carried out for the launch vehicle application. The servo system integrates actuators, sensors and embedded intelligent systems for control, optimization and supervision which aim in improving the performance of the system. Due to high reliability demands of such systems, accurate supervision and fault diagnosis concepts are of particular importance.

Electromagnetic Projectile Launcher

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th June 2018

Tiple Hemant P | Prakash V. Gaikwad, Yograj S. Gavankar

Abstract

An electromagnetic projectile launcher (EMPL) system accelerates and launches a projectile by converting electric energy into kinetic energy. There are two types of EMPL systems under development: The rail gun and the coil gun. A rail gun comprises a pair of parallel conducting rails, along which a sliding armature is accelerated by the electromagnetic effects of a current that flows down from one rail, into the armature and then back along the other rail, but the high mechanical friction between the projectile and the rail can damage the projectile. whereas A coil gun launches the projectile by the attractive magnetic force induced by the electromagnetic coil. A greater projectile muzzle velocity needs multiple stages of electromagnetic coils, that will make the coil gun EMPL system longer. As a result, the installation cost of a coil gun EMPL system is high because of the large installation site needed for the EMPL system. We present a coil gun EMPL system that has a new structure and arrangement for multiple electromagnetic coils to reduce the length of the system. A mathematical model of the proposed coil gun EMPL system is developed in order to calculate the magnetic field and forces, and to simulate the muzzle velocity of a projectile by driving the electric pulsed current into multiple stages of electromagnetic coils. Using the proposed design, the length of the coil gun EMPL system is shortened by 31% compared with a conventional coil gun system while satisfying a target projectile muzzle velocity over 100 m/s.

Electronic Eye for Security System

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 22nd January 2018

J.Pallavi | P. Suresh Babu

Abstract

Humans interest in the heavens has been universal and enduring.As the automation is emerging technology these days,we introduceElectronic Eye which describes the design and implementation of Door image capture using Microcontroller based security system for homes and offices.It provides the user with efficient and reliable security system for Door image capture that supports the use of an sensor at the door to send the signals to control unit of electronic eye with buzzer alarm for security purpose with image capture as soon as the door opens with image capture at the output of laptop or PC with VB application.

Elliptical Curve Intermediate Key Methodology and its Implementation for 192 & 256 Bit Sizes

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 22nd January 2018

Kalasagarvarma.K | Neetha Tirmal, Kartik A, S C Rathnakara

Abstract

Data encryption is widely used to ensure security in Open networks such as the internet and wireless communications. Any security method used for protecting data should be more robust and highly difficult to break. Advances in technology have made the conventional security algorithms such as AES kind leading to sense of insecurity in using the channel itself. The Wellknown public-key cryptography algorithms RSA, El-Gamal, and DSA (Digital Signature algorithm) are highly secured but have a constraint of higher key sizes. Elliptical curve cryptography (ECC) is an efficient technique in public-key cryptographic methods, which has overcome the limitations of the current crypto systems in terms of security and the key sizes. But ECC cannot be directly implemented in encryption and decryption operations such as real time operations; it can be used standalone to encrypt and decrypt the public keys. A novel method, ďElliptical Curve Intermediate-Key MethodĒ is proposed in the paper to addresses the direct implementation of elliptical curve cryptography in the context of encryption and decryption. This paper shows the implementation of the method and results with respect to 192 and 256 bit prime fields.

Embedded Security System for Home Automation

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 22nd January 2018

Prachi Gorate | Sakshi Bhide , Pinal Davda

Abstract

The aim of the home automation is to control home devices from a central control point with security, comfort and convenience systems. In this paper, we present implementation of low cost, flexible and secure internet base home automation system. The communication between the devices is wireless, protocol between units is enhanced to be suitable for most of the appliances. Homeowners can orchestrate and monitor appliances for multiple locations within the house or even remotely, via telephone and internet. We develop a remote website that provides secure internet access and other services during installation to protect against security threats. We include features that uses local control home temperature and ability to integrate different home functions by Global Home Server Target Machine.

Embedded Solution for Aircraft Fault Detection and Passenger Safety System Using Wireless Technology

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 31st May 2017

Jayendra Chavan | Ajit Shinde, Hrishikesh More, Ravindra Patil,Sachin Gurav

Abstract

The recent years were quite bad for aviation world due to serious aircraft crashes. Lots of human being lost their lives in plane crashes over last 3 years and this became very serious & sensitive issue in the world. So we are proposing the idea of detachment of passenger compartment on the detection of major problem in an aircraft which predicts the fatal crash of airplane. We are using some advanced sensors to detect the accidental occurrences of defects or faults in an aircraft. These sensors are selected according to most common problems of aircraft crashes. On detection of sensors data, the data is compared with threshold limits & if the data reaches beyond threshold it predicts the possible crash of plane and gives signal to the detachment control panel On the signal of sensors, the passenger compartment will get ejected from the fuselage and with help of parachutes or will land safely on ground without any fatal loss. We are using arduino platform with AVR ATmega328 microcontroller. It is 8 bit microcontroller with 32kb memory. This controller board comes with 14 digital I/O pins and out of these 14 pins fro 6 pins provide Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) output signal. This board also comes with 6 analog input pins. This board can be powered by USB as well as external dc jack with 5 to 12 v input supply.

Embedded Solution for Street Light Automation and Security

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 22nd January 2018

Ayesha.I.Nejkar | Nitin.B.Naik

Abstract

In todayís era rampant increase in population has become risk generating factor which has led in indecent utilization of resources for different purposes and applications, which will be ultimately resulting in extinction of resources. This paper proposes and deals with optimum utilization of the resources in the city. The main objective of this paper is to analyze various problems and provide efficient and secure solution resulting in monitoring and controlling the parameters. In current scenario the switching of street light is having fixed routine at fixed time interval irrespective of feedback of darkness & human or vehicle interpretation which instigate street light to glow continuously whose consequence may upshot devastation of electricity & resources . In our proposed work switching of street light is ensued dynamically wherein the switching mechanism is based on different time interval and on the feedback of density of vehicle & human. The another provision developed in the proposed work is detection of violence, threat or safety measure by providing message wirelessly to monitoring or control unit of municipal corporation.

Embedded System For Driver Assistance & Autopilot Technology

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 31st May 2017

Medha Yadav | Apurva Sachan,Dr. Gerardine Immaculate Mary

Abstract

Among the many reasons that can be accounted for the increasing number of accidents; major one is the latency in the reaction of the driver. Recent studies show that one third of the number of fatal or serious accidents are associated with excessive or inappropriate speed, inattentiveness and faulty judgement of the driver. Thus technologies have been developed which would aid the driver for better response to the incoming vehicle or obstacles or any sort of anomaly. The objective of this project is to provide a solution to these minor negligence of the driver which can become a grave danger to himself and others on the road. This project provides a modest combination of multi sensors featuring lane change assistance, obstacle detection and speed control of the vehicle. These features are collectively put under the auto pilot mode which is at the driver’s disposal.

Embedded Web Server using Raspberry PI

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 22nd January 2018

Prof. Y. R. Risodkar | Ghanshyam Talele

Abstract

The presented paper aims at designing embedded web server with ARM1176JZF-S 700 MHz Raspberry Pi processor and Ethernet module kit. The paper is focused on ARM-11 and Ethernet based design of an embedded web server using Apache server. The embedded web server data base includes a complete web server data with MySQL.

Energy Based Jiles-Atherton and an Analytical Magnetostrictive Model to Study Response of Terfenol-D Actuator To A Step Input

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 31st January 2018

Shivakumar S Y | Dr. Raghavendra Joshi

Abstract

This paper discusses the detailed design aspects and modeling of a magnetostrictive actuator contained coaxial coils surrounding the Terfenol-D rod. Experiments were conducted on this actuator by varying step input under zero pre-stress and pre-stress conditions. The results indicate a better performance of the actuator at each point of excitation when step input is biased to coil 1 instead of varying the step input equally to coaxial coils. The calculation of the magnetic field strength from the actuator coils considers inductance of driving coils. Energy based Jiles-Atherton model is used to predict the magnetization and the quadratic magnetostriction model is improved by considering the quality factor in addition to other parameters that affect the output of an actuator. The output, displacement of Terfenol-D rod, obtained with the proposed magnetostriction model was found to have an average deviation of 6 % with respect to experimental results.

Energy Efficient Handling of Big Data in Embedded, Wireless Sensor Networks

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 9th March 2018

Karthik Kumar Vaigandla | Malothu Devsingh

Abstract

The advancement of remote gadget systems has come to some degree wherever every individual hub of a system could store and convey a tremendous amount of (sensor based) information straightforwardly or after some time. In the future, enormously associated, to a great degree dynamic remote gadget systems like vehicle-2 vehicle correspondence circumstances could hold significantly with bigger information potential. This can be to a great extent as a result of the ascent in hub quality. Therefore, information volumes can turn into a tangle for old learning collection techniques movement astute further like pertinence vitality intensity. In this manner, amid this paper, we prescribe to choice such circumstances gigantic learning circumstances as they cause comparable inquiries and issues as antiquated gigantic learning circumstances. Despite the fact is that the last mentioned center absolutely around business insight issues. We tend to at that point propose A collection methodology fixing to innovative stipulations that change the sparing utilization of vitality furthermore, thusly the treatment of tremendous learning volumes. Besides, we have a tendency to exhibit the vitality protection potential bolstered explores different avenues regarding real gadget stages.

Energy Harvesting on Aircrafts Statics Charge Ė Energy Generation

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 22nd January 2018

Joshit Mohanty | Goutam Misra , Bhismadev Meher

Abstract

A novel energy harvesting concept is proposed for treating local electrostatic energy developed on flying composite aircrafts. This work focuses on the feasibility research on collecting static charges with capacitive collectors. The existing energy harvesting system and the electrification of the typical carbon fiber composites (CFCs) aircraft hasbeen reviewed. The detailed model experiments were then designed to characterize different configurations for electrostatic energy harvesting on aeroplane. In the lab, the static charge was produced by a corona discharging device, and a capacitor or a metal sheet was put in the electric field to collect the charges under four different configurations. After that, the rest results for these configurations were analyzed, which is followed by the discussion about the results application on the aircraft. This work has proved that it is feasible to collect the local static electricity on flying aircraft, and it could provide a new direction of energy harvesting system in aviation field.

Energy Saving Embedded Solution For Authenticate Car Parking System

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 31st May 2017

Rishikesh S. Sutar | Rohan K. Kumbhar, Sushilkumar S. Kothale, Guide Ayesha I.Nejkar

Abstract

Nowadays increase in population and luxurious living of life have led people to utilize number of means of transportation or convenience say vehicles, cars, bikes etc. The ratio of utilization of vehicles has increased to a greater extent, where in the land or the parking space is comparatively smaller1. This issue has led to decline and resulted in design and implementation of proposed system. In current scenario punctuality and disciplinary routine play a vital role which is affecting any human being whether it is an industrial, organization or a management? In this proposed system we have used the sensor module to detect the car or any other object & light intensity. In response to the sensor output, controlling action will be taken place to meet our proposed objectives. Image processing through MATLAB has been done to recognize the authenticated number plate and meanwhile access will be provided3. However our proposed work will contribute in proper time management, discipline and reduced human efforts by providing authenticated and authorized car parking system. Improper utilization of resources will ultimately result in its extinction; hence through our proposed technology we have made an effort in utilizing renewable energy resources. The proposed system has been added with a provision such that it reduces wastage of the time for turning on-off of the lights in parking area which results in efficient consumption of electricity and indirectly saves the fuel also which leads in optimum utilization of natural resources.

Enhance Performance of AODV Protocol During Blackhole Attack in MANET

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 19th July 2017

Chetan C. Dhulkotiya | Sandip Toshniwal

Abstract

Mobile Ad Hoc Networks are an appealing branch of wireless networking due to benefits of having communication without need of infrastructure, ease of deployment, etc. AODV (Ad Hoc on demand Distance vector Routing) is one of the protocols used for facilitating communication in MANET. The nodes in the network work on mutual trust basis. Due to this nature of MANET, it is vulnerable to network layer attacks such as blackhole attack, wormhole attack, grayhole attack etc. These attacks are launched by malicious nodes. Significant decrease in performance is observed when multiple malicious nodes launch attack in the network. The aim of this paper is to study the effects of collaborative blackhole attack launched by multiple malicious nodes in the network taking the performance of AODV protocol into accoun

Enhanced Life Jacket with GPS and GSM

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 13th July 2017

Geetha R  | Adarsh H S,S Bharath, Bankim Mandal, Hariharan S,RD Vidyarani

Abstract

This proposed work is an attempt to design a tracking unit that uses the global positioning system to determine the precise location of a, person which it is attached and using GSM modem this information can be transmit to remote user. It can provide tile-monitoring system for inter-cities transportation ships such as boats... This system contains single-board embedded system that is equipped with GPS and GSM modems along with ARM processor that is installed in the jacket. During object motion, its location can be reported by SMS message. A software package is developed to read, process, analyze and store the incoming SMS messages. The use of GSM and GPS technologies allows the system to track object and provides the most up-to-date information about ongoing trips. If a password like SMS is sent by the owner, it automatically stops the vehicle or we can use it for different other work, it can provide real time control. This system finds its application in real time traffic surveillance. It could be used as a valuable tool for real time traveler. The current system can be able to provide monitoring process from anywhere. The purpose of this system is to design and integrate a new system which is integrated with GPS- GSM to provide following feature: a) Location information, b) Real time tracking using SMS, c) Communication is instantaneous therefore we can receive running report quickly. It is completely integrated so that once it is implemented in all objects, then it is easy to track objects or person any time.

Enhanced Life Jacket with GPS and GSM

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 13th July 2017

Sarojini Ganapati Naik | Maheshwari.S.Biradar, Kishor.B.Bhangale

Abstract

In this paper decomposition of fabric the image is done using wavelet transform method. The wavelet decomposition for the defective image as well as for original image is done. The wavelet decomposed defective image vertical component is subtracted from the non defective image vertical component. Finally thresholding and filtering techniques used to get defect.

Enhanced LTE-A Model for Improving Energy Efficiency in LTE-A Relay Networks

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 22nd January 2018

C.Viswanath | Dr. V.R. Anitha

Abstract

In future wireless communication, the networks will face the dual challenge to support large traffic volumes by providing reliable service for delay-sensitive traffic. To get this challenge, the relay network is introduced here as a new network design for the fourth generation (4G) LTE-Advanced (LTE-A) network. The resource allocation is investigated including subcarrier and power allocation, under statistical quality of service (QoS) constraints for 4G LTE-A relay networks. Filter Bank Multicarrier with Offset Quadrature Amplitude Modulation (FBMC/OQAM) is recognized as an appropriate modulation scheme for 4G/5G wireless technologies. In this paper, we investigate an enhanced LTE-A model for improving energy efficiency in relay network with an extremely low Adjacent Channel Leakage Ratio (ACLR). Our result suggests that the improvement of energy efficiency with extremely low ACLR, when compared with schemes A, B, C & D. With an extremely low ACLR, FBMC/OQAM scheme is a suitable candidate for cognitive radio (CR) applications.

Enhancement of Network Lifetime Using Mobile Sink Node in Wireless Sensor Networks

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 7th February 2018

C. Jean Celia Grace | E. Manohar, P.J. Beslin Pajila

Abstract

Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) consist of a large number of sensor nodes deployed in a given region of interest to fulfil tasks such as area surveillance, biological detection, home care, object tracking, and sending information to sink nodes via multihop communication. The data collection from sensor nodes using mobile sink has been studied in Energy Harvesting Wireless Sensor Networks (EH-WSNs) with most focus on throughput maximization. The existing system used a Mixed Integer Linear Programming (MILP) Optimization model is introduced for energy harvesting based data collection and also designed two efficient algorithms namely Optimal Distance per Slot Allocation Algorithm (ODSAA) and Optimal Distance Allocation Algorithm (ODAA) for two practically implementable scenarios with fixed sink mobility model. However, high delay and packet loss incurred due to the fixed sink mobility model. The proposed system used a Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) model based two efficient algorithms namely ODSAA and ODAA with Destination Sequence Distance Vector Routing Protocol. This system reduces the delay and packet loss by varying the sink mobility model using Sink Speed Allocation Algorithm and increases the Network Lifetime and Throughput. Another thing is Trust Values or Threshold Values are calculated based on the node behavior reported by their neighbours. The simulations are done by using network simulator and the parameter such as lifetime; total data collected by sink node, packet loss, delay, trust values are analyzed.

Enhancement of Node Authentication and Security in Mobile ADHOC Network

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 22nd January 2018

Manohar B N | Suchitra V

Abstract

The wireless networks play major rule in networking field. Routing and mobility are the major problems in mobile ADHOC networks. These problems can be avoided using clustering based authentication of approaches. In these paper describes The implementations of secured node verification scheme that authenticates the true nodes to access network and detects attacker nodes and QĖLEACH based clustering so that external and internal attacks also avoided. Every node in the network can act like self originating nodes to their neighbors. So every node is builds its own IP address. The wireless networks is used in military application. The mobile adhoc network vulnerable nature not secures. Assign the authentication key for every node to achieve the energy saving of the battery. Therefore it is necessary to adapted Intrusion Detection System mechanism to prevent and detected the Network from attackers. In the other hand Enhanced Adaptive Acknowledgement is proposed as an IDS. In this paper a both IP-trace back with End-to-End Adaptive Acknowledgment getting acknowledgments or information in both ends.

Enhancement of sensor deployment Using Interactive Artificial bee colony algorithm

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 22nd January 2018

Diana Anto | Amrutha V Nair

Abstract

IABC(Interactive artificial bee colony algorithm) is used for sensor deployment.IABC algorithm will perform better than that of artifial bee colony algorithm(ABC) and particle swarm optimization(PSO).In this paper,compare the IABC and ABC algorithm.IABC algorithm improve the network lifetime of node by finding the best position for the nodes.There are three bees in IABC which are employed bee and onlooker bee.Employed bee provides the neighborhood of the source in its memory.The onlooker bee select the food source.A heuristic is used for the scheduling of sensor nodes which will maximizes the network lifetime.IABC outperforms than that of ABC algorithm.IABC algorithm mainly used for solving optimization problems.

Enhancing Quality of Service and Security for Heterogeneous Networkusing Game Theoritic Algorithm

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 22nd January 2018

M.Divya | S.Sivaneeshkumar

Abstract

The emergence of various new generations in Differentiated applications along with their services will greatly increase the accessing of base station in use of multiple accessing nodes in wireless sensor networks. The presence of several users in a wireless media will cause the disturbance for the user in the required access range. Due to this disturbance the unwanted links will increase. In order to minimize that disturbance, we have to provide the interconnection of Expected access and suitable Security. But in regular these two techniques are treated in a unique form not in a combined form. And also have some problems in treating these two in a combined manner. Due to this combined form of usage we have to introduce the approach of playing game with each other on the basics of bandwidth and delay between user and base station. And the solutions are shown in graphical representations.

Eog Less Automatic Accident Prevention Using Arduino

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 31st May 2017

Miss.Patil S.S. | Miss.Patil N.M,Miss.Yadav P.J

Abstract

Now-a-days, accidents due to drowsiness condition are one of the major problems on highway. These types of accidents occurred due to drowsy and driver cannot able to control the vehicle, when he/she wakes. Accidents due to drowsy is prevented and controlled when the vehicle is out of control. Also the drunken drive also prevented with the help of alcohol detector in the vehicle. Here we are using accelerometer sensor for recognizing the driver is in the drowsiness condition. The drowsiness is identified by the accelerometer sensor by measuring the angle of tilt of the driver’s head. The accelerometer sensor is worn by the driver by means of the spectacles frames or cap. The alcohol consumption is also verified during the starting process of vehicle using alcohol detector. If the driver is drunk then the buzzer indicates and the vehicle doesn’t allow the driver to start the vehicle. If the driver is in drowsiness condition then the system will give alarm signal and the speed of the vehicle is reduced. The ultrasonic sensor will sense the obstacle to avoid collision with that and vehicle will be parked with indications. Also the message is displayed on LCD display in the vehicle to aware the passengers that the driver is drowsy through GSM.

Error Correction in Parallel Filters Using Error Correction Codes

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 22nd January 2018

Saju Raju | Sreejesh Kumar R

Abstract

Digital filters are widely used in communication and signal processing systems. In modern signal processing circuits, it is common that several filters are operating in parallel. In some cases, the reliability of those systems are very critical and thus a fault tolerant filter implementation is necessary. Triple Modular Redundancy (TMR) protect the filters from errors by adding redundancy at the logic or system level. But it requires larger area and power for protecting the digital filters from errors. This drawback leads to an alternate solution, which is the error correction codes (ECC) used to protect parallel filters from errors. In this work, hamming code is used as an Error correction code (ECC). It mainly focus on detection and correction of multiple bit errors occurring in parallel filters that have either the same impulse response or the same input data. This technique provides more efficient implementations when the number of parallel filters are large. This scheme focus on more powerful protection using advanced error correction codes (ECC) that can correct failures in multiples modules.

Error Rate Analysis of PL Decoder in Dual Hop Dual Path Differential Cooperative System

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 16th August 2017

Akhil Adlakha | 

Abstract

In this paper, we consider a Dual Hop Dual Path decode and forward based differential cooperative system and we derive the conditional probability density function (pdf), conditional cumulative distribution function (cdf) of the Piecewise Linear (PL) approximation of the decision variable of each Relay-Destination link used in the system. Utilizing this, we have also derived the average Bit Error Rate (BER) of the PL approximation for the case in which one of the Relay is in outage as compared to the other Relay and the data is received at the destination from the Relay closed to the source

Establishing High Transmission Bandwidth from Service Providers through SDH

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 22nd August 2017

Chandrakumar H S | Sadika, Supritha, Meenu Gaur

Abstract

Previously, Customers were using two types of services namely Voice and Data. Accordingly customers were having two separate lines for handling both these services. Now, Customers are using multiple services namely Telephone, Internet, Intranet, Virtual Private Networks, Video Conferencing, IP TV, Games on Demand (GOD) etc., where all these services can be combined together into one High speed Transmission Line. So to cater the needs of the Today’s customers, it is very much essential to have a one HIGH Band Width Transmission line from Service provider’s end to the Customer’s End. Establishing a High Bandwidth transmission link from any Service Provider can be implemented in many ways. But the Best way to implement is using a Global Standard, which facilitates High Reliability and Flexibility for both the Service provider and Customer. This can be achieved by using Synchronous Digital Hierarchy (SDH) technology. Using this technology, any bandwidth ranging from 2Mbps can be extended to the customers end from Service provider’s end. Presently it is restricted to as high as 1Gbps, ascustomer end equipment does not support more than 1Gbps data using 1GE Port. This project concentrates about Establishing a High Bandwidth Transmission Line between the Service Providers Edge Router (where multiple services need to be enabled and configured) and the Customer’s location, using SDH Manageable Add Drop Multiplexers (MADM’s) of Various Capacities namely STM-16 and STM-1. This requires hardware as well as the Software operations to be performed (using any Browser). This Project also explores on establishing Automatic Protection scheme for Optical Fibres, in case of any Fibre cuts.

Estimating the Context Switch Overhead and Data Acquisition in Wireless Sensor Networks

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 22nd January 2018

Rajesha N | H L Viswanath

Abstract

To meet the prerequisites for creating MCUs, it is proposed to utilize a frivolous as well as multithreaded OS by means of a file system named Flash File system in favour of limited required Wireless Sensor Platforms. The most critical task for adding to the module is to deal with the partial sources upon WS stages along with towards bolster an appropriate software replica in favour of WSN function programers. The principle advance for the software replica is in the direction of embrace an agreecapable threading replica for empowering the multi-threaded software, even as diminishing the overhead of link switching as well as decrease the code volume in MCU. The effeciency of the scheduler is optimized by predefined algorithms as opposed to utilizing direct hunt down threads. One of the best approaches is to overcoming resource free localizations for virtual memory, wireless reinventing and memory kernel. Virtual memory can be accomplished without hardware bolster however small hardware change and code addition next to order moment. PIC is a fitting path in the direction of deal with accomplishing active stacsiblingsg.

EVbot with Defibrillator for Medical Services in Smart Cities

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 28th December 2017

Likitha | Shewetha, Mamatha, Pooja, Swathi, G.V. Raja

Abstract

A keen city is an urban improvement vision to incorporate data and correspondence innovation (ICT) and the Internet of things (IoT) innovation in a safe mode to deal with a city's benefit. Using sensors incorporated with continuous checking frameworks, information is gathered from nationals and gadgets ‚Äď then prepared and broke down. The data and information assembled are keys to handling wastefulness. Time is a basic issue when managing individuals who encounter a sudden heart failure that tragically beyond words to detachment of the crisis treatment. Along these lines, a prompt treatment utilizing Automated External Defibrillator (AED) must be directed to the casualty inside a couple of minutes in the wake of falling. Subsequently, we have outlined and built up the Ambulance Robot, abbreviated as EVbot, which brings along an AED in a sudden occasion of heart failure and encourages different methods of operation from manual to independent working to spare somebody's lives in savvy urban areas. Points of interest of the plan and advancement of such robot are introduced in this paper.

Experimental Investigation on Modified Exhaust Treatment System for Diesel Engine Emissions

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 22nd January 2018

T.Devarajulu Reddy | F.Anand Raju

Abstract

A new kind of exhaust after-treatment system having Diesel Particulate Filter, Three Way Catalytic (TWC) converter (in substitution of SCR & Oxidation catalyst) with new kind of DEF/Ad blue-Dosing Module with Manual Control, Supply Line strategy and Supply module, is prepared in order to Finding the scope for increasing the efficiency of a Urea-SCR system. The results show that there is a 85% reduction in the CO and HC emissions after arranging the setup. It is also found that on an average there is a 75% reduction in the NOx.

Face Recognition Utilizing Motion Blur, Illumination and Pose

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 22nd January 2018

Mekha Unnikrishnan | Minu Mariya Thomas, Reenu Sara Rajan, Sudhin Sara Kurian , Muth Sebastian

Abstract

The existing face recognition techniques cannot deal with non-uniform blurring conditions which arise from tilts and rotations in cameras. Different factors such as exposure time, stability of the platform and user experience affects the degree of blurring. In this paper a method is proposed for face recognition across motion blur, variations in illumination and pose. Images of different persons are collected and stored in the gallery. The probe set is formed using the set of above images with different blur, illumination and pose. One image among the probe set is selected and its blur is estimated using hessian matrix. A threshold value for blur is fixed. If amount of blur is greater than threshold then the estimated blur is applied to the entire gallery. The LBP (local binary pattern) features of the blurred gallery images and the given probe image is extracted and the distance between them is calculated. The gallery face which gives the minimum distance is recognised as the probe face. If the blur is less than the threshold, gaussian filter is applied to the probe image and DCT is calculated. The 3/4th of the probe image as well as all the gallery images are cropped. The HOG of LBP is found out from the cropped probe image. DCT (Discrete Cosine Transform) and HOG (Histogram of Gaussian) of LBP forms the extracted feature set. PCA (Principal Component Analysis) is used to reduce the dimension of the feature set. The feature so obtained is compared with the RDF model of all the gallery images and thus the correct user is found out.

Failure Monitoring Analysis of Flight Control System of an Aircraft

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 22nd August 2017

Anshu Deepak | Dhakshayini M, Megha B R, Rashmi H N, Shwetha K N

Abstract

FCS is an essential part of an aircraft, aircraft failure monitoring analysis is important. The failure of an aircraft will seriously threat its flight safety during the flight process. In order to prevent or reduce occurrence of failure, monitoring program is required. The metadologies which depicts the failure are like captions, colour-coded scheme and audio tone. By using these methods the pilots can instantly access the situation and decide on the actions to be taken. It reduces the pilot stress in abnormal and emergency situations. The information of an aircraft can be caught in the time and the corresponding remedial measures can be adopted. The data captured in terms of RS-422 is analysed using MATLAB programming language with GUI Interface.

Fair Resource Allocation Based on Max Weights in Cognitive Radio Networks

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 22nd January 2018

Aman Rana | Rajoo Pandey

Abstract

With the tremendous growth in wireless technology the increasing demand for spectrum resources is causing spectrum scarcity. Several surveys show that most of the time and at most of the places licensed bands are underutilized. Cognitive radio (CR) is a promising technology which has the ability to deal with the increasing demand of spectrum bands as it adapts itself according to the surrounding environmental conditions and transmits its data only through that band which is idle. To do this the CR needs to monitor the activity of licensed user continuously which is known as spectrum sensing. Spectrum sensing and sharing both are basic and essential functions of a CR to find the unused spectrum and share it efficiently. A limited amount of network resources have to be shared among many users in cognitive radio networks (CRNs). As per given channel conditions and total amount of available resource the system may allocate resource to users according to some performance measures. To maximize system throughput the system will allocate more resource to the users with better channel conditions, this causes starvation of resources in other users. So, fairness in resource allocation is equally important for efficient utilization of the available frequency bands. In this research paper we have proposed two max weight based methods to add fairness during resource allocation in a cognitive radio network. The simulation results obtained on MATLAB and their analysis is also presented.

Fault Detection using Image Processing and Orbit Analysis

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 31st May 2017

Shreyas Gawde | Sangam Borkar,Suryakant Gawde

Abstract

Vibrations have been traditionally associated with trouble in machines. However, vibrations are merely symptoms of good or bad mechanical behavior. Today these symptoms are used to detect and solve many mechanical problems. To prevent the great loss in production due to motor failure, early detection of faults with diagnosis of its root cause is necessary. This project is an approach for fault detection in rotating machines using orbit analysis of shaft and Image processing. Several works have been focused on detecting early mechanical faults before damage appears in the machine. All these techniques such as Motor Current Signature Analysis, Vibration Monitoring, Thermal imaging, Oil particle analysis are very effective their way. In this project a new methodology for low speed rotating machines is proposed for identifying and detecting different faults in motors. Through Image Processing Based on Orbital Analysis, different faults will be studied, generating characteristically different patterns that are used for fault identification

Fetal ECG Extraction and Analysis of the Health Condition Based On Boosting Classifier

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 7th February 2018

K. Janupooja | 

Abstract

The non-invasive method of fECG monitoring is a promising one which can be used in all gestation weeks and also during the delivery process, but there are some difficulties with this method. Since in non-invasive method the recording electrodes are placed on the abdomen region of the pregnant woman, they record both maternal electrocardiogram (MECG) and the fetal electrocardiogram (FECG), also, in this case, it may contain a relatively large amount of noise. The main sources of possible noise in the field of extraction of fetal ECG include the maternal electrocardiogram (MECG). In this work the proposed method includes dynamic ECG model to extract fECG from mixed ECG using adaptive filtering techniques.The extracted fECG signal is undergone for the analysis by decomposing with the help of empirical mode decomposition and the spectral features are extracted from these decomposed signals Finally adaptive boosting classifier is responsible for the fECG health analysis. The parameter analysis for different values of noise level, amplitude and heart rate ratios of fetal ECG's shows its effectiveness and is implemented using MATLAB.

Filtering of Volume Clutter in Pulse Surveillance Radar using Discrete Wavelet Transform

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 22nd January 2018

Nimisha O A | 

Abstract

Moving weather systems will have a nonzero Doppler response at rate at which the rain droplets are approaching the radar system. The complete data the radar collects contain the returns of both the target and the clutter. The signal processing block in a radar system uses filtering operations to extract the target information while suppressing the clutter. Typically the filters are designed based on Doppler Frequency using a Fourier filter bank. Instead of the frequency domain, the wavelet analysis allows the time-scale domain in processing. The filter bank in this project utilizes Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT), DWT coefficients represent the results of a multi-resolution analysis of the radar signal. The experiments indicate that the Fourier filter bank filter the volume clutter very well. However, a DWT filter bank has different time resolution for different frequency ranges. The experiments were performed in MATLAB environment as well as python and data is real radar rain clutter data from PSR, TERLS(low PRF). The objective of this paper is to develop a DWT based filtering system and to test itís operation in one situation of volume clutter and then plotting PPI.

Fingerprint Ignition and Security System

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 13th July 2017

Halesha H R | Uday M,Ravi kumar S, Ramesh J,Ravi kiran V

Abstract

To develop an embedded system for vehicle security and to operate the vehicle through biometric as well as GSM by increasing the security in parking areas and also to inform a user through GSM modem.Security is of primary concern and in this busy, competitive world, human cannot find ways to provide security to his confidential belongings manually. Instead, he finds an alternative which can provide a full fledged security as well as atomized. In the ubiquitous network society, where individuals can easily access their information anytime and anywhere, people are also faced with the risk that others can easily Security is of primary concern and in this busy, competitive world, human cannot find ways to provide security to his confidential belongings manually. Instead, he finds an alternative which can provide a full fledged security as well as atomized. In the ubiquitous network society, where individuals can easily access their information anytime and anywhere, people are also faced with the risk that others can easily access. Because of this risk, personal identification technology, which can distinguish between registered legitimate users and imposters, is now generating interest. The most secured system is fingerprint recognition because a fingerprint of one person never matches the other. This proposed system is a fine combination of ‚ÄúBiometrics technology‚ÄĚ and ‚ÄúEmbedded system technology‚ÄĚ. Fingerprint sensor is the main part of this system. It makes use of Biometric sensor to detect fingerprint. It is also called as Biometric sensor. Fingerprint sensor uses various types of techniques like ultrasonic method, optical method or thermal technique. In this project we have used optical fingerprint sensor. Main blocks of this project are Microcontroller, Fingerprint module, PIR sensor, Tilt sensor, GSM module, LCD display, Relay.

Fingerprint Liveness Detection From Single Image Using Low-Level Features and Shape Analysis

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 31st May 2017

B.S.S.Ram Naryan Reddy | M.Sri Vamsi,A.Santhosh Kumar,Dr .J. Subhashini

Abstract

Fingerprints are good source for individual identification by biometric authentication. Password based authentication systems are less secure than that of the fingerprint authentication where fingerprints and Iris are unique for every Individual.to reduce the fraud cases in biometric authentication ,we propose a static approach where we extract low level gradient features and texture analysis using dynamic score level integration algorithm.The proposed method is very much helpful to reduce the spoofing attacks in fingerprint authentication.

Fire Fighting Robotic Vehicle

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 22nd January 2018

Suhas kumar M. S | Vinayak K Nase, Praveen kumar. R ,Vidya pragnya. K ,Geetha R

Abstract

The project is designed to develop a fire fighting robot using RF technology for remote operation. The robotic vehicle is loaded with water tanker and a pump which is controlled over wireless communication to throw water. An 8051 series of microcontroller is used for the desired operation. At the transmitting end using push buttons, commands are sent to the receiver to control the movement of the robot either to move forward, backward and left or right etc. At the receiving end three motors are interfaced to the microcontroller where two of them are used for the movement of the vehicle and the remaining one to position the arm of the robot. The RF transmitter acts as a RF remote control that has the advantage of adequate range (up to 200 meters) with proper antenna, while the receiver decodes before feeding it to another microcontroller to drive DC motors via motor driver IC for necessary work. A water tank along with water pump is mounted on the robot body and its operation is carried out from the microcontroller output through appropriate signal from the transmitting end. The whole operation is controlled by an 8051 series microcontroller. A motor driver IC is interfaced to the microcontroller through which the controller drives the motors. Further the project can be enhanced by interfacing it with a wireless camera so that the person controlling it can view operation of the robot remotely on a screen.

Fire Suppression and Alerting System in Railways

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 17th January 2018

P.Arun MoSzhi Devan | M.Prasannashree, M.Savitha Devi

Abstract

In earlier systems during summer and high-temperature seasons faulty detection of temperature sensors will occur due to high heat, meanwhile, gas /smoke sensor that had been used also considers the external environment smoke in the air as compartment. These wrong signals from the sensors to the controller will cause unwanted enabling of the buzzer, wrong information to the locomotive pilot, unwanted chaos, and delay of trains. This involves confusion to the total railway system. The proposed method provides faster communication using Zigbee and enables the rescuing methodology while fire accidents on the train by utilizing gas/smoke sensors integrated with LM35 along with automated fire suppression systems. In this method there are many suction ducts will be present at each partition of the train compartment along with CO2 fire extinguisher for fire suppression. If the temperature is greater than 80¬ļC and the output value from the gas and the smoke sensor senses the smoke then the Arduino gives the command to enable buzzer, alerting signal to Zigbee network, fire extinguisher. The automatic braking system is enabled which will be utilized to split the fired compartment from the unaffected compartments, else there is no action will be taken.

Flow Mobility Modeling In VANETS

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 22nd January 2018

Sandeep Kaur | Nikita Arora , Deepti Tara

Abstract

The most important feature of Vehicular Ad hoc Networks (VANETs) is the high mobility of nodes, which makes the mobility model one of the most important parameters that should be carefully selected when evaluating any protocol. To correctly and faithfully evaluate protocols in a simulation study, the model should be as realistic as possible. Vehicles communicating wirelessly play an important role in the simulation of Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks (VANETs). In this paper, one of the main mobility modeling approach is discussed to the extent that it can help to understand models formulation and integration strategies with network simulators. This approach is called as flow mobility modeling. It is put into the discussion and elaborated in such way it clarifies basics of flow modeling and its impact. It also finds a different ways of modeling and implementation into existing traffic simulators viz. SUMO, VISSIM etc.

Fluorscent Noise Circumvention In Optical Wireless Communication

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 22nd January 2018

Neethu Varghese | Ms.Swapna Davies

Abstract

Infrared wireless systems plays a significant role in indoor communication. It had replaced the existing RF wireless systems. There are several challenges for the practical implementation of the optical wireless communication. For this reason, the indoor optical wireless transmission systems are not easy to design and hence new design solutions are needed to be explored. One of the challenges faced by the LED optical wireless communication is the optical noise generated by the AC-LEDs or conventional fluorescent lamps. The main objective of this work is to circumvent background optical noises using OFDM. The orthogonal subcarriers which are affected by interference can be used to send training symbols rather than sending data. Training symbols can be used for channel estimation, based on the estimated parameters equalization is performed at the receiver side. Combining FEC along with OFDM an efficient optical wireless system can be designed.

Foreign Direct Investment: It’s Impact on Developing Countries Economy - A Study of India

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 9th March 2018

Dr.Naresh Guduru | S.Phaneendra

Abstract

Foreign direct investment (FDI) is considered to be one of the important factors, which leads to the globalization of an economy. The globalization over the last two decades has been hailed as a major development, which results in economic prosperity in developing countries. In this paper, we have attempted to identify the Determinants, impact and problems associated with India’s current foreign direct investment regime, and more importantly the other associated factors responsible for India’s unattractiveness as an investment location. The presence of a large domestic market, fairly well developed financial architecture and skilled human resources, it can attract much larger foreign investments than it has done in the past. India's present international investment regime facilitates easy entry of foreign capital in almost all areas subject to specific limits on foreign ownership. Entry options have not only become procedurally simpler, but prospects for higher yields from investment have also become brighter. But the further boost to Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) will depend significantly on further liberalization of its foreign investment regime. The paper provides the brief synthesis of the regime and analyzes the economic and policy variables as the important determinants of FDI inflows to India.

Fortuity Notification Using Ardu-Analyser

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 22nd January 2018

Mr. S. Satheeshkumar | S. Boopathiraja,E. Edward Rozario,C. Mullaivendhan

Abstract

Due to the technology revolution people donít care about whatís happening around them they keep on moving without any care because of which we designed a system to detect accident. This is used to detect the accident automatically and victim analysis plays an important role to reducing the time laps which will reduce the death rate. As the name indicates this project is about advanced technologies in cars for making it more intelligent and interactive for avoiding accidents on roads. By using ARM7 this system becomes more efficient, reliable & effective. As now a dayís mobile is common electronic gadget that is present with everyone and this problem can be solved by it only. By the short message service (SMS) on of the fetcher of mobile will help to solve this problem. There are only few system which is used to detect accident only and this system is most common in the luxury cars. This module consist of real time sensor which will not only detect accident but also reduce the speed of the cars in the publ ic place The main components of the system consist of number of real time sensors like gas, eye blink, alcohol, fuel, impact sensors and a software interface with GPS and Google Maps APIs for location

Fortuity Notification Using Ardu-Analyser

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 22nd January 2018

Mr. S. Satheeshkumar | S. Boopathiraja,E. Edward Rozario,C. Mullaivendhan

Abstract

Due to the technology revolution people donít care about whatís happening around them they keep on moving without any care because of which we designed a system to detect accident. This is used to detect the accident automatically and victim analysis plays an important role to reducing the time laps which will reduce the death rate. As the name indicates this project is about advanced technologies in cars for making it more intelligent and interactive for avoiding accidents on roads. By using ARM7 this system becomes more efficient, reliable & effective. As now a dayís mobile is common electronic gadget that is present with everyone and this problem can be solved by it only. By the short message service (SMS) on of the fetcher of mobile will help to solve this problem. There are only few system which is used to detect accident only and this system is most common in the luxury cars. This module consist of real time sensor which will not only detect accident but also reduce the speed of the cars in the publ ic place The main components of the system consist of number of real time sensors like gas, eye blink, alcohol, fuel, impact sensors and a software interface with GPS and Google Maps APIs for location

FPGA Based Image Enhancement and Noise Removal Using Bilateral Filter

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 22nd January 2018

S Parvathy | Anas A S

Abstract

Image restoration refers to genre of techniques that aim to recover a high quality original image from degraded version of image which is given a specific model for degradation. The common forms of degradation that an image suffers are loss of sharpness and noise. The bilateral filter is a nonlinear filter that smoothens the noise while preserving the edge structure. This novel FPGA design architecture of bilateral filter is described in Register Transfer level (RTL). This feature of kernel based design is supported by input data into groups so that internal clock of the design is a multiple of pixel clock given by a target system.The bilateral filter is implemented by combining these features as highly parallelized pipeline structure. This method is non iterative and simple which combines both grey levels and colours based on their photometric similarity as well as geometric closeness and prefers near by values to distant values in both domain and range. The photometric component and the geometric component has been combined to form photo-geometric filter component which reduces the structural complexity while serving the process.This bilateral filtering operation is coded in VHDL and can be simulated using ModelSim and Matlab.

FPGA Based Solution for Filtering of Data Generated Through DDS

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 7th June 2017

Ms. Rekha B | Dr. P.C Srikanth

Abstract

This paper is concerned with removing the unwanted noise signal present in the original signal by using the digital (FIR) filter whose cut off frequency is 2.5Mhz.The input signal to the filter is generated using DDS IP core. The whole design is simulated and synthesized using Xilinx ISE Design suite 14.1 version and verified using the Matlab

FPGA Design For Location Independent Hand Posture Recognition System

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 22nd January 2018

Aleena Lal | Anas A S

Abstract

In the present era of smart electronics, hand sign recognition has a significant role. A hand sign recognition algorithm based system employing a hybrid SOM-Hebb network is designed. The input posture image is pre-processed and feature vectors are extracted from them. These are then mapped on to lower dimensional neurons on the self-organizing map (SOM). The input image is compared with the hand posture images in the database. The algorithm offers a stagnant response irrespective of the change in location of the input image. The work is to develop a design that supports real- time FPGA implementation using onboard camera. The set of default images in database used as the current input. The input image is pre-processed and converted to a binary image. The feature vectors are extracted using Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT) and fed to the hybrid classifier network for recognition. FPGA implementation enhances its use in portable embedded applications. The system offers better recognition accuracy and faster response. The system is designed for robustness against change in location of input image. The algorithm is coded using VHDL and simulated in Xilinx ISE 13.2 and MATLAB 2013.

FPGA Implementation of Address Bit Generation Block & Memory Interface Unit for Microcode Based Memory BIST Controller

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 12th October 2017

Vadde SeethaRama Rao | Chilumula.RamBabu

Abstract

Memories are the most universal components today. Almost all system chips contain some type of embedded memory, such as ROM, SRAM, DRAM and flash memory. Testing of these memories is a challenging task as testing time, overhead area and cost of the test plays an important role during testing. The direct accessing of embedded memories is highly difficult. The testing of these memories done through a BIST (Built-in-self-test) Controller The Microcode based Memory BIST controller can be proven to be one of the best methods to test the memories. For this we are using March C/C+ algorithms, since March based tests are simple and possess good fault coverage. Microcode based Memory BIST consists of Program counter, Instruction decoder, Address generation block and Memory interface unit. This paper deals with the implementation of Address generation block, Memory interface unit for a Microcode based Memory BIST controller by using March C/C+ algorithms. Address generation block gives the address of the memory to the Memory interface unit and the Memory interface unit of MCMBIST controller acts as an interface between other blocks of MCMBST Controller and Memory under test. It has Address register, Data register, Control register, Multiplexers and Comparator. Address register takes the address from Address generation block, stores it for the fault diagnosis. Data register takes the data from Instruction decoder, processes and stores it. Control register takes read or write information from Instruction decoder and stores in it. The information from all these registers passed through the Multiplexers and to the memory under test for testing of all locations of memory. March C/C+ algorithms applied to Memory which under test. These blocks are designed by using Verilog HDL code, simulated by NC Verilog compiler and synthesized by RTL Compiler. These blocks are integrated with program counter and instruction decoder to form a Microcode based Memory BIST Controller

FPGA Implementation of Distributed Canny Edge Detector for Low Clarity Images

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 22nd January 2018

Rinjo A J | Remya K P

Abstract

Edge detection is the most common preprocessing step in many image processing algorithms. Edge detection is the method to find the image brightness changes sharply or, more formally, has discontinuities. The points at which image brightness changes sharply are typically organized into a set of curved line segments termed edges. The purpose of edge detection is to reduce the data in an image. Canny detector has high latency, because itís a frame level processing. So in order to avoid that problem new canny edge detection developed. Itís a block level processing. The entire image divides into block. In the original canny compute the high and low threshold values based on the frame level.. In the new distributed canny detector have a histogram, which helps to give more clarity to the image. The synthesis tool used here is Xilinx ISE 14.2. Using hardware description language (Verilog) the system can implement on Spartan 6 FPGA.

FPGA Implementation of High Throughput Dual Key based AES Encryption and Decryption

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 22nd January 2018

Naveen Kumar M S | Manjunath C Lakhannavar

Abstract

Data security plays a major role in todayís technology. Cryptography is one of the industry standards in providing data security since many years. Federal Information Processing Standard (FIPS) is approved Advance Encryption Standard (AES) cryptographic algorithm that can be used to protect electronic data. But the conventional scheme of AES is vulnerable for cryptanalysis, due to static S-box which will never vary with the input text/key. Noticeable drawbacks with AES are, it can only support one key, and is prone to easy reverse engineering which can lead to insecure data. Thus S-box value is necessary for changes in input key. In this paper, a new scheme of AES is discussed which involves in the generation of Key based S-Boxes, with dual key AES and implemented in pipeline architecture to improve the throughput with low latency.

FPGA Implementation of Lms Filter

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 22nd January 2018

Prajna K | Charishma

Abstract

LMS algorithm is one of the algorithm which is used in digital Signal Processing used to minimize the noise present in the input signal. This algorithm is best due to its simplicity and efficiency. The algorithm is implemented in many of the applications.FPGA implementation of the LMS algorithm is done using Simulink model.

FPGA Implementation of Reconfigurable Pulse-Shaping FIR Interpolation Filter with Carry Select Adder

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 22nd January 2018

Devikarani H S | Lakshmi Shrinivasan

Abstract

This paper proposes the Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) architecture implementation of reconfigurable RootRaised Cosine (RRC), Finite Impulse Response (FIR) filter in which all the adders present in the designed filter are replaced by the modified Carry-Select Adders (CSLA), which is mostly used in Digital Up Converter (DUC). The proposed filter can be reconfigured with one of three different interpolation factors of 4, 6, and 8 for 25, 37, and 49-taps filters respectively and one of two roll-off factors. The basic element of a filter is multiplier and 2-bit Binary Common Sub expression Elimination (BCSE) algorithm is used in the design of the multiplier in this work. It is a two-step optimization technique of designing a reconfigurable VLSI architecture of interpolation filter to reduce the number of slices required for the filter. The maximum operating frequency analysis is carried out using Xilinx Synthesis Tool (XST) and Cadence software.

Fractal Antenna as a Multiband Antenna for WiMAX Applications

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 22nd January 2018

K.L.Rupika | K.Vijay Bhargav, K.Srinu, G.Anjaneyulu

Abstract

With the advancement in antenna technology, there is a great need of a low profile, multi and wide band antennas for wireless communication. Fractal antennas are different from others because of their self-similarity and space filling properties. Fractal micro strip patch antennas have small size, light weight and support multiple frequencies. In this paper, a multiband square fractal antenna is designed and analyzed. This antenna is a direct fed and has truncated ground plane. Antenna properties such as return loss, gain, VSWR, and Bandwidth are analyzed and discussed in this present work. Design and Analysis of fractal antenna is done by using software named HFSS (High Frequency Structural Simulator). This antenna can be used for Wi-Fi and WiMAX applications.

Free Space Optics Link Performance Comparision at Variable Data Rates

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 22nd August 2017

P Mahesh Kumar | Mr. P.Rangaswamy

Abstract

FSO innovation offers the capability of broadband correspondence limit utilizing unlicensed optical wavelengths. FSO is an autonomous convention that can be settled to any system topology. Regardless of the possibility that an observable pathway state of Free Space Optics (FSO) is fulfilled, environmental instigated blurring, dissipating, and lessening may seriously disintegrate the accessibility of the correspondence interface. In this paper the proposed FSO connect with interface scope of 500 meters and at wavelength of 1550 nm is reproduced under powerless turbulence conditions and the connection execution is assessed at various information rates

Frequency Synchronization Using OFDM in Long Term Evolution

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 22nd January 2018

Mihila L | Chithra M

Abstract

Multi-carrier modulation has been used in many wired and wireless communications. It was used in many military high frequency radios, audio-video broad casting and DSL. Multi-carrier modulation can be digitally implemented using Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM).Inter symbol Interference can be completely avoided in OFDM by inserting cyclic prefixes. In OFDM wide band channel breaks into multiple parallel narrow band channels. Fast Fourier transform and Inverse fast fourier transform in the OFDM system makes the circuit simple, cheap and low cost. Long Term Evolution (LTE) introduced by third generation partnership project is an emerging standard for high speed wireless communications. This standard benefits from the OFDM technology in the down link which provides several advantages, includes high bandwidth efficiency, fit to multipath fading and simplicity of equalizer. OFDM in LTE is a candidate for air interface in fourth generation cellular system. OFDM systems in LTE transforms frequency selective wide band channels into a group of non-selective narrow band channels. OFDM is susceptible to disturbances like CFO. Time and frequency synchronization of OFDM avoids the disturbances in OFDM.Thus synchronization is an essential part in the receiver section of OFDM. The VHDL language is used for coding, Synthesis can be done in Xilinx ISE Design Suite 13.2 and simulation can be done with Model Sim 6.3f.

Fruits and Leafs Disease Detection using Naive Bayes Algorithm

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 23rd June 2017

Pramod D Huddar | S Sujatha

Abstract

India is an agricultural country wherein most of the population depends on agriculture. Research in agriculture is aimed towards increase of productivity and food quality at reduced expenditure, with increased profit. Here in this paper using naive bayes algorithm we will be storing the data and with help of probability we will be checking for different leaves and fruits weather they are effected with disease or not, if yes characteristics of the disease will also be know. This project is implemented in matlab with help of image processing technique

Future Awareness -Based Novel Routing Algorithm for Wireless Sensor Networks

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 21st July 2017

Neha M S | Sarala S M

Abstract

As a booming technology wireless sensor network (WSN)has become a prominent tool for most of the important applications which includes home security, battle-field surveillance, agriculture, biomedical, etc., Energy is a key issue in WSNs as they include battery driven sensor nodes which cannot be instantaneously charged or restored. Hence an energy conserving routing protocol is designed, which minimizes the energy utilization and also improves the life span of the network. Proposed algorithm involves the inter-cluster data transmission, where the cluster head (CH) is selected firstly based on the transmission area in the forward direction, so as to eliminate the backward transmission of data and secondly based on energy density of that area and the next hop node called cooperative node is selected based on the remaining energy of the sensor nodes. The performance of the proposed algorithm is evaluated by comparing with Energy Efficient Uneven Clustering and Low Energy Adaptive Clustering Hierarchy protocols.

Future Trends in Distributed Renewable Systems

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 22nd January 2018

Suresh Mer | Seema Dudhe, Santosh Suryawanshi

Abstract

This paper gives a review of Future Trends in Distributed Renewable Energy System. Distributed Renewable Systems (DER) or Distributed Generation (DG) systems are small-scale, on-site power sources located at or near customersí homes or businesses. Some common examples include rooftop solar panels, energy storage devices ,fuel cells, micro turbines, small wind, and combined heat and power systems. Customers with these types of generation systems connect to the local electric grid and use the grid both to buy power from their local electric company during times when their DG Systems are not producing enough to meet their needs and to sell power to their electric Company when their systems are producing more electricity than is needed.

Fuzzy Based Control in Piezo Power-Driven Generation Using Boulevard Traffic

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 28th December 2017

Rakesh B S | Kavya S Neela, Meghana S N, Nethravathi J

Abstract

This paper presents the basic idea of generating power using Piezoelectric effect by road traffic. The concept of generating energy from road traffic is implemented by using piezoelectric materials. The system design structure was proposed considering the factors involved with material science for piezoelectric generator modelling and field of power electronics for additional components in producing a realistic outcome. It also ensures ease of vehicle performance, as this system utilizes energy source derived as the kinetic energy released from vehicles or the pressure developed by the vehicles into electrical power output, that is, obtained by harnessing kinetic energy due to the strain of vehicles over the road surface. The power generated using piezoelectric materials is interconnected with the power electronics system. The interconnected system power output power is optimised and stabilized using a fuzzy based controller in the feedback. The MATLAB Simelectronics and fuzzy logic toolbox are used along with Simscape to develop this Piezoelectric generation and fuzzy algorithm.

Fuzzy Controlled Myoelectric Arm using Lab VIEW

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 22nd January 2018

Mishel Ann Mathew | Nimisha Mohan P, NimithaThampy, VidhyaRaveendranath,K M Abubeker

Abstract

The technology of myoelectric arm is developing day by day to make it more beneficial for the patients .This paper describes the design of myoelectric-controlled partial-hand prosthesis to help physically disabled people, who had traffic or industrial accident and the lost function. The proposal focuses mainly on extract electromyogram (EMG) signals generatedduring contraction of the biceps. The detected EMG signals must first be processed, digitized, and converted to Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) signals, which are then used to control the designed prosthesis mechanism. The knowledge required to implement the proposed prosthesis design project thus covers signal-processing techniques, labview interface design, and a scheme for controlling a servomotor mechanism.

Fuzzy Membership Function Based Localization of Spinal Cord in Computer Tomographic Images

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 7th February 2018

K.Malathy | 

Abstract

Automatic segmentation of bone in computed tomography (CT) images is critical for the implementation of computer-assisted diagnosis which has increasing potential in the evaluation of various spine disorders. Of the many techniques available for delineating the region of interest (ROI), active contour methods (ACM) are well-established techniques that are used to segment medical images. The project presents a methodology for automatic contour initialization in ACM and demonstrates the applicability of the method for medical image segmentation from spinal CT images. Initially, a set of feature markers from the image is extracted to construct an initial contour for the ACM. A fuzzified corner metric, based on image intensity, is proposed to identify the feature markers to be closed by the contour. A concave hull based on őĪ shape is constructed using these fuzzy corners to give the initial contour. The results show the method's robust performance in the presence of different noise levels

Gaussian Noise Removal from Gray Scale & Color Images by Using Adaptive Window Techniques

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 22nd January 2018

Priyanka Katkar | 

Abstract

Information transmitted in the form of digital images is important part of communication system, but restored image obtained after transmission is often corrupted with noise. The restored image needs processing before it can be used in applications. Aim of the image processing is to visually enhance some aspect of an image which is not readily apparent in its original form. Image processing gives greater perception & vision but it does not add any information content. Image captured by any system is the degraded version of an original image. The degradation is due to sensing environment when it acquire through optical, electro optical and electronics medium. It is necessary to restore such image for further image processing & other tasks. By keeping the integrity of the image information, Gaussian noise removal is a critical issue. The function of the proposed algorithm is to replace each corrupted pixel is by alpha trimmed value of pixels inside an adaptive window. Using threshold which is calculated from noise variance the adaptive window is formed. According to Peak signal to noise ratio (PSNR) performance proposed algorithm is better and effective for images which are highly corrupted by Gaussian noise

Generation of YUV Color Channels for TMO Images Ė An Analysis

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 22nd January 2018

N. Neelima | K. Ravindra, Y. Ravikumar

Abstract

Tone mapping is a technique used in image processing to map one set of colors to another to approximate the appearance of high dynamic range images to a medium that has more limited dynamic range. Tone Mapping Operators (TMOs) mostly operate on the image luminance channel intensities. In this paper, a Rani TMO has been proposed. Its performance is compared with three important tone mapping operators named Durand, Drago and Raman and analyzed for YUV color spaces. These results are obtained by first converting HDR image to LDR image using TMOs then processed for YUV color spaces. Objective assessment parameters such as MSE, mean, median, Luminance, PSNR and mPSNR have been calculated. The results reveals that proposed Rani TMO is more efficient compared to other TMOs. The work presented in this paper finds applications in the fields of remote sensing, digital photography, image editing and virtual reality.

Gesture Machine Learning and Recognition Rate Change using Multi Class Classification

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 24th July 2017

JangYeol Lee | Earl Kim, ChoonSung Nam,DongRyeol Shin

Abstract

The contact type gesture acquisition method is a method of specifying the threshold value and recognizing the gesture when the threshold value is exceeded. Since this method does not take into account other conditions depending on gender, age, and height, it is a problem of lowering the recognition rate when using the specified threshold value. In addition, the Threshold method can not guarantee the scalability of the Gesture because it has a limitation to add the operation of Gesture. In this paper, we apply the machine learning to the gesture to solve the problem of the existing threshold method and examine the recognition rate. We classify three gestures (rock-scissor-paper) obtained by contact device using multi class classification algorithm and conduct experiment to improve recognition rate. We perform three experiments to understand recognition rate improvement. First, we examine the recognition rate change according to the learning dataset size. Second, we examine the recognition rate when some sections of gesture data are learned and finally the recognition rate when smoothing is applied to gesture data. The results show that the recognition rate increases as the feature value of the gesture data becomes clearer, and the recognition rate of the gesture increases from 63% to 97%

GNU Radio-USRP-MATLAB based Laboratory set-up for Digital Modulation Schemes

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 11th June 2018

Samiksha Awachat | Shivani Sharma, Shraddha Dhavale, Gourish Pisal, M.H.Naikwadi

Abstract

The process of changing some characteristics of waveform with respect to the characteristics of other waveform is called modulation. To reduce practical antenna length, improve radiation efficiency of an antenna and to increase the operating range this process is needed. In digital modulation techniques there are different schemes such as BPSK, QPSK, QAM, PAM etc. The study, analysis, simulation and implementation of these techniques on different platforms are necessary such as MATLAB/SIMULINK, GNU radio and hardware platform like USRP. In this paper we have discussed about two basic techniques BPSK & QPSK and evaluated their parameters like constellation plot and BER using GNU radio on USRP and compared it with MATLAB results

Gps Based Hawk Eye Ė Unmanned Aerial Vehicle

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 22nd January 2018

Mr. R. Arangasamy | Mr. S.Satheesh Kumar AP,R. Aravindhan, P. Muralidaran,E.Santhosh

Abstract

Robotics is an upcoming field in the present trend. Micro and Nano-electronic systems have their equal share in robotics. With the usual aid of future in mind, this paper deals with the application of robotics for human welfare which possibly is a way to analyze, summarize, record, observe and comfort a havoc situation. The usage of reasonable cost materials and open source electronics with optimum coding acquaintances that can yield a better understanding of an environment and to protect the life in it is the purpose. Arduino open source boards which come along with the Arduino software forms the base for the system. The system runs the various accessories from the I/O ports of the board. Vision sensors, infrared sensors, altitude sensor, proximity sensor and GPS devices are connected. Using the APM and manual control operations the bot can be controlled and operated. Further this Bot can work on its own i.e. it uses Artificial Intelligence to counter all obstacles and provide the data to the nearest base station. Its main application is to save human life from risks and enhance accuracy over menaced places.

GPU Accelerated Image Processing using Bilateral Filter

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 22nd January 2018

Sonal D. Nikhade | Mayuri L. Kale, Krutika Y. Bhagwatkar,Anjali B. walke, Dhiraj K. Thote

Abstract

The future of computation is the GPU, i.e. Graphical Processing Unit. They are developing into great parallel computing units with the promise that the graphics cards have shown in the field of image processing and the computational capability that these GPUs possess. Compute Unified Device Architecture i.e. CUDA is NVIDIAís parallel computing architecture. It enables dramatic increase in computing performance, by completely harnessing the power of the GPU. Initially we generate a MATLAB code for image processing using bilateral filter, and then we interface GPU with CPU using CUDA and create the related code of image processing for GPU for this filter. By changing the values of distinct parameters of the images, we have obtained variations in the output images and their corresponding computational time on CPU as well as on GPU. Further these computational times are compared and it is observed that the time taken by the GPU is 70 to 80% less than that of CPU.

Grape Farmland Monitoring Using Wireless Sensor Network

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 22nd January 2018

Soumya G S | Swathi C , Vishal khade , Karthik L B , Mrs A Poonguzhali

Abstract

In this paper, we have proposed the system for monitoring the growing status of the Grape plants continuously and intimate the agriculturist using wireless sensor network (WSN). The upsurge increase in the technological and scientific innovation makes advancement in agricultural field. But in practice, cultivator faces too much effort in the farmland. This paper makes eases the work of the farmer in cultivated land through the usage of different kind of sensors. The humidity sensor will compute the moisture level in the corn field, if the level decreases, then it automatically switches ON the DC motor. Another sensor is Water level sensor will anticipate the water level, if the water level aloft the level then it switches OFF the motor. All the particulars of farmland are sending to the farmer through GSM and revel in the LCD screen. The temperature sensor will find the intensity of heat present in the soil. PH sensor is used to find the soil alkalinity which is essential for plant nutrition. With this less cost and energy utilization, WSN is a hopeful method for harvesting the grape crop and also improves the quality of the Grape crop and reduces the usage of pesticides, thereby increasing the overall profits for the farmers.

Greenhouse Monitoring Using Advance Sensors & Biogenetic Technology

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 22nd January 2018

MayurHulke | Radhabhoyar,Radhikasabnis,Juileesathone,Achal p. pannase

Abstract

Agriculture in India is faced with many dare such as more production of food on fewer acres to keeping to outdated farming technologies. We can make rely farming on sensor technology. Sensor network has elaborated advantages in greenhouse environment.The technology shows that the network stability is good, the data is consistent with real conditional environment, and thus sensor technology can meet the requirements in the applications.

Greenhouse Parameter Monitoring & Controlling Using GSM

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 16th April 2018

Pallavi V. Yadav | Komal L. Sonwane, Nishigandha B. Magar, Aishwarya B. Gund, Yogesh S. Ghodake

Abstract

Greenhouse monitoring is a needed one for Variable climate changes. GSM technologies have been rapidly developing wireless technology during few years. Starting from industrial controls and telecommunications, it is now being applied in environmental applied in environmental monitoring and agriculture. The existing system has the ability to yet lack the ability to control indoor humidity and other parameters. This project is used to measure various parameters like temperature, humidity, and light and soil moisture. Values of these sensors are displayed on an LCD. These parameters are sensed by sensors and sensor output is applied and given to ADC. The microcontroller controls these parameters and keeps them at some predefined values using relay interface. At the same time, these current values of all parameters are sent through SMS using a GSM modem

GSM Based Remote Energy Meter Monitoring USING RASPBERRY-Pi Board

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 22nd January 2018

Neha Jodhe | Oshin Ramteke,Priti Kapse,Priya Gaydhane,Shubhangi Gedam,Shraddha Waghmare

Abstract

GSM Based Remote Energy Meter Monitoring Using RASPBERRY-PI Board is used to continuously monitor the meter reading and give weekly information about the number of units consumed along with its cost to the consumer and electricity department. Major components used in this project are RASPBERRY-PI board, GSM model, LCD display, energy meter circuit, and load. RASPBERRY-PI is a credit card size minicomputer developed in UK. It acts as a fast processor system. RASPBERRY_PI is a central unit of this project. RASPBERRY_PI board is connected to monitor, GSM, LCD, and energy meter through various ports. In this project consumption of energy through variable load stored in an internal memory location of RASPBERRY-PI board. ADE 7757 IC counts the number of units consumed which get displayed on a LCD display along with its cost. The same information is provided to the electricity department through GSM Modem. This system enables the electricity service provider to read meter reading regularly without the person visiting each house so that manual meter reading will get reduced. Customers will get weekly update regarding power consumption through SMS. Power theft can be detected as this system gives information about the no. of units consumed along with its cost.

GSM Based Securing For Smart Car Parking System Using LABVIEW

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 22nd January 2018

K.R.Prabha | P.Sakthivel , R.Pradeep Kumar , P.Naveen Prasath

Abstract

The main aim of this proposed system is to develop a smart car parking system. This system not only helps in parking of the vehicle but it also helps the user in finding the free space along with a security system. This is just a step forward to reduce the traffic created on the roadsides due to parking of vehicles. Each and every Public places like offices, shopping malls; Entertainment Plazas have a major problem for finding free space for parking along with a security system. Even after finding space for parking a human power is getting completely wasted for the whole day to maintain the parking system which is practiced now a day with the platform of GSM and Lab VIEW a smart car parking System is to be designed. The major task performed by this proposed system is, helping the user in finding the available free space with the help of sensors. Automatic token monitoring system and along with that the system is developed in such a way that it avoids and protects itself from accidents that is, it stops automatically when it finds an obstacles. This system satisfies the major requirements of a parking system. This system will be smarter than the existing system to a greater extent.

GSM Based Water Theft Detection System

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 22nd January 2018

Poonam P. Patil | Shraddha A. Kumbhar , Ashwini S. Koshti , Ayesha I. Nejkar

Abstract

Water represents a primary necessity, for everybody's daily life and for an effective accomplishment of many industrial processes. In the most remote and isolated regions, as in the most urbanized ones, water provisioning to domestic premises represents a fundamental living necessity. In todayís current scenario consumption and utilization of water has increased to a greater extent as a result of this anyone can theft the water easily by taking outlet from main pipeline. Water theft or unauthorized consumption is a potential illegal use of the water, water theft can be in the form of a straight unauthorized fire hydrant usage a struct meter or unauthorized usage. In this project it is proposed to develop the GPS system based water theft and leakage prevention.

GSM controlled robot

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 22nd August 2017

Saranya S | Lavanya E, Keerthana H, Pavithra G N

Abstract

In the past few decades there is rapid development in GSM controlled robotic. It plays an important role in the world wide economy. "GSM controlled wireless robot" is automatic robots which is capable of receiving a set of instructions in the form of short message service and perform the necessary motion[1]. Remote system allows the user to effectively monitor and control the robot using mobile phone. The robots Movement can be controlled and navigated by microcontroller without any limitation. The aim of this paper is to identify the error caused in the motor by using the buzzer.

Haemoglobin Measurement Using Non Invasive Technique

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 22nd January 2018

Chaitali Dilip Haldankar | 

Abstract

Haemoglobin is the protein molecule in red blood cells that carries oxygen from the lungs to the body's tissues and returns carbon dioxide from the tissues back to the lungs. Haemoglobin is made up of four protein molecules (globulin chains) that are connected together. The normal adult haemoglobin (Hbg) molecule contains two alpha-globulin chains and two beta-globulin chains. Haemoglobin is usually measured as a part of the complete blood count (CBC) test from a blood sample. There are several invasive methods for determining Hb concentration. Invasive methods include clinical examination and referencing the colour of a drop of blood on filter paper to a standardized colour comparison chart. Here is an attempt to design a system for non-invasive haemoglobin monitoring . A total description of setup for noninvasive haemoglobin monitoring using near infrared is presented. It includes projection of near infrared radiation on a figure of subject and sensing the resultant radiation after absorbance by haemoglobin .Here the haemoglobin count is attributed to the voltage level which are standardized through a series of experiment and analysis

Hardware Demonstration of a Home Energy Management System forManaging End-use Appliances.

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 22nd January 2018

Pavani C | M. Murali Krishna

Abstract

A Home Energy Management (HEM) system plays a crucial role in realizing residential Demand Response (DR) programs in the smart grid environment. It provides a homeowner the ability to automatically perform smart load controls based on utility signals, customerís preference and load priority. This paper presents the hardware demonstration of the proposed HEM system for managing end-use appliances. The Hemís communication time delay to perform load control is analyzed, along with its residual energy consumption. In general, an HEM unit comprises:a) an embedded device running a GUIsoftware application, which includes a DR algorithmthat serves as the brain of the HEM system. It makes a decisionto switch ON/OFF selected end-use appliances based onthe utility signal received, as well as homeownerís load priorityand preference settings. It is also responsible for collecting electricalconsumption data from all load controllers and providingan interface for homeowners to retrieve appliancesí status andreview their power consumption; andb) An HEM communication module, which provides communication paths between theHEM unit and its load controllers. This module is attached tothe HEM unit and enables the HEM unit to send load controlcommands to all load controllers, and receive responses back.A Linux with a Zig Bee-enabled communicationmodule is used as the HEM unit for this demonstration. The concept will be implemented on a Single Board computer containing ARM 9 Processor an Embedded device with embedded Linux. The hardware components used in this project Friendly ARM Mini 2440 (Single-Board Computer) with 400 MHz Samsung S3C2440 ARM9 processor, Zigbee Modules, Light, Motor, 8051 microcontroller. The softwareís used OS: Embedded Linux2.6.32, Language: C++, IDE: Qt Creator2.1.0.

Hardware Simulation for Bio-Signal Acquisition System

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 22nd January 2018

Ravi M | Suma K V

Abstract

Designing an amplifier board for Bio-signal amplification and filtering requires both software based simulation and hardware implementation of design and testing. There are many tools available today like LabViewTM, multisimTM etc for software simulation with available components. But hardware testing becomes difficult as the bio-signals are very low amplitude and low frequency signals and can be easily affected by coupling noise running through wires on breadboard and in the surrounding. The final testing requires PCB fabrication with proper noise reduction. It is a much time consuming and costly process as it requires multiple PCB to be fabricated for testing of each design. To solve this issue a single simulation board is designed in which all the stages in Bio-Signal amplifier stages are designed with proper noise reduction techniques. MultisimTM is used for simulation of each stage and final PCB is designed with proper noise reduction.

Hardware Trojans, A State Of The Art

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 22nd January 2018

Sudeendra kumar K | K.K. Mahapatra

Abstract

Time to market demand has forced integrated circuit design, manufacturing and testing to be done at different places across globe. This approach has led to numerous security concerns like overbuilding of chips from foundries, IP protection, counterfeiting and hardware Trojans. In this work, we focus on hardware Trojans in chips. In the process of finding the answer to above mentioned security issues, we present literature survey, interim results and a holistic view on possible future work. We also present the case study of hardware Trojans.

Headlight Switch Control using Raspberry Pi

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 21st July 2017

Asha Rani A.R | Rishabh Nandwana,Rohit Kumar Singh,Samruddhi Kolekar,Sunil Jakhar

Abstract

Accidents which have occurred in the past few years have increased at a massive rate and there has been no significant measures taken by the authorities to control the figures. Automobile industries have become very competitive on their customer base to grow day by day which makes them decrease the price of a vehicle by compromising on the safety features ultimately resulting to more accidents. Accidents in the night time are even more deadly which is mostly due to the oncoming vehicles headlight. Hence to overcome accidents a step is taken by proposing an effective system for detecting vehicles captured through the camera assistance. This system helps driver to automatically switch between the high beam and low beam on detection of a vehicles headlight which further avoids the glare.

Hetero Motive Glove For Hearing And Speaking Impaired Using Hand Gesture Recognition

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 22nd January 2018

Mr. Jenyfal Sampson | Keerthiga V, Mona P, Rajha Laxmi A

Abstract

Gestures help us decipher meaning in communication. A gesture is a form of non-verbal communication, in which visible body actions communicate particular messages, either in place of or in conjunction with speech. Gestures include movement of the hands, face or other parts of the body. People move their hands while they talk, resulting in gestures. Gesture is even found in individuals who are blind from birth. Thinking of this hand gestures in communication, gives the idea of helping mute people to communicate in the normal way with others. Generally mute people use sign language for communication but they find it difficult to communicate with others who donít understand sign language. This system consists of a glove attached with flex sensors and an accelerometer sensor. With the help of these sensors, the movements of the fingers are captured and the captured informationís are processed and the information is fed into the speaker. And to make it as a two way communication, we are capturing the speech of normal person and displaying it on an LCD screen, so that a normal person and a mute person can communicate at ease. We will be using Bluetooth for the signal transmission, incorporating the same with the help of Arduino. This can be easily handled and will be a gift to the mute people.

Hetero Motive Glove For Hearing And Speaking Impaired Using Hand Gesture Recognition

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 22nd January 2018

Mr. Jenyfal Sampson | Keerthiga V, Mona P, Rajha Laxmi A

Abstract

Human body is effectively tested only by the heartbeat. Based on the heartbeat rate many diseases can be found. In this paper, we have proposed effective method for detecting heartbeat. This method overcome the difficulties in the previous methods proposed like, subject movement in the unrealistic environment etc. The proposed method detects the feature point using GFT and SDM in Facial video. Before this Face quality Assessment is also included. This need to be tested on the MAHNOB-HCI database which includes realistic scenarios. This method will achieve good experimental performance. Gestures help us decipher meaning in communication. A gesture is a form of non-verbal communication, in which visible body actions communicate particular messages, either in place of or in conjunction with speech. Gestures include movement of the hands, face or other parts of the body. People move their hands while they talk, resulting in gestures. Gesture is even found in individuals who are blind from birth. Thinking of this hand gestures in communication, gives the idea of helping mute people to communicate in the normal way with others. Generally mute people use sign language for communication but they find it difficult to communicate with others who donít understand sign language. This system consists of a glove attached with flex sensors and an accelerometer sensor. With the help of these sensors, the movements of the fingers are captured and the captured informationís are processed and the information is fed into the speaker. And to make it as a two way communication, we are capturing the speech of normal person and displaying it on an LCD screen, so that a normal person and a mute person can communicate at ease. We will be using Bluetooth for the signal transmission, incorporating the same with the help of Arduino. This can be easily handled and will be a gift to the mute people.

Heterogenous Documents Using Hierarchical Dirichlet Process

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 22nd January 2018

Gopi Krishna L | Sandeep Naramgari

Abstract

the hierarchical data groupings in text corpus, e.g., words, sentences, and documents, we conduct the structural learning and infer the latent themes and topics for sentences and words from a collection of documents, respectively. The relation between themes and topics under different data groupings is explored through an unsupervised procedure without limiting the number of clusters. A tree stick-breaking process is presented to draw theme proportions for different sentences. We build a hierarchical theme and topic model, which flexibly represents the heterogeneous documents using Bayesian nonparametric. Thematic sentences and topical words are extracted. In the experiments, the proposed method is evaluated to be effective to build semantic tree structure for sentences and the corresponding words. The superiority of using tree model for selection of expressive sentences for document summarization

Heuristic Approach for Network Lifetime Enhancement in Wireless Sensor Networks

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 22nd January 2018

L.Srimenaga | M.Maheswari

Abstract

By using the mobile sink, we can reduce the energy consumption of nodes and to prevent the formation of energy holes in wireless sensor networks(WSNs)and this was mainly used for delay-sensitive applications within a given time constraint. My approach is that mobile sink node only visits rendezvous point(RPs) and this may be opposed to all the nodes. In this sensor nodes not having rendezvous point(RPs) means multihopping can be done to the nearest RPs.To computing a tour, that visits all these RPs.Calculating the optimal tour is an NP-hard problem. To address the problem called as weighted rendezvous planning(WRP)is proposed, there by each sensor node is assigned a weight to its hop distance.WRP is to be validated through computer simulation and our WRP as a mobile sink to retrieve all sensed data within a given time constraint.WRP reduces energy consumption by 22% and increases network lifetime by 44%.

Heuristic Optimization Techniques For Node Localization In Wireless Sensor Networks

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 31st May 2017

Panyammary Kalyani | Dr. Tirumala Ramashri

Abstract

Wireless sensor networks(WSN) has a wide range of applications in different domains such as environmental monitoring , disaster management ,target tracking, military affairs etc. In WSN the sensors are randomly deployed in the sensor field and hence estimation of the localization of each deployed node has drawn more attention by the recent researchers.Node localization in Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs), plays a critical role In this paper some popular bio inspired optimization method Hybrid PSOGA is compared with the recent optimization method known as Firefly algorithm. This paper conducts experimental simulation, comparison and evaluation work in the node localization using Firefly algorithm and Hybrid PSOGA by considering distance factor and improved objective function . Giving the distances between a sensor and a few of its 1-hop neighbors, the proposed algorithm can estimate the sensor positions. Simulation results show that the proposed method can achieve better results than those obtained from the HybridPSOGA.

High Efficiency Low Complexity Chase Architecture for Reed-Solomon Decoder of RS(255,K)

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 22nd January 2018

Remalli Dinesh | Sandeep Bansal,Damandeep Singh, Shaik Shabeena

Abstract

In contrast to all existing ASD soft-decision decoding concepts for RS codes, only low-complexity chase algorithm can attain improved tradeoff in performance-complexity with significant coding gain on HDD with polynomial complexity. LCC decoding scheme utilized 2 ? test vectors having less computational complexity in addition to enhanced coding gain. Instead of short RS codes, LCC decoding is required to interpolate bulk of test vectors which results in long latency. Therefore, interpolations as well as polynomial selection are hefty part of LCC decoder with long RS code and significant value of ?. Besides, innovative designs being developed to alter the interpolation and polynomial complexity for the efficient recovery of the codeword for the given test vectors in LCC decoding. So, toward the codeword recovery for an RS (n, k) code erasure decoding, Neilson algorithm, coordinate transformation etc. being applied on the RS code segment. Also Chine search method can be applied over the interpolation output and it can be realized through constant multipliers which save the cost factor. For the selected 8 test vectors applied on RS (255, k) efficiency can be lead up to very high with power reduction for GF (210).

High Performance FIR Filter Architecture for Fixed and Reconfigurable Applications

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 16th August 2017

Pallavi Rahunath Yewale | Aparna Shinde

Abstract

The FIR filter with transposed structure has resister between the adders and can achieve high throughput without adding any extra pipeline resister. Transpose form finite impulse response (FIR) filter is a pipelined structure which supports the multiple constant multiplications (MCM) technique but direct form FIR filter structure does not support MCM technique. The direct form FIR filter needs extra pipeline register between the adder to reduce the delay of an adder tree and to achieve high throughput. The MCM is more effective in Transpose form when the common operand is multiple with the set of constant coefficients that reduce the computational delay. The implementation of MCM technique is easier in fixed coefficient Transpose form FIR filter but complex in reconfigurable coefficients. In fixed coefficients transpose FIR filter, area and delay are reduced by using MCM technique. The low-complexity design using the MCM technique is implemented for fixed coefficients transpose form FIR filters and multiplier-based design is used for reconfigurable transpose form FIR filter. The implemented transpose form FIR filter structure achieved less area and delay than the direct-form FIR filter structure. The XILINX software tool is used for simulation.

High Power High-efficiency GaN Class E Power Amplifier for Commercial Defence

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 16th April 2018

Anil M. Birajdar | 

Abstract

In this paper, a class E power amplifier in GaN on SiC HEMT process with high efficiency for Commercial Defence application is presented. The proposed class E amplifier in 3.0-3.5 GHz band delivers 112-136 W output power with power added efficiency better than 60% and drain efficiency better than 65%. PA demonstrates a large signal gain of 11 dB at 1 dB compression point. These results are verified by harmonic balance simulations

High Speed FSK Ultra Wide Band Transmitter

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 22nd January 2018

Grace Paul N. | 

Abstract

Ultra Wide Band (UWB) technology is a developing wireless technology which promises high data rate short distance communication. In this paper, propose an advanced method for generating UWB signal for many UWB related applications. Important area of application is Wireless Local Area Network (WLAN). The basic idea of the work is to develop pulses of nanosecond range for the UWB transmission and transmit using Frequency Shift Scheme (FSK) modulation scheme. Simulation of the transmitter section is done using High Frequency System Simulate (HFSS) tool. A micro-strip patch antenna is simulated for the transmission of signal, which gives maximum radiation in the transmitted signal frequency.

High Voltage Capacitor Discharge during Crash in Automobiles

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 22nd January 2018

Sunitha S | Dr. R. Karthikeyan

Abstract

During a vehicle crash or other vehicle damaging event, may cause unwanted electrical connections and the discharge of various fluids from the vehicle to occur. Because of the significant electrical power that is stored in the HV capacitor connected in parallel with the high voltage battery, it could cause potentially hazardous situations, such as electrifying of vehicle parts, fire hazards etc. The system/method disclosed here is of discharging a high voltage capacitor in the event of a crash. This system includes a discharge circuit having a HV battery, and a load for discharging the battery.

High-Speed, Low Area and Energy Efficient 32bit Carry Skip Adder using verilog HDL

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 22nd January 2018

Konduru Lakshmi  | Bhanu Prakash Reddy, Dr.S.Vijaya Kumar

Abstract

Adders are basic essential component used in DSPs Processors and Digital filters and widely used in the Digital Integrated Circuits and also in Analog ICs.In this paper, a carry skip adder structure that has a higher speed, Low area as well as lower energy consumption compared with other adders is presented. The speed and reduction in the design area can be achieved by using ďHYBRID MUXĒ instead of conventional MUX for skip logic in the existing method. In addition, instead of utilizing compound gates (AOI&OAI), the proposed structure makes use of ďHYBRID MUXĒ for the skip logic. The Proposed structure assessed by comparing their speed, delay, area & energy parameters with those of other adders using a 45-nm static CMOS technology. The results that are obtained by Xilinx tool. Simulation reveals, on average 45% and 40% improvements in the delay &energy, respectively compared with conventional one. The power delay product is the lowest among all adders.

Home Automation using IOT

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 28th December 2017

N.Bhuvaneswari | Navya.V, Shreya.K, Sandhya.P, Anushree N.R

Abstract

The ‚ÄúIOT based Interactive Controlling and Monitoring System for home automation‚ÄĚ is a new technological advancement which can control and monitor devices nor only for home automation but any real-life appliances remotely. Any automation project using an embedded system like PIC Microcontroller provides an intelligent, low cost, energy preserving system for homes, schools, hospitals.The main objective of this paper is to design and provide implementation details of IOT based ICMS for home as well as for any real-life applications to automatically switch on/off lights, fans, gas, curtains ,gates using sensors, which is capable of controlling and automating most of the real-life appliances through an easy manageable android based interface. The same project can be scaled up in distributed systems for any real-life application.

Home Automation using Lab VIEW

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 22nd January 2018

Rebecca Rajan | Praveena Richu Jacob,Priya Papechen,Priya Antony,Binu C. Pillai

Abstract

Home automation is an application of ubiquitous computing in which the home environment is monitored by ambient intelligence. It leads to the concept of smart home. Smart home is a house that uses information technology to monitor the environment, control the electric appliances and communicates with the outer world with the help of data acquisition in LabVIEW software. It has an intelligent control over the activities performed frequently in daily life to achieve more comfortable and safety life. This system is based on the LabVIEW software which controls home and also act as a security guard of the home. It is a complex technology, at the same time it is developing. The system has temperature monitoring and controlling system, internal and external lighting systems and burglar alarm system to ensure family security. The system also has internet connection to monitor and control house equipments from anywhere in the world. It can send warning messages to the user as e-mail. The approach comprises of both hardware and software technologies. The aim of this project is to map the processes yielding optimal utilization of smart home technology, to ensure as many users as possible having access to the technology most relevant for their needs.

Home Automation using SCADA & IOT

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 22nd August 2017

Niranjan L | Nethravathi V, Bhavya Shree G, Nethravathi G, Rithu Shah

Abstract

This paper explores the possibility of providing home automation which is not a recent boom in smart-home and has thrust it straight into the spotlight. It involves the control and automation of lighting, heating, air conditioning and security. Often Wi-Fi is used for the remote monitoring and control most of the devices. Here we monitor and control the system via a server with the help of internet. It is connected to a centralized hub as a gateway from which a system is controller with a user interface. The devices status is monitored throughout the functioning of the system and the same information is indicated and displayed on the LCD screen for monitoring purpose in case of any changes in the status of the devices. The same information is updated in the server. Here we are using three sensors for monitoring, Gas sensor for LGP leakage, PIR sensor for intruder detection and FIRE sensor for fire in the premises. Along with this if any one of the sensor triggers the information is sent to the owner via GSM modem. Each individual sensor has its own priority and depend on the status the necessary action is taken.

Home Security through Digital Image Processing based on IoT

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 28th December 2017

R.Deepa | Pooja mattikatti, Sushmitha.S, Swathi,H.B, Triveni.V

Abstract

This paper gives an outline for an automatic system to control and secure the home, based on digital image processing with the help of Internet of Things (IoT). The system consists of a sensor, digital camera, database in the fog and the mobile phone. Sensors are placed in the frame of the door which alerts camera, to capture an image who intends to enter the house, then sends the image to the database or dataset that is stored in the fog. Image analysis is performed to detect and recognize and match the image with the stored dataset of the authenticated people or pets. If the image captured does not match with the dataset, then an alert message is sent to the owner of the house. The image processing algorithms are considered for the processing spatial and time complexity of the image captured to cross check with the dataset stored in the fog.

Human Aura: The Human Body is the Worldís Best Machine of Generating, Transmitting & Receiving of Signals

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 22nd January 2018

Gajjala Ashok | Sagi Naga Kalyani

Abstract

The work is take up with completely different analysis. The paper provides proofing of action of generating modulating resource of signal in human body, this kind of intuition not materialized in technical, physical, engineering research. Everyone knows the concept of Aura, is natural energy associated with all living organisms. But the typical study here is the behavior of human Aura is mysterious. I wonder about Aura, ten years back I had information that the Aura can Expandable maximum up 27 feetís. I started research since past ten years by investigation and experimenting by own ,found so many hidden behaviors of Human Aura. My innovation is ďHuman Body is the best Generation and modulation machine of signals with associate field called Aura. Aura is the Electromagnetic field generated by the human body, the reason for electromagnetic field is the potentials produced by neurons. I found human Aura have four different colors 1) Block 2) Red 3) Yellow 4) White spectrums, every person has only one kind spectrum but we can change spectral characteristics by using certain process. Every person has by nature, have base frequency those are mention above. The paper has information how the interaction happens between different Auras? In that journey, I found 16 possible spectrums and their interaction B-B, R-R, Y-Y, W-W, B-R, B-Y, B-W, R-B, R-Y, R-W, Y-B, Y-R, YW, W-B, W-R, W-Y. Like Kind field interactions emits Low Heat energy and other emits heat , how much quantity is emitted, based on combined patterns.

Human Crowd Anomaly Detection for Video Surveillance

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 14th August 2017

Shreekar Waghela | Shreedarshan K

Abstract

Video surveillance is very essential as threat and crime increases. In this project, a method is proposed in which the behaviour of crowd is detected without individual tracking of objects in a frame. This method is based on the motion intensity of the crowd which can be determined by accumulating all optical flow vectors of a frame. The abnormal crowd activity can then be detected by setting up a threshold to detect any sudden change in motion intensity.

Human Identification Using ECG Feature Extracted From Fiducial and Non-Fiducial Approach

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 22nd January 2018

Chinthana S | Chethana K S

Abstract

Electrocardiogram (ECG) will be employed in clinical identification for cardiac perform. Also, because people have completely different electrocardiogram traces, therefore, they can be non-inheritable as promising biometric options for human identification. According to the utilized options, the existing ECG based mostly biometric systems is classified to fiducial and nonfiducial systems. The identification of fiducial features needs the correct detection of fiducial points that is a terribly difficult task. On the other hand, non-fiducial approaches relax the detection process however typically result in high dimension feature area. This paper presents a combined approach of these two strategies for electrocardiogram primarily based individual identification. A fiducial based approach that utilizes a feature set chosen by local features of heart beats for biometric template style. Furthermore, a non-fiducial wavelet based mostly approach is projected. To avoid the high dimensionality of the resultant wavelet coefficient structure, the structure has been investigated and reduced using principal component analysis. The proposed feature sets were examined and compared using SVM classifier. To the effectiveness of this approach, records from the ECG-ID database using single lead are used to check subject identification, yielding high accuracy in identification.

Human Tracking and Action Recognition Based on k-Nearest Neighbor Classifier

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 22nd January 2018

Shilpashree S | Dr. D.J.Ravi , Jagadeesh B

Abstract

Human tracking and Activity recognition is a field of computer vision which has shown great progress in the past decade. Starting from simple single person activities, research in activity recognition is moving towards more complex scenes involving multiple objects and natural environments. The main challenges in the task include being able to localize and recognize events in a video and deal with the large amount of variation in viewpoint, speed of movement and scale. It has gained more interest of late, among video processing community because they find various applications in automatic surveillance, monitoring systems, video indexing and retrieval, robot motion, human Ė computer interaction and segmentation. The proliferation of surveillance cameras and smart-phones has dramatically changed the video capture landscape. There is more video data generated each day than ever before, it is more diverse and its importance has reached beyond security and entertainment (e.g., healthcare, education, and environment).This project deals with the single person tracking and action recognition of that person. And also it deals with combining the advantages of both tracking and action recognition in a single framework. Here based on STIP single person tracking is done, kNN classifier is used for action classification and recognition. Finally, coding is done in Matlab.

Hybrid Image Classification using ACO with Fuzzy Logic for Textured and Non-Textured Images

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 22nd January 2018

Subba Rao K | Dr. Sambasivarao N , Dr. Sammulal P

Abstract

Classification is the process of arranging the pixels into groups, called clusters that have some common characteristics. In this paper a Hybrid, and yet powerful classification method is proposed, which can be used to classify the textured and nontextured images. Traditional classification methods such as statistical classifiers, knowledge-based systems, and neural networks have number of limitations in classifying the images because of strict assumptions, particularly in the presence of the coarse pixels. The Ant Colony Optimization (ACO) is used to generate classification rules from the training set. Due to feedback property of the ACO, it considers all the changes into account in constructing the rules. These rules are then used in the process of classifying test set of the image. An entropy based fuzzy partitioning along with ACO is used to generate rules. ACO enables to construct simple rules to obtain better performance.

Hydro Pneumatic Riveting Machine

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 22nd January 2018

K.S.Patil | Monika Thumar , Aaditya Sangle , Keshav Yendait

Abstract

The hydro pneumatic riveting machine is used to covers the inner surface of material slowly on every type of shoe by rivet and derive. To get the excellent qualities of energy, force, rigidness and inflexibility heavy duty steel structure is used in the machine . Thus, by combined pneumatic and hydraulic acting system become an high working force using a low quantity of air under pressure greater than that of the atmosphere in which its is treated by taking a gas ,vapor or air at some limited pressure and rescue the air at a high pressure.

Hyper Spectral Image Segmentation of Land Resources Classification Based Kernel Classifier

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 9th February 2018

Nandhini Devi.V | Ahila.A

Abstract

For the classification of hyperspectral images (HSIs), this work presents a novel framework for an automatic system to segment the hyperspectral images. In the HSI, each pixel can be regarded as a shape-adaptive region, which consists of a number of spatial neighbouring pixels with very similar spectral characteristics. First, the proposed methodology adopts an over segmentation algorithm to cluster the HSI into many superpixels. Then, feature extraction is employed for the utilization of the spectral information, as well as spatial information, within and among superpixels. Finally, the hybridized machine learning algorithm is incorporated for the hyperspectral classification. This work introduces particle swarm optimization based support vector machine classifier for the classification. The Pavia database images are collected and simulated on MATLAB R2014a and the exposed results are showing the effectiveness of the proposed methodology

Identification of Bulk CM File Status in EMS

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 22nd January 2018

Kasthuri S | Pawankumar B

Abstract

Cellular 3G-network usually often have poor penetration and response in certain areas such as indoors. A fem to cell is a device that is used to increase the strength of the wireless signal in a small area, mainly indoors. This is a small cellular base station, also known as a wireless access point that connects to the Internet connection and transmits it to the radio in the coverage area. Fem to cells can be deployed in different places and there is a need for a control system to ensure the possibility of FCAPS functionality for this device. Fem to device must be set up and registered on an element management system (EMS). In the process of configuring devices, bulk CM-file is produced, which is loaded and used by the fem to cell. This paper proposes a methodology to register the fem to cell and determine the status of bulk CM file.

Identification of Diseases on Pomegranate Fruit by Image Processing Techniques

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 22nd January 2018

D. S. Gaikwad | K.J. Karande, S.V. Surwase

Abstract

Diseases in fruit causes foremost production and financial losses in farming trade widespread. Present paper gives system to automatically detect the diseases on pomegranate fruit. Image processing is used to examine the diseases on pomegranate fruit. For classification of images support vector machine concept is used. The contaminated pomegranate fruit shows a precise symptoms colored spots that will occur on the pomegranate fruit. Segmentation is used to discover spot in the diseases image that is qualified as diseased area. The bacterial blight and anthracnose fruit spot diseases on pomegranate fruit have been preferred

Identification of Ocular Pathology in retinal fundus images

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 22nd January 2018

C. Sai Praneeth | D.N. Kuldeep Shamgar

Abstract

Automated fundus image analysis plays an important role in the computer diagnosis of ophthalmologic disorders. A lot of eye disorders, as well as cardiovascular disorders, are known to be related with retinal vasculature changes. Many important eye diseases as well as systemic diseases manifest themselves in the retina. While a number of other anatomical structures contribute to the process of vision, this paper focuses on retinal image analysis and their clinical implications. The most prevalent cause of blindness in the industrialized world is age related macular degeneration. Nowadays, the digital retinal image is frequently used to follow-up and diagnoses eye diseases. In age related macular degeneration, the macula is responsible for the sharp central vision needed for detailed activities such as reading, writing, driving, face recognition and ability to see colors. Age related macular degeneration is degeneration of the macula area and the delicate cells of the macula become inactive and stop working. Unfortunately, age related macular degeneration cannot be completely cured, but if diagnosed at an early stage degeneration laser treatment can help some people to prevent further deterioration of macula. The algorithm locates disease affected pixels on macula and displays their location. After pre-processing particle analysis tool is applied to locate the effected parts on the fundus image.

Identification of Seizures in EEG Waves using Determinant Analysis

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 22nd January 2018

Sharanya A R | Chethana K S

Abstract

Electroencephalogram (EEG) signals are electrical signals that are recorded from the scalp. They can be used to carry out the analysis and identification of brain disorders. EEG signal are non-stationary. Feature extraction of EEG always remains as a major because of the non stationary behavior along with their accurate classification. Support vector machines are supervised learning models used for classification & regression analysis. LDA classifiers are also used for classification. The main objective of the proposed work is to identify the seizures in the EEG waves. Real time databases are collected and filtered to remove the noise. Each EEG channel is normalized & trained using Support Vector Machine (SVM) and Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA) classifiers to locate the seizures. Their results are compared based on their performance.

Identification of various writerís handwritten Marathi Text using ORB(oriented fast & rotated brief)

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 22nd January 2018

Shweta Shevgekar | Mrs. Prof. M. S.Deole

Abstract

Handwritten character recognition is a demanding task in the image processing because handwriting varies from person to person. And also handwriting styles, sizes and its orientation make it complex. Applications like, handwritten text in reading bank cheques, Zip Code recognition and for removing the problem of handling documents manually, digital data is necessary. Recognition of handwritten characters using either a scanned document, or direct acquisition of image using Mat lab, followed by the implementation of various other Mat lab toolboxes like Image Processing to process the scanned or acquired image. Here OCR block diagram explained that how character are recognize accurately. Many feature-based algorithms are well-suited for character recognition like like SIFT, Language Independent Text-Line Extraction, Thresholding, Robust, Training, Ullman Algorithm, Structured Learning, ORB(oriented fast & rotated brief), SURF. But Oriented FAST and Rotated BRIEF (ORB) is a very fast binary descriptor which is faster than Scale-invariant feature transform (SIFT), it can be verified through experiments.Fast key point detector and BRIEF descriptor are important because of they have best performance and resonable cost. The recognize method for object recognition is Scale invariant feature transform (SIFT), which is very useful for feature extraction but it is computationally difficult due to its weighty workload required in local feature extraction and matching operation. Therefore for better performance and low complexity,ORB provides better solution.

Identification Of Wheat Rust Disease In Digital Images

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 22nd January 2018

Jishu Varghese Pt | Jyoti Kadam, Swati Kardile, Prof. Roma Jain

Abstract

Rust disease in wheat cause calamitous problems in economic losses and wheat production worldwide .In this paper, a solution for the determination, classification and prevention of wheat rust disease is proposed and experimentally verified. We have composed a scheme that uses image processing techniques. In this scheme some state of the art features are extracted from the segmented image and finally the disease is recognized using template matching technique. This work has been implemented on MATLAB platform. The proposed technique is accurate and economical with small relative error.

Illumination, Attire and Posture Independent Pedestrian Detection

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 19th July 2017

Roshan Baba Kawade | 

Abstract

Pedestrian detection is the process of detecting a person from image or a live processing video. This information is sent to user in the forms of sound or video alarm. It helps the user in taking necessary decisions. Pedestrian detection process comes under security and safety aspect. This paper introduces a concept of machine learning and its consequences. It combines two algorithms, one is motion based detection and another is feature based detection. Both the algorithms complement with each other. Proposed method increased overall accuracy of detection. Motion based detection is a fast detection method which increased speed of detection. Motion based detection faces illumination problem in real time scenarios. This issue is discussed and solved in this paper. Histogram of oriented gradient (HOG) features are used in feature based detection with support vector machine. Support vector machine is a machine learning technique which is capable to classify given features. Depending upon the shapes, appearances and postures of pedestrians, HOG features will be changed. This make detection process more complex

Image Based Visibility and Speed Estimation under Fog Condition

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 22nd January 2018

Jeevan S | Usha L

Abstract

Fog is considered to be one of the causes of road accidents while driving a vehicle. Therefore, In order to reduce the accidents or at least limiting their impact, vehicles are equipped with Advanced Driving Assistance Systems (ADAS). For this reason, there is a need of system which is capable to detect the presence of fog, estimate the visibility distance and maximum speed that the vehicle should travel. It works for day time fog detection on images.

Image Distortion in Restricted Places Using Matlab and Arduino

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 8th May 2018

J.jayageetha | Ramya.R, Valli kannu.R, Srinidhi.R

Abstract

Digital cameras, Smart phones, Tablets, Laptops, etc. are commonly used all around the universe. These gadgets use charge coupled device (CCD) sensor which is called as the heart of a camera. It is responsible for converting the light falling on it into equivalent electric charge and then process it into an electronic signal for capturing image. Places such as banks, courts, theatres, museums, military forces, etc where people are prohibited to capture the images of the sites which are illegal ( i. e) interfering with the privacy or security of the proprietor. Our paper aims at a solution for the above which will detect these cameras at that time of capturing images. After detection of the camera, a strong light source ( i. e) LASER will be focused onto that particular camera’s lens, so that the high lightened image will be distorted due to over exposure of given LASER light. Experiment show that our proposed approach can achieve the state of distorting the image captured in prohibited places where the uniqueness of the pro rietor is taken away by unauthorized person.

Image Fusion with Adaptive- Guided Filtering

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 22nd January 2018

C.Siva Gangi Reddy | G.Tirumala Vasu , Dr.N.Sreekanth

Abstract

A quick and effective image fusion technique is proposed for creating a noticeably informative fused photograph thru merging a couple of photos. The proposed method is to evaluate the categories of wavelets utilized in photograph fusion and to improve the fusion technique by using integrating with Guided filtering method. The results are comparing visually and statistically display that Guided-filtering method can improve the fusion effects, reduces the ringing results to some extents and entire image smoother. Evaluation of the very last consequences is affected by the kinds of wavelets orthogonal, Bi-orthogonal, undecimated orthogonal and un- decimated Bi-orthogonal tiers.

Image Fusion: Different Methods and Performance Evaluation Metrics

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 22nd January 2018

Parveen Saini | Rama Rao , Shraddha Panbude

Abstract

Medical image fusion is the process of registering and combining multiple images from single or multiple imaging modalities to improve the imaging quality and reduce randomness and redundancy in order to increase the clinical applicability of medical images for diagnosis and assessment of medical problems. Multi-modal medical image fusion algorithms and devices have shown notable achievements in improving clinical accuracy of decisions based on medical images. This paper explains the concept of image fusion. It explains how image fusion is advantageous. In this paper different techniques have been reviewed for combining multispectral images available. It includes IHS transform, High Pass filtering, PCA analysis, Wavelet transform and DCT, Graph Cut method.

Image Inpainting Using Cubic Hermite Spline Technique

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 22nd January 2018

A. S. Awati | Pooja Y. Belagal , S. P. Deshpande , M. R. Patil

Abstract

Image inpainting is popularly used to automatically recover the damaged or missing regions in digital images and is used to remove the unwanted objects from images. This paper presents a technique for recovering the curves of damaged regions of digital images using cubic splines. The proposed technique is divided into two steps. In the first step the curved structure of the object in the damaged region is recovered using splines. The user marks a reasonable number of points on the structure of the object around the damaged region. Using these points a spline is constructed and the isophote lines arriving at the contours of the damaged region are interpolated into the damaged regions using that spline. After recovering the structure of the object in the damaged or missing region, in the second step, a fill in process is done to fill in the color information in the damaged region. Any inpainting technique can be used in the second step to fill in the texture information into the damaged region. The proposed algorithm is tested over a large variety of images and has shown excellent results.

Image Mining Process for Biopsy Images

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 22nd January 2018

Ms. Nikita Ramrakhiani | Mrs. Shoba Krishnan

Abstract

Biomedical imaging is becoming increasingly important as an approach to synthesize, extract and translate useful information from large multidimensional databases accumulated in research frontiers such as functional genomics, proteomics, and functional imaging. Image mining is rapidly gaining attention in the field of data mining, information retrieval and multimedia databases because of its potential in discovering useful image patterns based on color, texture, shape and basic descriptors of any image. Image mining system can help in reducing the time lag with the results as well as dependency on observations by naked human eye. This paper explains the algorithm for detecting pathogenic cells in renal tissue.

Image Processing Based Defect Detection and Identification Algorithm for Industrial Pipes and Raspberry Pi Based Industrial Process Monitoring

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 14th August 2017

Aditi Gharge | Varsha Lembhe

Abstract

This paper present an algorithm for detecting and distinguishing certain manufacturing faults that may arise in case of industrial pipes manufacturing. In many of the industries, detection of defect is performed manually by skilled person. The major difficulties of manual o inspection method are lack of visibility, time consuming higher cost, and comparatively less acurte Therefore, this paper plans a new methodology for the automated detection of defect in pipes manufacturing process. Presence of holes and cracks in pipe are an vital indicator in manufacturing process to be cost-effective and avoid environmental damage . Furthermore, the paper give attention on monitoring three major industrial factors like temperature, water level, and light intensity. This system is designed with various sensors and raspberry pi. The design includes interfacing of sensors with PIC controller and LCD display. Thus our system is designed for multiple input and output activities for industrial applications

Image Processng Based Intelligent Traffic Controller

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 31st May 2017

P.Ravi Kumar | P.Gowri Rekha,T.Narasimha Sai

Abstract

Traffic congestion is a major problem mainly in developing countries. This shows an effect on the emergency vehicles such as ambulances, fire trucks which has to reach their destinations earlier by wasting their valuable time more at the traffic jams. Emergency vehicles must reach their destinations in order to save many lives. So, there is necessary of a system over the traffic jams which gives priority to the emergency vehicles in order to move on their way. These system proposes the way to emergency vehicles without any obstacles.

Image Transmission using LDPC with Stationary Wavelet Transform

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 22nd January 2018

Priyanka Chavan | Chitra M

Abstract

The two approaches to represent some data are videos and images. Image compression is a method through which we can increase the storage capacity for images and videos and increases transmission processís performance. During transmission of data disturbances present on the transmission channel may degrade the performance, therefore we use channel coding such as turbo coding and LDPC coding which ensure transmission with minimum errors on transmission channel. Some of the application such as for mobile and space communication uses these coding techniques. In this paper we are using few transform technique. Discrete cosine transform (DCT), stationary wavelet transform (SWT) and discrete wavelet transform (DWT) with channel coding technique, low density parity check (LDPC) code has been used.

Imagery In The Poetry of Kamala Das

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 22nd August 2017

Apurva Misra | Manish Kumar

Abstract

The present paper represents the design and simulation of multiband band pass filter using the hairpin resonator. Two rectangular slot defects are made in the ground plane. The filter is designed on a substrate having thickness of 0.3mm. The filter exhibits improved performance and good selectivity. The filter shows good return loss at 5.0 GHz, 5.7 GHz, 6.5GHz, The return loss of the simulated filtered are measured as -18dB, -16dB, -23db, while the insertion loss are -0.05dB, -0.08dB, 0.1dB. The present work will also be suitable for multiband and multiservice applications.

Immersive Virtual Tour of Difficult Terrain Based On Virtual Reality

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 22nd January 2018

Kanika Sharma | V A Velvizhi

Abstract

Virtual Reality can be referred to as immersive multimedia or computer simulated life , replicates an environment that simulates physical presence in places in the real world or imagined worlds and lets the user interact in that world[2]. Virtual reality artificially relates sensory experiences, which can include sight, hearing, touch and smell [6]. The simulated environment can be similar to the real world in order to create a lifelike experience for example, in simulations for pilot or combat training or it differs significantly from reality, such as in VR games [4]. The proposed solution stands on virtual reality, for providing a virtual tour of a mine. Cardboard, an easily affordable gadget which enables virtual reality for the headset, is used for this purpose. Software magic takes over, then. The software splits the screen into a right and left pane, one for each eye. The effect is a stereoscopic image that completely fills the field of vision, and immerses into a virtual world.

Impact of a Wireless Power Transmission System using Medium Distance Mode for Low Power Applications

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 22nd January 2018

Neelam S. Pinjari | Nutan Y. Attarde, U. Tade ,Rekha Sonune

Abstract

Wireless power transmission is still in its infancy as a topic. Although devices and applications have been designed that transmit power over short distances, their price and design complexity keep them out of the reach of ordinary users. There is a need for a simple, efficient and cost-effective system which can create the changing electromagnetic field required to initiate wireless power transfer.Wireless power transfer is a challenging task because very few people till now have ever been able to perform it efficiently at distances longer than few meters and then to only with a very low amount of power. At present also no one has been able to implement long distance wireless power transfer (exceeding 2meters) in our commercial and domestic applications, such as in our own homes to light a lamp / LED / fans without the actual hard cored wiring. The area of my research proposes in developing a wireless power transfer system (a simulation model with a appropriate tool or a prototype model) that is targeted at delivering enough power to light a lamp or LED / or switch ON the fan in our homes using the principle of resonance induction, coming under the category of middle distance wireless power transmission mode. There are many applications that would also benefit from the ability to transfer power wirelessly( even at low wattage ) such as charging a laptop, personal computer and cell phone ; for the appropriate technology must be developed to satisfy these applications.

Implementation and Analysis of Sign Extension and Baugh WOOLEY Multiplier in Ant Architecture

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 22nd January 2018

Vallem Hari Charan | B Leela Kumari

Abstract

Multiplier is the most crucial part in any digital signal processing (DSP) system applications. Designing a reliable multiplier in the deep submicron era is a challenging task. Deep sub micron technology needs low power, high signal to noise ratio, reliability and etc. There exists always a trade of between low power and reliability. The approach in this paper is to compromise both the reliability and low power in designing a multiplier. This paper deals with, implementation of reliable low power multiplier for signed bits and performance analysis of sign extension and Baugh wooley multipliers in ANT (Algorithmic Noise Tolerant) architecture with fixed width RPR block.

Implementation and Testing of PCI Express IP Core using SpartaN 6 FPGA

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 20th June 2017

Megha B. Kumbar | Sukesh Rao M.

Abstract

The motherboards nowadays come with PCI Express (PCIe) expansion slots in order to communicate with the external world. The data which is going to be received by the system is the radar data which will be in the form of Serial Front Panel Data Port (Serial FPDP) frame format. But the processors of the system can only understand the information in the form of PCI Express frame format. Thus the data has to get converted into PCI Express frame format. Therefore PCI Express IP core is used for the formation of PCI Express frame format. Once the data in the form Serial FPDP frame is received then data will be extracted and will be stored in buffer memory. Then the PCI Express IP core receives the data from memory and frames the data into PCI Express frame format and will be sent over PCI Express expansion bus to the processor. Thus in order to understand whether the PCI Express IP core works properly or not a loopback test needs to be done. Thus the PCI Express IP core is implemented on Spartan 6 FPGA along with the Bus Master DMA. In this paper the implementation and loopback testing of PCI Express IP core is mentioned.

Implementation of Area and Memory Efficient Combined ByteSub and InvByteSub Transformation for AES Algorithm

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 22nd June 2018

Sushma D K | Dr. Manju Devi

Abstract

Efficient implementation of combined ByteSub and InvByteSub transformation for encryption and decryption in advanced encryption standard (AES) architecture using the composite field arithmetic in finite fields GF (256) or GF (28) hence this approach is more advantages than the conventional LUT method that incurs the unbreakable delay, greater amount of memory and area. The proposed architecture which is combined implementing of S-box and InvS-box makes use of an enable pin to perform encryption and decryption in AES. The architecture uses combinational logic, as both S-box and InvS-box are implemented on same hardware reduces the area and gate count by the large amount. Low power consumption due to resource sharing by the multiplicative inverse module of the proposed system. The proposed architecture is accouterment on Spatan6 board using Verilog HDL in Xilinx ISE 14.6.

Implementation of Controllers for Quadruple Tank System

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 17th January 2018

Mr.M.Nagarajapandian | B.Janani, S.Ponmithra, S.Prithivi Lakshmi

Abstract

In a quadruple tank system, the process of maintaining the level of two tanks is achieved with a high settling time leading the system to be complex by having a slow response. To obtain a system with minimum settling time thereby reducing the complexity, the approach is done by proposing an algorithm using an MPC (Model Predictive Control), MRAC (Model Reference Adaptive Control) and SMC (Sliding Mode Controller) to achieve it with minimum peak overshoot. Thus, the design of an algorithm for a quadruple tank system (QTS) is to be carried out in this phase of the paper

Implementation of Convolution Neural Network in Processing of Satellite Video

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 22nd June 2018

Ankitha Venkatesh | Jami Sai Bandhavi, Asha R, B Nagarushitha, Vinod B Durdi

Abstract

The video sent by satellite usually suffers severe degradation due to hardware imperfections or uncontrollable acquisition conditions. So there is a lot of scope in video processing-enhancement and reconstruction.The quality of image is improved by using Super-resolution. The main aim of satellite video processing is to obtain good Peak Signal to Noise Ratio (PSNR) and resolution of the stream of images of the video. To achieve this, Neural Networks are employed. Convolution Neural Networks is a part of Neural Networks which has been proven to be effective in areas of image processing

Implementation of Demand-Side Energy Monitoring on TOD Basis Using Lab view

International Journal of Engineering Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering, Available online 12th April 2018

Mahek Insha Tarannum | S. A. Shaikh

Abstract

Electricity is very essential for economic growth of country and growth is linked to the energy availability. The gap between demand and the supply is rapidly increasing. For Monitoring the quantity of energy used at specific times to reduce system peak demand, load leveling, balance system supply and demand, Energy efficiency, and to reduce overall system demand. This paper basically describes the demand-side energy monitoring on TOD basis using LabVIEW. In this paper, LabVIEW uses the concept of Time of Day (TOD) metering to check the usage of electricity and the time of use. Demand Side Energy Monitoring system measure which is used as a means of incentivizing consumers to shift a portion of their loads from peak times to off-peak times, thereby improving the sy